- Freedom of speech versus blasphemy
Tension often exists between political freedom, particularly
freedom of speech, and certain examples of art, literature, speech or other acts considered by some to be sacrilegious or blasphemous. The extent to which this tension has not been resolved is manifested in numerous instances of controversy and conflict around the world.
Although many laws prohibiting blasphemy have long been repealed, particularly in the West, they remain in place in many countries and jurisdictions (see Blasphemy laws). In some cases such laws are still on the books, but are no longer actively enforced.
The issue of freedom of speech versus blasphemy cannot be seen in isolation from the role of religion as a source of political power in some societies. In such a society, to blaspheme is to threaten not only a religion, but also the entire political power order of the society, and hence, the official punishments (and popular responses to blasphemy) tend to be more severe and violent.
*In 1886, American
Freethinker Robert G. Ingersolldefended Charles B. Reynolds, a Boonton, New Jerseyman on blasphemy charges. Reynolds lost the case and was fined $50, which Ingersoll paid himself. Ingersoll's defense of Reynolds cast serious constitutional doubts on blasphemy laws and few Fact|date=February 2008 states have attempted to prosecute a blasphemy charge since.
*In 1951, Italian neorealist Roberto Rossellini's 40-minute film, titled "The Miracle", sparked widespread moral outrage. [Kozlovic, Anton Karl (2003). " [http://www.quodlibet.net/kozlovic-fears.shtml Religious Film Fears 1: Satanic Infusion, Graven Images and Iconographic Perversion] ", 5 (2-3).] The film centred around a man, "Saint Joseph", who villainously impregnates "Nanni", a disturbed peasant who believes herself to be the Virgin Mary. Protesters in Paris picketed the film with vitriolic signs carrying messages like "This Picture Is an Insult to Every Decent Woman and Her Mother," "Don't Be a Communist," and "Don't Enter the Cesspool." [Black, G. D. (1998). "The Catholic crusade against the movies, 1940-1975." Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.] It was criticized as "vile, harmful and blasphemous." After some pressure by the Catholic Church, the New York Board of Regents revoked the film's license on grounds that it was "sacrilegious." Its director, Joseph Burstyn, subsequently appealed the decision, and in 1952 it was overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court as unconstitutional in the case
Joseph Burstyn, Inc v. Wilson. [Jowett, G. (1996). "A significant medium for the communication of ideas": The Miracle decision and the decline of motion picture censorship, 1952-1968. "Movie censorship and American culture", 258-276. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.]
*In 1966, Dutch author
Gerard Revewas prosecuted for blasphemy, after a piece of prose he wrote described making love to God, incarnated in a three year old donkey. He was acquitted on the grounds that this was an artistic expression protected by freedom of speech.
*Movies subjected to criticism over allegedly blasphemous content include "
The Last Temptation of Christ" and " Monty Python's Life of Brian" (which was banned in Ireland and Norway, and advertised in Sweden as "the movie that is so funny it was banned in Norway".)
Andres Serrano's photograph Piss Christ, showing a crucifix immersed in urine, caused similar controversy, as did artist Chris Ofili's painting "Black Madonna," which depicted a black African Mary surrounded by images from blaxploitationmovies and close-ups of female genitalia cut from pornographic magazines.
*A British evangelical organisation,
Christian Voiceled street protests against the BBC screening of " Jerry Springer – The Opera", in which Jesus wearing a nappy says "I'm a bit gay". Christian Voice published the home addresses and telephone numbers of several BBC executives on their web site. This led to one of these people receiving death threats. Another organisation, the Christian Instituteattempted to level blasphemy charges against the BBC. These were rejected by the High Court.
*The comedy film Dogma (1999) resulted in
picketingand charges of blasphemy, and also "2 and a half" death threats made against its director Kevin Smithand producers Bob and Harvey Weinstein.
*In 2002, the author of the Spanish
public domainpersonal computer game "Slaughter Cofrade", known by the initials "J. C. C. S.," was formally accused by the Cristo del Gran Poder of violating section 525 of the penal code, which forbids any sort of "attack" on religious dogma, beliefs, or ceremonies. His game depicted the shooting of characters robed in religious clothing and carrying Christian crosses.
