The term reintegrationism ("reintegracionismo") refers to the linguistic and cultural movement in Galicia which defends the unity of Galician and Portuguese as a single language. In other words, it postulates that Galician and Portuguese languages did not only share a common origin and literary tradition, but that they are in fact variants of the same language today. According to this, Galicia should officially "re-integrate" into the
Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
At present, there are two main views in Galicia about the Galician language:
* The "isolationist" considers Galician and Portuguese to be two distinct languages, despite the fact of the two being closely related. Isolationists favour differentiated rules of writing and spelling between Galician and Portuguese. In this fashion, Galician spelling follows the model of Spanish
orthography. This view is held by the majority of public and Government organizations. Its standard norm, the "NOMIGa", is elaborated by the " Real Academia Galega" (Royal Galician Academy) and the " Instituto da Língua Galega" (Institute for Galician Language). Among other criteria, isolacionism argues that since the majority of the Galician population was initially educated in Spanish only (as official use of Galician was forbidden for centuries, namely during Franco's dictatorship), it is easier to create a Galician written norm which is closer to Spanish, therefore more "familiar", regardless of other considerations. It is also alleged that since Spanish language had such a vast influence in modern Galician its contribution should not be simply disregarded. This influence is noticeable in some aspects of Galician phonetics.
* The "reintegrationist" view considers Galician to be a variant of the
Galician-Portugueselinguistic diasystem, as evidenced by the common origin, common grammar, syntax, vocabulary, morphology and overall mutual intelligibility. Reintegrationists support the use of spelling rules similar to the ones used in Portuguese-speaking countries. This is supported by the AGAL(Galician Association of the Language), MDL (Movement for the Defence of the Language) [http://www.mdl-galiza.org] , and a number of civic and cultural associations both in Galicia and Portuguese-speaking countries. In this fashion, it is argued that Galician would be faithful to its history and etymologyand subsequently its written norm would be more scientific and precise. Thus, it would allow Galician speakers to have direct access to a world culture and it would also clarify some spelling problems of the isolacionist norm (for example in terms of accentuation).
Reintegrationism is a cultural stand as much as a linguistic position. Its supporters believe that Galicia rightfully belongs to
Lusophonysince, in fact, modern Portuguese originated in Galician soil [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Portuguese#Galician-Portuguese_period] . They aim for stronger cultural and economic ties with the Portuguese-speaking countries using the common language as a tool for direct communication.
From the Portuguese side, a number of relevant linguists and authors such as
Luís Lindley Cintra, Manuel Rodrigues Lapa, Fernando Venâncio, Carlos Reis or Malaca Casteleiro have expressed their agreement with the reintegrationist views. [ [http://www.pglingua.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=260:aglp-ja-caminha-com-parabens-e-criticas&catid=8:cronicas&Itemid=69 On the opening of the Galician Academy for Portuguese Language] . Access date 8 October 2008]
Genesis of the debate
The divergences between isolacionism and reintegracionism can be traced back to the time of the Galician "
Rexurdimento" (Revival), in the nineteenth century, when Galician began to be systematically written again in Galician territory for the first time since the Middle Ages. Up to that time, written Galician was either forbidden or simply dismissed by the Spanish authorities, and certainly not allowed to be used officially. Hence, "Rexurdimento" Galician writers realized they did not "know" how Galician should be spelled properly. There were three possible options: inferring it from the Medieval forms; using the Spanish spelling which was already known to all; or use the Portuguese spelling, feeling that written Portuguese was what "Galician would have been if it had not been forbidden". Authors such as Castelao, among others, stated that Galician should gradually merge with Portuguese, namely in its written form [ [http://www.agal-gz.org/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=11 Selected quotes of Castelao and other Galician classics] , commenting on Galician language and politics] . The reality was that until the 1980s Galician was often written using a mix of the three options.
