Future perfect tense


Future perfect tense

The future perfect tense is used to describe an event that has not yet happened but which is expected or planned to happen before another stated occurrence.

Formation of the future perfect in English

In English, this tense is formed as such:

subject + shall or will have + past participle of verb = "I shall have gone to the store by the time you come."

This is sometimes shortened with the contraction of 'll for shall or will: I'll have been hit, you'll have been paid, etc. To make this form negative, one simply adds "not" between "will" or "shall" and "have." For the contracted form, "will not" becomes "won't" and "shall not" becomes "shan't": I won't have been speaking, you shan't have been speaking, etc.

Spanish future perfect

In Spanish, the future perfect is formed as such:

subject + future form of haber (auxiliary verb) + past participle = yo habré hablado (I will have spoken).

The future of haber is formed by the future stem "haber" + the endings -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án. The past participle of a verb is formed by adding the endings -ado and -ido to ar and er/ir verbs, respectively. However, there are a few irregular participles, some of the more common ones listed here:

abrir: abierto
cubrir: cubierto
decir: dicho
escribir: escrito
freír: frito
hacer: hecho
morir: muerto
poner: puesto
ver: visto
volver: vuelto

Be aware that verbs within verbs also have the same participle, for example, predecir (to predict) would be predicho; suponer (to suppose) would be supuesto. Also, satisfacer (to satisfy) is close to hacer (to do) in that the past participle is satisfecho.

To make the tense negative, one simply adds "no" before the form of haber: yo no habré hablado. For use with reflexive verbs, one puts the reflexive pronoun before the form of haber: from bañarse (to take a bath), yo me habré bañado; negative: yo no me habré bañado.

French future perfect

The French future perfect, called "futur antérieur", is formed similarly to Spanish:

subject + auxiliary verb (avoir or être) + past participle = j'aurai parlé (I will have spoken).

Verbs that use "être" in the past ("House of Être" verbs, reflexive verbs) also use "être" in forming the present perfect. For example, "je serai venu(e)" uses the future of "être" because of the action verb, "venir" (to come), which uses être in the past.

To form the future form of the auxiliary verbs, one uses the future stem and adds the endings -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont. Both "avoir" and "être" have irregular future stems; while, with the exception of -re verbs, most verbs use the infinitive as the future stem (i.e. "je parlerai", I will speak), the future stem of "avoir is" "aur," and that of "être" is "ser."

To form the past participle in French, one usually adds -é, -i, and -u to the roots of -er, -ir, and -re verbs, respectively. However, there are many exceptions to this rule, including these commonly used ones (and all of their related verbs):

faire: fait
mettre: mis
ouvrir: ouvert
prendre: pris
venir: venu

Verbs related to "mettre" (to put): promettre (to promise); to ouvrir: offrir (to offer), souffrir (to suffer); to prendre (to take): apprendre (to learn), comprendre (to understand); to venir (to come): revenir (to come again), devenir (to become).

When using "être" as the auxiliary verb, make sure that the past participle agrees with the subject: "je serai venu" (I [masc.] will have come), "je serai venue" (I [fem.] will have come); "nous serons venus" (We [masc. or mixed] will have come), "nous serons venues" (We [fem.] will have come). Verbs using "avoir" do not need agreement.

To make this form negative, one simply adds "ne" (n' if before vowel) before the auxiliary verb and "pas" after it: "je n'aurai pas parlé"; "je ne serai pas venu". For reflexive verbs, one puts the reflexive pronoun before the auxiliary verb: from "se baigner" (to take a bath), "je me serai baigné"; negative: "je ne me serai pas baigné."

In German

The future perfect tense in German is formed in a similar fashion to English by taking the simple future of the past infinitive, i.e. you use the simple future of the auxiliary "sein" (= "ich werde sein, du wirst sein" etc.) or "haben" (= "ich werde haben, du wirst haben" etc.) and the verb you conjugate in the past participle ("ich werde gemacht haben, du wirst gemacht haben" etc.). For example:

::*"Ich werde etwas geschrieben haben.":::I will have written something.::*"Morgen um diese Uhrzeit werden wir bereits die Mathe-Prüfung gehabt haben".:::Tomorrow at the same time we already will have had the maths exam.::*"Es wird ihm gelungen sein":::He will have succeeded::*"Wir werden angekommen sein":::We will have arrived

In Dutch

The Dutch future tense is very similar to the German future tense in many ways. It is formed by using the verb "zullen" (shall), then placing the past participle and after that, "hebben" (to have) is put after it. Example:::Ik zal iets geschreven hebben.::I shall something written have.::I will have written something.

In Latin

The future perfect is found by using the perfect stem + a declined future being verb (ero). An exception is that the active indicative 3rd person plural is formed from the perfect stem + erint, instead of + erunt. E.g., amaverint, "not" amaverunt. Actually, the segments of the Latin future perfect (also called "futurum exactum") are:

::::::perfect stem + expansion of perfect stem(+thema vowel)+ number-person-suffix::::::Example: dix- + -er- + -i- + -mus

The passive is the perfect passive participle and ero.

::Amavero Amatus ero::Putavero Putatus ero

In Italian

The future perfect tense is used to say that something will happen in the future, but before the time of the main sentence. It is called futuro anteriore and is formed by the auxiliary verbs to be (essere) and to (have) in the future simple tense -transitive or intransitive verb-, adding the past participle.For example:

Io avrò mangiato I will have eatenIo sarò andato I will have gone

It is used for the Italian deduction in the past as the same meaning of must; also for the English expression : By the time/When I have done this, you will have done thatin Italian it is said with the double future : By the time/When I avrò fatto this, you avrai fatto that.


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