* In 2004,
Jesus Dress Upfridge magnets, which depicts a cartoon crucified Jesus in tighty-whities and can be dressed in Satan pajamas, sparked national controversy at an Urban Outfitters receiving more than 250,000 complaints after being featured on MSNBC. The retailer canceled all remaining orders with the magnet's creator Normal Bob Smith, then as a result of this attention an activism group called Laptop Lobbyists alerted the artist's web-hosting company and temporarily succeeded in shutting down the Jesus Dress Up web site. [http://www.jesusdressup.com/]
*In 2005 Marithé and François Girbaud's parodied Leonardo's religious painting "The Last Supper" in a publicity poster. The Catholic church initiated a controversial lawsuit against the Girbauds, sparking a polemic concerning freedom of expression and blasphemy. The judge qualified the poster as "an insult to Christians." The lawsuit was eventually dismissed. [ Irene Peroni, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4236499.stm "Milan bans 'blasphemous' poster"] , BBC News, February 4, 2005. ] Failed verification|date=December 2007
Gerhard Haderer's cartoon book "The Life of Jesus" was banned in Greece in 2003 under Greek laws of "blasphemy" and "insulting religion". In 2005 its author was given a six-month suspended prison sentence in absentia. Both the ban and the conviction were reversed in appeal after an outcry against the initial decision both in Greece and in Europe. [http://www.theage.com.au/news/World/Greek-court-lifts-ban-on-Jesus-cartoon-book/2005/04/14/1113251690792.html] [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1480744,00.html]
*In the United States there are some states that still officially have blasphemy laws on the books.
Massachusetts, for example, has an anti-blasphemy statute within Chapter 272 (said chapter being titled "Crimes against Chastity, Morality, Decency, and Good Order") of its General Laws:: [http://mass.gov/legis/laws/mgl/272-36.htm Section 36] . "Whoever wilfully blasphemes the holy name of God by denying, cursing or contumeliously reproaching God, his creation, government or final judging of the world, or by cursing or contumeliously reproaching Jesus Christ or the Holy Ghost, or by cursing or contumeliously reproaching or exposing to contempt and ridicule, the holy word of God contained in the holy scriptures shall be punished by imprisonment in jail for not more than one year or by a fine of not more than three hundred dollars, and may also be bound to good behavior."This law, however, is neither enforceable (as it is contrary to both the Massachusetts Constitution and that of the United States) nor enforced. Any citizen of the Commonwealth may openly "blaspheme" in public, without fear of prosecution, arrest, or persecution.
*In 2008 a punk festival in
Linköping, Swedenused marketing posters showing Satan pooing on Jesus on the cross, under the slogan "Punx against christ!" The poster was taken down by the municipality of Linköping. [ [http://www.corren.se/archive/2008/3/1/jm18052787j6leg.xml Satan får inte bajsa på Jesus i Linköping ] ] The publication of the poster in the local newspaper Östgöta Correspondentencaused death threats to the editor-in-chief. [ [http://www.corren.se/archive/2008/3/7/jmchd1wx24imlii.xml Varför elda på fördomens bål? ] ]
August 18, 1925"The Star" (a now defunct Londonevening newspaper) printed a cartoon by David Lowin which the Captain of the English Cricket team, Jack Hobbs, was depicted as the towering statue in a 'Gallery of the most important historical celebrities' and the one to whom the others looked up. Among the others was Muhammad. Colin Seymour-Ure and Jim Schoff's book "David Low" notes "Harmless enough at home, the depiction of Muhammad meant that in India the cartoon 'convulsed many Muslims in speechless rage', as the Calcutta correspondent of the " Morning Post" put it. Meetings were held and resolutions of protest were passed." [Colin Seymour-Ure and Jim Schoff, "David Low", Secker and Warburg 1985, p. 63]
March 9, 1977, 12 African-American gunmen identified as HanafiMuslims seized three buildings in Washington, D.C., seeking to stop the screening of the movie " Mohammad, Messenger of God" and also to have certain prisoners released to them. Two people were killed, others injured, and others taken hostage for 39 hours. See 1977 Hanafi Muslim Siege.
* In 1989,
Indian born British author Salman Rushdiewas sentenced to death for blasphemy by Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeinifor Rushdie's depiction of Muhammadas a businessman in his novel "The Satanic Verses". An Iranian businessman offered a $3 million reward to anyone carrying out the sentence against Rushdie. Other Islamic scholars followed suit, providing similar fatwa(legal pronouncement in Islam made by a mufti). In 1989, Khomeini died, making fatwapermanent to those who follow his teaching. In 1991, Hitoshi Igarashi, the book's Japanese translator was murdered at the university where he taught in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 60 kilometres north of Tokyo. The book's Italian translator was beaten and stabbed in Milan. William Nygaard, the Norwegian publisher was shot in 1993. Thirty-seven people, who had come to listen to a speech by the translator and publisher (of some parts of the book) Aziz Nesin, a well-known satirist, perished when the hotel where they had gathered was torched in Sivas, Turkey. The post-Khomeini Iranian government, while maintaining that fatwa cannot be reversed, promised only in 1998 to dissociate itself from it. Rushdie stayed in hiding under police protection for several years. [cite web|author=Koenraad Elst|title=The Rushdie Rules|work=work|accessdate=2006-02-03|url=http://www.meforum.org/article/395]
*In May 1994, a
fatwaon Bangladeshi writer Taslima Nasrincame after she was quoted in " The Statesman" that "…the Koran should be revised thoroughly." This follows attacks and persecution of Taslima for her 1993 book " Lajja" (Bangla word for 'shame')
Tatiana Soskinwas apprehended in Hebron while attempting to attach to an Arab storefront a drawing she'd made depicting Muhammadas a pig reading the Koran. The incident created considerable tension.