Yet, with the end of the Franco dictatorship in 1977, Galicia became an
autonomous communitywith Galician as its official language (alongside with Spanish). It was then urgently required to establish a fixed standard form. Claims for Galician-Portuguese linguistic unity had already been produced, as evidenced with the "Manifesto para a supervivência da cultura galega" (Manifest for the survival of Galician Culture), first published in 1974. [ [http://www.pglingua.org/images/stories/pdfs/2008/20080913_manifesto_13_roma.pdf "Manifesto para a supervivência da cultura galega"] , published in 1974, probably written originally circa 1971-72] Still, the first draft of the language norms was produced in 1979 under the guidance of linguistProfessor Ricardo Carvalho Calero. These norms recommended a gradual approach to Portuguese, often allowing for a number of different solutions in case of doubt.
However, political issues forced the resignation of Carvalho Calero and, consequently, the 1979 pro-reintegrationist norms were revoked. The new official norms and reforms to be passed from 1982 onwards would be strongly pro-isolacionist, until today. [ [http://www.agal-gz.org/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=5 Biography of Carvalho Calero] , explaining the development of the language norm and his implication in it]
Reintegrationism currently accepts two possibilities for the writing of Galician: adopting the standard Portuguese written norm or else using a slightly modified norm following the recommendations of
AGAL. In any case, reintegracionism considers that spoken Galician and all of its characteristic words, expressions and pronunciation should not be radically substituted by standard Portuguese. The main recommendations of reintegrationism when referring to spoken Galician revolve around the avoidance of unnecessary Spanish loanwords, namely colloquialisms. In writing the most evident differences from the official norm (NOMIGa) are ( [http://www.agal-gz.org/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=14 according to AGAL] ):
* Use of "nh" instead of the letter "ñ" to represent the
palatal nasalsound. For example: "caminho" instead of "camiño" (way)
* Use of the digraph "lh" instead of "ll" to represent the palatal lateral sound. For example: "coelho" instead of "coello" (rabbit)
* Use of "-çom" or "-ção" instead of the suffix "-ción". For example: "associaçom" or "associação" instead of "asociación" (association) - NB. all with the same pronunciation
* Preference for the use of suffixes "-aria" and "-vel" over "-ería" and "-ble" or even "-bel". For example: "livraria" instead of "librería" (bookshop); "incrível" instead of "incrible" or "incríbel" (incredible)
* Use of "ss" between vowels, when appropriate, instead of the simplified "s" for all cases. For example: "associação" instead of "asociación"
* Use of either "x", "j" or "g" preceding "e" or "i", according to the etymology of the word, instead of "x" for all cases. For example: "hoje" instead of "hoxe" (today), "geral" instead of "xeral" (general), but "exército" as in "exército" (army)
* Use of "m" instead of "n" at the end of a word. For example: "som" instead of "son" (sound)
* Use of a wider range of accentuation signs instead of the simplified single stroke. For example: "português" instead of "portugués" (Portuguese), "comentário" instead of "comentario" (commentary)
* Avoidance of specific lexical choices (namely colloquialisms) introduced by Spanish
Despite the reintegrationist norm not being "official", it has been recognized as acceptable in courts of law Fact|date=September 2007. Furthermore, Galician members of the
European Parliament(such as José Posada, Camilo Nogueiraor Xosé Manuel Beiras) have used spoken Galician when addressing the chamber and have used standard Portuguese writing to encode their Galician talk, and in all cases this has been accepted by the Parliament as a valid form of Portuguese, that is, an official language of the European Union. [ [http://recantodasletras.uol.com.br/artigos/1133552 "O galego já é oficial na Uniom Europeia] , by José Manuel Barbosa, 2004] [ [http://www.udc.es/dep/lx/cac/vo/20040526DR/index.htm "O galego na União Europea"] , sound file, by Camilo Nogueira, Celso Álvarez Cáccamo et al., 2004] [ [http://www.agal-gz.org/modules.php?name=News&file=articlecomments&sid=2452&mode=&order=0&thold=0 Interview to Manuel Garcia: "I spoke Galician in the European Parliament"] , 2005]
Furthermore, members of Galician reintegracionist associations have been regularly present at the meetings of the
CPLP(Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries). In 2008, Galician delegates were invited as speakers to the Portuguese Parliamentwhen discussing the new spelling norms for Portuguese language. [ [http://www.agal-gz.org/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=4242 "Presença galega no parlamento português na comunicaçom social"] , 2008]
The local government of
Corcubión(a Galician municipality) was the first public institution to officially use the AGAL norm, as seen in its website [http://www.corcubion.info/gl-pt/] , offering options for "Galician" (NOMIGa) and "Galician-Portuguese" (AGAL) - plus English and Spanish.
