- White Alice Communications System
The White Alice Communications System (WACS) was a
United States Air Force telecommunicationlink system constructed in Alaska, during the cold war. It featured tropospheric scatterlinks and line of sightmicrowave radio links. It was characterized by large parabolic, tropospheric scatter antennas, but also contained systems similar to standard microwave radio relays.
It connected remote Air Force sites in Alaska, such as Aircraft Control and Warning (AC&W),
Distant Early Warning Line(DEW Line) and Ballistic Missile Early Warning System(BMEWS) to command and control facilities and in some cases it was used for civilian phone calls. The system was advanced for its time, but became obsolete within 20 years following the advent of satellite communications.
White Alice was conceived in the 1950s when Alaska had only basic telephone communication systems. For example, prior to White Alice only one phone call at a time could be placed from Nome to Fairbanks. Communication improved after White Alice was installed, but even in the mid 1960s an Anchorage resident had to go to one location downtown to place a call to the lower 48.
The Air Force built the White Alice Communications System with numerous support facilities around the state to provide reliable communications to far-flung, isolated, and often rugged locales. Construction began in 1955 and the system was dedicated in 1958. In the end, 71cite web | author=HAER | year= | url=http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/hhh.ak0213 | title=Rabbit Creek White Alice Site, Anchorage Alaska, Anchorage, Anchorage District, AK | format= | work= | publisher=Library of Congress | accessdate=2006-02-14 | accessyear= ] systems were installed throughout Alaska. White Alice was designed by
Western Electric, and civilian contractors maintained it. In 1976, the WACS was leased to RCA Alascom. By the end of the 1970s, most of the system was deactivated.
In the 1950s the Air Force used two word code names and White Alice was the code name selected for the project. It is fairly certain that White was used to indicate the snowy Arctic sites that the system would serve. However, it is unclear where the term Alice originated. Some sources suggest that Alice is an acronym for ALaska Integrated Communications Enterprise. [cite web | author=S. Reid | month=June | year=1985 | url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CMN/is_n6_v22/ai_618319 | title=Earth Stations Bring an End to White Alice | format= | work= | publisher=Communications News | accessdate=2006-02-14 | accessyear= ] Other sources suggest that the system would have been named
Alice Whitehad there not been an actress with that name at the time. Thus it was reversed to White Alice. It is also possible that the code name White Alice was selected for no particular reason.
United States Army Corps of Engineers(USACE), Alaska district surveyed and selected each one of the original sites. It also constructed 11 of the original 31 sites. The selection process required that survey teams test the propagation path by setting up communication towers at each remote site during winter months. Some of the sites were easily accessible, but most of the sites were far from civilization on remote mountain peaks. 14 tons of equipment were taken by dogsled or helicopter to survey the sites.
Construction was extremely expensive, with initial estimates around $30 million, but the first phase cost over $110 million. Project Stretchout drove costs over $300 million. Part of this expense was due to Western Electric's under estimate of maintenance requirements. They initially estimated that a single site would require 6 people and one 25 kW generator. However, each site required 20 people and 120 kW to 180 kW of electrical power to operate. In remote areas, an airfield was constructed to deliver supplies to the sites. Since electricity was not available at the sites,
dieselgenerators and fuel tanks had to be placed, and quarters for the technicians were also required. Mountain top sites had an upper camp with the electronic equipment and a lower camp with support facilities. These were sometimes connected by a tram system. In addition to the support equipment, a typical White Alice repeater site consisted of four tropo dishes, grouped in pairs of two facing opposite directions to receive and transmit information from adjacent sites.
The tropospheric scatter system operated around 900 MHz, and utilized both
space diversityand frequency diversity, multiplexinga maximum of 132 simultaneous voice channels. The tropospheric hops used pairs of 60 ft or 120 ft parabolic, billboard like reflectors. Having two antennas allowed for space diversity, meaning that if tropospheric conditions degrade on one path the second path might still be clear and communications would not be disrupted. For frequency diversity, each antenna transmitted two separate frequencies. Using both frequency and space diversity was called quad diversity. System power output for most shots was 10 kW and used 60 ft antennas. Longer shots used 120 ft antennas with 50 kW and shorter shots used 1 kW and 30 ft, round parabolic dishes.
The end of White Alice
After 1970, WACS was transferred from Air Force control to RCA Alascom and served civilian use until the late 1970s, when it was superseded by satellite communication earth stations. The last tropo link, from Boswell Bay to Neklasson Lake, was used until January 1985 to connect Middleton Island to the network. Vandalism, unsafe conditions and environmental concerns caused the Department of Defense (DOD) to remove physical structures at the sites between the late 1980s to the early 2000s. Several former White Alice sites and collocated facilities became contaminated sites managed by Alaska's Department of Environmental Conservation - Contaminated Sites Program and DOD Cleanup Programs http://www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/csp/federal.htm#history] sites because of PCB usage and fuel leakage from storage tanks. It is likely the cost to clean up some of the sites far exceeded the cost of construction.
List of White Alice Communications System sites, a list of sites in the White Alice system
Distant Early Warning Line
Ballistic Missile Early Warning System
Western Electric- Designer / maintainer of White Alice
North Atlantic Radio System(NARS) is a similar system used in the GIUK gaparea.
ACE High- A NATO Communication system in Europe including similar tropospheric systems
Elmendorf Air Force BaseCommand site for the Air Force in Alaska
Alaskan Air Command- Original reason for White Alice
Submarine communications cable
*cite web | author=HAER | year= | url=http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/hhh.ak0211 | title=Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Cordova vicinity, Valdez-Cordova District, AK | format= | work= | publisher=Library of Congress | accessdate=2006-02-14 | accessyear=
*cite web | author=HAER | year= | url=http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/hhh.ak0215 | title=Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Tropospheric Antennas, Chugach National Forest, Cordova vicinity, Valdez-Cordova District, AK | format= | work= | publisher=Library of Congress | accessdate=2006-02-14 | accessyear=
* [http://www.dec.state.ak.us/spar/csp/dod_sites.htm Department of Defense Contaminated Sites in Alaska]
* [http://www.trrlsever.org Russian tropospheric relay communication network]
* [http://rammstein.dfmk.hu/~s200/tropo.html Troposcatter communication network maps]
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