*In 1998 Ghulam Akbar, a
Shi'a Muslim, was convicted, in a Rahimyar Khancourt, of uttering derogatory remarks against Muhammad in 1995 and sentenced to death. He was the first to receive such a sentence under Section 295(c) of the Pakistani penal code. ["Annual Report on International Religious Freedom 2004, November 2004, 108-2 Joint Committee Print, S. Prt. 108-59". Published 2005, page 666.]
*In August 2000 a
Lahorecourt sentenced Abdul Hasnain Muhammad Yusuf Ali to death and 35 years' imprisonment for "defiling the name of Muhammad" under Section 295(a), 295(c), and 298. ["Country Reports on Human Rights Practices", 1980, Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. Page 2508.]
*In 2001, prior to
9/11, American magazine "Time" printed an illustration of Muhammad along with the Archangel Gabrielwaiting for a message from God. The magazine apologized for printing the illustration after widespread protests in Kashmir. [ cite news|publisher=Politiken|date= 2006-02-03|title=Time Magazine undskyldte Muhammed-tegning i 2001|url=http://politiken.dk/VisArtikel.iasp?PageID=436389]
*In June 2002 Iranian academic
Hashem Aghajarigave a speech that challenged Muslims to refrain from blindly following their clergy. His speech provoked international outcry, and, in November 2002, he was sentenced to death for "blasphemy against Muhammad." ["Annual Report, International Religious Freedom", 2000, U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs. Page 502.]
*In August 2002, Italian police reported that they had disrupted a terrorist plot to destroy a church in
Bologna, Italy, which contains a 15th century frescodepicting an image of Muhammad. [cite news|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE2D9163CF931A1575BC0A9649C8B63|title=Italy frees Fresco Suspects|date=2002-08-22|publisher=" New York Times"]
*In November 2002 an article in the
Nigerian "ThisDay" newspaper prior to the upcoming Miss Worldpageant, suggesting Muhammad would have chosen one of the contestants as his bride, sparked riots that eventually claimed over 200 lives. [cite news |date= 2002-11-23|title=Nigeria violence rages on|publisher=BBC News|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/2505729.stm]
*In December 2002
Pulitzer Prizewinner Doug Marlettepublished a drawing that showed Muhammad driving a Rydertruck, with a nuclear rocket attached. He received more than 4,500 e-mails from angry Muslims, some with threats of death and mutilation. [ cite news|first=Art| last=Moore|publisher=WorldNetDaily|date= 2002-12-28|title=What would Muhammad drive?|url=http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=30197]
* In 2004, Dutch film maker Theo van Gogh and
Ayaan Hirsi Alicreated the 10-minute movie "Submission". The film is about violence against women in Islamic societies. It shows four abused naked women, wearing see-through dresses. Qur'anic verses allegedly unfavourable to women in Arabic are painted on their bodies. After the movie was released, both van Gogh and Hirsi Ali received death threats. Van Gogh was stabbed and shot dead on November 2 2004, in Amsterdam by Mohammed Bouyeri. A [http://www.militantislammonitor.org/article/id/312 note] he left impaled on Van Gogh's chest threatened Western governments, Jews and Hirsi Ali (who went into hiding).