Theoretically, the positions of the standards of NOMIGa (official norm) and AGAL are not so different. Although usually accused of having pro-Spanish tendencies, it is stated at the introduction of the NOMIGa that "standard choices must be in harmony with those of other languages, especially to those of Romance languages and especially to those of Portuguese". Furthermore, they value "the contribution of Peninsular and Brazilian Portuguese" in the creation of the Galician norm. This being the philosophy behind the "official standard", both NOMIGa and AGAL share an initial starting point, but it is often discussed that the NOMIGa are far removed from the usual speech of day-to-day and older Galician speakers, in addition to "isolate" (hence the term "isolacionist") Galician from the rest of Portuguese-speaking areas by using a different writing system.In any case, European and Brazilian Portuguese are usually analyzed by both isolacionists and reintegrationists as a primary source from which to extract scientific and technical
As with many other aspects of Galician society and culture, language is deeply politicized in Galicia. Traditionally, the defence and promotion of Galician language has been linked to
Galician nationalism, yet this is often considered a simplification. Likewise, different political groups and parties have adopted different approaches to the "isolacionism vs reintegracionism" polemic [ [http://membres.lycos.fr/questione/artigos/outeiro1.html "Reintegracioniso e nacionalismo hoje"] , by José Manuel Outeiro] . Broadly speaking, pro-independence groups have traditionally expressed a greater support for the reintegracionist norm, while others have adopted the isolacionist. In any case, all the linguistic organizations behind both reintegracionism and isolacionism have attempted to dissociate themselves from the political debate. For example, AGAL members have often expressed that this is merely a linguistic, hence scientific, discussion, and that it should not become the arena for political fights among the community of Galician speakers. [ [http://www.agal-gz.org/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1186 "O reintegracionismo deve rachar com a imagem de marginalidade e seitarismo"] , Forum da Língua, 2004] [ [http://www.agal-gz.org/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=3140&mode=&order=0&thold=0 Interview to Maurício Castro: "O conhecimento e interesse polo reintegracionismo está hoje mais estendido socialmente"] , 2006] [ [http://membres.lycos.fr/questione/artigos/outeiro1.html Outeiro] , op. cit.]
* [http://www.instituto-camoes.pt/cvc/hlp/biblioteca/novaproposta.pdf "Nova Proposta de Classificação dos Dialectos Galego-Portugueses"] , Luís F. Lindley Cintra, in "Boletim de Filologia", 1971, Lisboa, Centro de Estudos Filológicos
* "A Galiza, o galego e Portugal", Manoel Rodrigues Lapa, 1979, Sá da Costa, Lisboa
* "Estudo crítico das normas ortográficas e morfolóxicas do idioma galego", AGAL 1983 and 1989, Corunha
* "Prontuário ortográfico galego", AGAL, 1985, Corunha
* "Sobre o problema da Galiza, da sua cultura e seu idioma", Manoel Rodrigues Lapa, in "Agália" no. 29, 1992
* [http://www.xoan.net/recursos/Pt_da_Gz.pdf "A língua portuguesa da Galiza"] , compiled for students of Portuguese language at
University College Cork, Xoán M. Paredes, 2006
* [http://www.agal-gz.org/modules.php?name=IndyNews&MediaOp=get&idMediaAss=s2790&MediaName=venancio_cork_03_2006.pdf&MediaNum=1 "I see my language everywhere": On linguistic relationship between Galicia and Portugal"] , Fernando Venâncio (conference), 2006
* [http://docs.indymedia.org/view/Local/ImcGalizaOrtoGl "O conflicto ortográfico do galego no CMI Galiza] , 2006
* [http://issuu.com/fromgaliza/docs/dossier-vozpropria-19 "Reintegracionismo lingüístico: identidade e futuro para o galego"] from the magazine "Voz Própria", 2007
* [http://www.adigal.org.ar/brasilfala.htm "O Brasil fala a língua galega"] , Júlio César Barreto Rocha, Universidade Federal da Rondônia, (date unknown; 2000?)
