- Peace of Augsburg
The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty between Ferdinand I, who replaced his brother Charles V as
Holy Roman Emperor, and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes, on September 25, 1555, at the city of Augsburgin Bavaria, Germany. It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of Christendom permanent within the Holy Roman Empire. In respect of the famous quote " Cuius regio, eius religio", derived from the document allowed German princes to select either Lutheranismor Catholicism within the domains they controlled, ultimately reaffirming the independence they had over their states. Families were given a period in which they were free to migrate to different regions of their desired religion.
Peace of Passau, which in 1552 gave Lutherans religious freedom after a victory by Protestant armies, foreshadowed the formation of this document. The one major problem of this document was that it did not legally recognize various religious minorities, such as Calvinismand Anabaptism. Not until the Peace of Westphaliain 1648 would these sects be given legal recognition.
The treaty effectively gave
Lutheranismofficial status within the domains of the Holy Roman Empire. According to the policy of " cuius regio, eius religio" ("whose reign, that religion", or "in the Prince's land, the Prince's religion"), the religion (Roman Catholic or Lutheran) of a region's ruler determined the religion of its people. During a grace period, families could choose to move to a region where their faith was practiced. (Article 24: "In case our subjects, whether belonging to the old religion or the Augsburg Confession, should intend leaving their homes with their wives and children in order to settle in another, they shall be hindered neither in the sale of their estates after due payment of the local taxes nor injured in their honour.")
Although the Peace of Augsburg was moderately successful in relieving tension in the empire and increasing tolerance, it left important things undone. Neither the Anabaptists nor the Calvinists were protected under the peace, so many
Protestantgroups living under the rule of a Lutheran prince still found themselves in danger of the charge of heresy. (Article 17: "However, all such as do not belong to the two above named religions shall not be included in the present peace but be totally excluded from it.") Tolerance was not officially extended to Calvinists until the Treaty of Westphaliain 1648. Many who did not wish to adopt Catholicism or Lutheranism emigrated from the empire, with high numbers settling in the Netherlands and France.
The intolerance towards Calvinists caused them to take desperate measures that led to the
Thirty Years' War. One of the more notable measures was the Second Defenestration of Prague (1618) in which two representatives of the fiercely Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II were thrown out of a castle window in Prague. This eventually led to more involved conflict between Protestants and Roman Catholics.
Another effect of the Peace was Charles' decision to leave the throne and divide the empire in two. His brother Ferdinand ruled the Austrian lands, and Charles' fervently Catholic son, Philip II, became administrator of Spain, the Netherlands, parts of Italy, and other overseas holdings. Philip was responsible for initiating war with England, which ultimately crippled Spain and gave the Protestant movement new life, contributing to the outbreak of the
Thirty Years' War.
By aligning religious divisions with political divisions, the Peace of Augsburg established the patchwork of states that characterized Germany until the 19th century.
* [http://www.uoregon.edu/~sshoemak/323/texts/augsburg.htm Partial Text of the "Peace of Augsburg"]
*de icon [http://www.lwl.org/westfaelische-geschichte/portal/Internet/ku.php?tab=que&ID=739 Full text of The "Peace of Augsburg"]
* [http://nobsnews.blogspot.com/1993/11/disintegrations-of-civilizations.html#augsburg_peace "Cujus regio, ejus religio"]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Peace of Augsburg — See Augsburg,Peace of … Encyclopedia of Protestantism
Augsburg — • Diocese in the Kingdom of Bavaria, Germany, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Munich Freising Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Augsburg Augsburg … Catholic encyclopedia
Peace of Westphalia — Treaties of Osnabrück and Münster Ratification of the Peace of Münster (Gerard ter Borch, Münster, 1648) Type Peace treaty … Wikipedia
Augsburg — /awgz berrg/; Ger. /owks boorddk/, n. a city in Bavaria, in S Germany. 247,700. * * * I City (pop., 2002 est.: 257,800), Bavaria, southern Germany. Founded as a Roman colony by Augustus с 14 BC, it was the seat of a bishopric by AD 739. It became … Universalium
Augsburg — Infobox German Location image photo=Rathaus Augsburg.jpg image caption=The City Hall of Augsburg type = Stadt Wappen = Augsburg wappen.svg lat deg = 48 |lat min = 22 |lat sec = 0 lon deg = 10 |lon min = 54 |lon sec = 0 Lageplan = Bundesland =… … Wikipedia
Augsburg Confession — Lutheranism Luther s Seal Book of Concord … Wikipedia
Augsburg, Peace of — Convention promulgated in 1555 by the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which provided the first permanent legal basis for the existence of Lutheranism in addition to Catholicism in Germany. The Diet determined that no member of the empire would… … Universalium
Augsburg, Peace of — By the mid 16th century, Lutheran leaders were firmly in control of Scandinavia and most of northern Germany. While the Catholic Holy Roman emperors had at times scored marked successes against Protestant strongholds, all their victories… … Encyclopedia of Protestantism
Peace of Passau — Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had won a victory against Protestantism in the Schmalkaldic War of 1547. Many Protestant princes were unhappy with the religious terms of the Augsburg Interim imposed after this victory. In January 1552, led by… … Wikipedia
Augsburg Interim — ▪ German history temporary doctrinal agreement between German Catholics and Protestants, proclaimed in May 1548 at the Diet of Augsburg (1547–48), which became imperial law on June 30, 1548. It was prepared and accepted at the insistence of … Universalium