* In February 2005 the "Världskulturmuséet" ("Museum of World Culture") in
Göteborg, Swedendecided to remove the painting " Scène d’Amour" by Louzla Darabi. The painting was part of a temporary exhibition about HIV/ AIDS, and depicted a man and a woman having sexual intercourse. The artist and the curator had received numerous death threats from Muslims enraged over the Koranquotations which were featured in a corner of the painting. Some threats were telling the artist to "learn from the Netherlands", referring to the murder of van Gogh and threats against Hirsi Ali. [http://www.expressen.se/index.jsp?a=236913] (News article in Swedish)
* On April 19, 2005 the Swedish tabloid Aftonbladet broke the news that celebrity preacher [http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runar_S%C3%B8gaard Runar Søgaard] in a causerie had called Muhammad "a confused
paedophile," alluding to Muhammed's marriage with Aisha. Søgaard had at the same time also told jokes about Jesusand Buddha. Søgaard received numerous death threats from Muslims and went on national television to apologise for his jokes. His apologies did not help, and Muslim extremists in Sweden contacted imamsaround the world in order to have a fatwaissued against Søgaard. Among the contacted ones were Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. A fatwah with a death sentence against Søgaard was eventually issued by an African imam. [http://www.aftonbladet.se/vss/nyheter/story/0,2789,633287,00.html] [http://www.expressen.se/index.jsp?a=274290] (News articles in Swedish)
* In September 2005 the
Tate Britaingallery decided not to display a work by John Latham entitled "God Is Great #2", made ten years previously, which consisted in part of a Koran, a Bibleand a Talmudthat had been disassembled. The exhibition was close to the time of the July 7 2005 London bombingswhich influenced the Tate's decision. [cite news|publisher=BBC News|title=Tate 'misunderstood' banned work|date= 2005-09-26|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/4281958.stm] [cite web|url=http://www.tate.org.uk/home/press/2005/latham_press_statement_26-09-05.htm|title=Tate press release|work=|accessdate=2006-02-03]
* In September 2005, the Danish newspaper "
Jyllands-Posten" printed twelve cartoons of Mohammed which, four months later and fueled by interested parties, eventually led to massive unrest in the Muslim world (including more than 100 deaths), burnt embassies and international tension. In London, protestors carried signs saying, "Behead those who Insult Islam". [ [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-2087023,00.html Five arrested over London cartoons protest - Britain - Times Online ] ]
* In February 2006, activist
Manfred van H.was convicted in Germanyand sentenced to one year of prison on probation for mailing toilet paperstamped with "The holy Qur'an" to mosques and the media.
* In July 2007, Swedish artist Lars Vilks participated in an art exhibition themed "The Dog in Art" by portraying Muhammad as a
roundabout dog. He has subsequently received death threats and had to move out from his home (refer to article Lars Vilks Muhammad drawings controversyfor more information).
* In September 2007, a Bangladeshi newspaper published a comic that referred to Muhammad. Copies of the newspaper were torched and the cartoonist has been arrested. [http://www.zeenews.com/znnew/articles.asp?aid=395742&sid=SAS&sname=&news=Arrest%20warrant%20against%20cartoonist%20for%20%60blasphemous%60%20caricature]
* In November 2007, Unity High School in
Sudancame under attention after a teacher at the school was accused of allowing the class to name a teddy bear Muhammad. The teacher was convicted of insulting Islam and was subject to death threats. cite news |title='Muhammad' teddy teacher arrested |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7112929.stm |publisher= BBC|date=2007-11-26 |accessdate=2007-11-28] cite news|author=Rob Crilly in Khartoum and Lucy Bannerman |title=Sudan police throw teacher in jail for teddy bear named Muhammad|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/africa/article2951262.ece|publisher= The Times|date=2007-11-27 |accessdate=2007-11-28] . The teacher was pardoned by Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir on 3rd December. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7124447.stm Teddy row teacher to be released] ]
* A [http://www.thepetitionsite.com/2/removal-of-the-pics-of-muhammad-from-wikipedia?page=971 protest] demanding
Wikipediaremove images of Mohummad from all articles was started in February 2008. The main image in question is a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
] of Mohummad in
Meccaand was created by a devout Muslim named Al-Biruni in the 15th century. Wikipedia refused to remove the images. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/05/books/05wiki.html?_r=1&ref=world&oref=slogin Wikipedia Islam Entry is Criticized, NY Times February 5, 2008] ]
Fitna (film), a Dutch film which claims the Koran incites violence was met with calls to block and censor the film's showing. "The correct Sharia (Islamic law) response is to cut (off) his head and let him follow his predecessor, van Gogh, to hell," a member of Al-Ekhlaas wrote. [ [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L28578375.htm Muslim nations condemn Dutch Koran film, Rueters, March 28, 2008] ]
Gregorius Nekschot, a Dutch cartoonist collaborator of Theo van Goghwho was arrested in on May 13, 2008. His house was searched by ten policemen and his computer and sketch books were confiscated. He was held in jail for interrogation and was made to remove eight cartoons from his website at the request of the public prosecutor for being discriminatory for Muslims. The Netherlands police in a "project hatecrimes" ready to file complaints about cartoons.
*In 2004, a theatre in Birmingham, England, cancelled the performance of the play "
Behzti" (Dishonour) by playwright Gurpreet Kaur Bhatti. The play depicted sex abuse and murder in a Sikh temple. [citeweb|title=bbc|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/west_midlands/4107437.stm]
Censorship by organized religion
Controversial newspaper caricatures
Freedom of speech
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