Transient voltage suppression diode


Transient voltage suppression diode

A transient voltage suppression (TVS) diode is an electronic component used to protect sensitive electronics from voltage spikes induced on connected wires. It is also commonly referred to as a transorb, after the brand name TranZorb registered by General Semiconductor (now part of [http://www.vishay.com/ Vishay] ). STMicroelectronics sells them under the name Transil.

The device operates by shunting excess current when the induced voltage exceeds the avalanche breakdown potential. It is a clamping device, suppressing all overvoltages above its breakdown voltage. Like all clamping devices, it automatically resets when the overvoltage goes away, but absorbs much more of the transient energy internally than a similarly rated crowbar device.

A transient voltage suppression diode may be either unidirectional or bidirectional. A unidirectional device operates as a rectifier in the forward direction like any other avalanche diode, but is made and tested to handle very large peak currents. (The popular 1.5KE series allows 1500 A of peak current, for a few microseconds.)

A bidirectional transient voltage suppression diode can be represented by two mutually opposing avalanche diodes in series with one another and connected in parallel with the circuit to be protected. While this representation is schematically accurate, physically the devices are now manufactured as a single component.

A transient voltage suppression diode can respond to over-voltages faster than other common over-voltage protection components such as varistors or gas discharge tubes. The actual clamping occurs in roughly one picosecond, but in a practical circuit the inductance of the wires leading to the device imposes a higher limit. This makes transient voltage suppression diodes useful for protection against very fast and often damaging voltage transients. These fast over-voltage transients are present on all distribution networks and can be caused by either internal or external events, such as lightning or motor arcing.

Characterization

A TVS diode is characterised by:
*Leakage current: the amount of current conducted when voltage applied is below the Maximum Reverse Standoff Voltage.
*Maximum Reverse Standoff Voltage:: the voltage below which no significant conduction occurs.
*Breakdown voltage: the voltage at which some specified and significant conduction occurs, typically1 mA.
*Clamping voltage: the voltage at which the device will conduct its fully rated current (hundreds to thousands of amperes).
*Parasitic capacitance: The nonconducting diode behaves like a capacitor, which can have a deleterious effect on high-speed signals. Lower capacitance is generally preferred.
*Parasitic inductance: Because the actual overvoltage switching is so fast, the package inductance is the limiting factor for response speed.
*Amount of energy it can absorb: Because the transients are so brief, all of the energy is initially stored internally as heat; a heat sink only affects the time to cool down afterward. Thus, a high-energy TVS must be physically large. If this capacity is too small, the overvoltage will possibly destroy the device and leave the circuit unprotected.

ee also

*Transient voltage suppressor
*Varistor

References

* [http://www.st.com/stonline/products/literature/an/5628.pdf "Trisil/Transil Comparison", ST Application Note]
* [http://www.vishay.com/diodes/protection-tvs-esd/ Vishay Diodes — Protection (TVS and ESD)]


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