- Anthropological linguistics
Anthropological linguistics is the study of the relations between language and culture, and the relations between human biology, cognition and language. This strongly overlaps the field of
linguistic anthropology, which is the branch of anthropology that studies humans "through" the languages that they use.
Whatever one calls it, this field has had a major impact in the studies of
visual perception(especially colour) and bioregional democracy, both of which are concerned with distinctions that are made in languages about perceptions of the surroundings.
Conventional linguistic anthropology also has implications for
sociologyand self-organizationof peoples. Study of the Penanpeople, for instance, reveals that their language employs six different and distinct words, all of whose best English translation is " we"Fact|date=March 2008. Anthropological linguistics studies these distinctions, and relates them to types of societiesand to actual bodily adaptation to the senses, much as it studies distinctions made in languages regarding the colours of the rainbow: seeing the tendency to increase the diversity of terms, as evidence that there are distinctions that bodies in this environment "must" make, leading to situated knowledgeand perhaps a situated ethics, whose final evidence is the differentiated set of terms used to denote "we".
Anthropological linguistics is concerned with
* Descriptive (or synchronic) linguistics: Describing dialects (forms of a language used by a specific speech community). This study includes
phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and grammar.
* Historical (or diachronic) linguistics: Describing changes in dialects and languages over time. This study includes the study of linguistic divergence and language families, comparative linguistics,
etymology, and philology.
Ethnolinguistics: Analyzing the relationship between culture, thought, and language.
Sociolinguistics: Analyzing the social functions of language and the social, political, and economic relationships among and between members of speech communities.
Mark Fettes, in "Steps Towards an Ecology of Language" (1996), sought "a theory of language ecology which can integrate naturalist and critical traditions"; and in "An Ecological Approach to Language Renewal" (1997), sought to approach a transformative ecologyvia a more active, perhaps designed, set of tools in language. This may cross a line between science and activism, but is within the anthropological tradition of study by the participant-observer. Related to problems in critical philosophy(for instance, the question who's we, and the subject-object problem).
* [http://www.ogmios.org/bib.htm David Nettle, in "Linguistic Diversity"]
* [http://esperantic.org/~mfettes/margins.htm "Steps Towards an Ecology of Language"] , Mark Fettes,
* [http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/TIL_25.html "An Ecological Approach to Language Renewal"] , Mark Fettes,
* [http://www.pygmies.info/ Ethnolinguistic studies on African Pygmies]
* [http://www.etnolinguistica.org Etnolingüística: a website and discussion list on native South American languages]
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