* [http://www.agal-gz.org "Associaçom Galega da Língua"]
* [http://www.mdl-galiza.org "Movimento Defesa da Língua"]
* [http://www.lusografia.org "Associação de Amizade Galiza-Portugal"]
* [http://www.lusografia.org/ifgp "Irmandades da Fala da Galiza e Portugal"]
* [http://www.adigal.org.ar "ADIGAL"] - reintegracionist association in Argentina
* [http://www.nosgaliza.org "Nós-Unidade Popular". Independentist and reintegrationist galician party]
* [http://aglp.net/ "Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa"] , Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language
* [http://www.novasgz.com "Novas da Galiza"] - newspaper in AGAL norm
* [http://www.pglingua.org/images/stories/pdfs/2008/20080909_faq_reintegracionismo_gentalha.pdf "FAQ do Reintegracionismo"] - "FAQ on Reintegracionism", by [http://gentalha.agal-gz.org Gentalha do Pichel]
* [http://www.udc.es/dep/lx/cac/vo/20060221L/20060221L.m3u Conference by Professor Martinho Monteiro Santalha] , where he argues for the linguistic unity of Galician and Portuguese - from minute 04:09
* [http://www.agal-gz.org/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=15 "Amostra comparativa"] - comparison between Galician, Portuguese and Brazilian-Portuguese pronunciation (with sound files)
* [http://br.youtube.com/watch?v=iCOreBJXOZk "Reportagem sobre a língua galega"] - short documentary about Galician language on Portuguese national television (RTP); 8:21 total running time
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Ricardo Carvalho Calero
*Associaçom Galega da Lingua
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Galician-Portuguese — Galician–Portuguese Spoken in Kingdom of Galicia Region North west Iberia Extinct Split and evolved into the Galician and Portuguese languages. Language family … Wikipedia
Portuguese dialects — are variants of the Portuguese language that are shared by a substantial number of speakers over several generations, but are not sufficiently distinct from the official norms to be considered separate languages. The differences between… … Wikipedia
Geographic distribution of Portuguese — Portuguese is the official and first language of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal and São Tomé and Príncipe. It is also one of the official languages of Equatorial Guinea (with Spanish and French), East Timor (with… … Wikipedia
Iberian Federalism — Iberic Federalism or Pan Iberism is an ideology from the beginning of the 20th century purporting the federation of both countries in the Iberian Peninsula: Portugal and Spain. These ideals were mainly promoted by republican and socialist… … Wikipedia
Languages of Spain — Languages of country = Spain [http://ec.europa.eu/public opinion/archives/ebs/ebs 243 en.pdf] official = Spanish unofficial = regional = Co official Catalan/Valencian, Basque, Galician, Aranese Unofficial Aragonese, Astur Leonese (Asturian,… … Wikipedia
Ricardo Flores Peres — (Sada, Galiza, May 1, 1903 Buenos Aires, Argentine, July, 2002), was a defender of the galician independentist movement, in 20s 30s of the 20th century, by a means of the Pondal Nationalist Society, and it s periodical, A Fouce ( The sickle… … Wikipedia