Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
latd = 23.84
longd = 91.28
leader_name_1=D. N. Sahay
Bengali script: ত্রিপুরা) is a state in North-East India. Tripura is surrounded by Bangladeshon the north, south and west. The Indian states of Assamand Mizoramlie to the east. The capital is Agartalaand the main languages spoken are Bengali and Kokborok(also known as Tripuri). It was formerly an independent Tripuri kingdom [ [http://tripura.nic.in/kt3.htm Govt. of Tripura] ] and was merged with independent Indiaon 15 October 1949by the Tripura Merger Agreement. It was also known as Hill Tippera (anglicized version of Tipra) during the British Rajperiod [ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V13_124.gifHill Tippera - History] " The Imperial Gazetteer of India", 1909, v. 13, p. 118.] [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Hill_Tippera Hill Tippera] , from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.] and has a history of over 2500 years and 186 Kings. With an area of 4,036 sq mi or 10,453 km². [ [http://www.north-east-india.com/tripura/tripura-history.html Tripura History] ] .
Origin of name
Several theories exist pertaining to the origin of Tripura's name:
*The origin of the word "Tripura" is attributed to the legendary tyrant king of Tripura, "Tripur". According to legend, Tripur was the 39th descendant of Druhya, who was a descendant of
Yayati, one of the lunar race kings. He was so powerful that he ordered his subjects to worship him as the sole God. People fled to escape his tyranny to the nearby state of Hiramba ( Cachar).
*The word "Tripura" may have originated from "
Tripura Sundari" - the presiding deity of the land which is famous as one of the 51 Shakti Peethas, pilgrimage centres of Shaktiworshippers of Hinduism. [ [http://tripura.nic.in/kt3.htm Tripura] ]
*According to another school of thought the name Tripura was probably given to the state in honour of the temple at Udaipur, Tripureshwari, the wife of lord Shiva.
*According to historian Kailash Chandra Singha, the word Tripura is a derivative from two different
Kokborokwords "twi" and "pra". "Twi" means "water", "pra" means "near". It is likely that the state bears the name Tripura from this fact that in ancient time the boundaries of Tripura extended up to the Bay of Bengalwhen its ruler held sway from the Garo Hillsto the Arakan.
*According to another belief, Tripura is a corruption of "Twi-bupra". The meaning of "twi" is "water" and that of "bupra" is "confluence". Several villages in Tripura are named after the confluence of various rivers, "e.g." Twikormo, Twirisa, Twisarangchak, and Twimudul.
Tripura finds mention in the
Mahabharata, the Puranas and pillar inscriptions of Emperor Ashoka.Tripura has a long historic past, its unique tribal culture and a fascinating folklore.In the distant past Tripura was known as Kirat Desh. There are references of Tripura in the Mahabharatand the Puranas. Tripura, the descendent of King Druya and Bhabru, contemporary of Yudhishtara, was the ruler on whose name Tripura is named. One more explanation says that the territory is named after the temple of Tripuri Sundari, located at Radhakrishnapur.
Tripura was a
princely statebefore its merger with the Indian Union. The Tripuri Kings ("Habugra") held the title of Manikya and ruled Tripura for 3000 years until its merger. Udaipur, in South Tripura district, was the capital of the Kingdom. The capital was shifted to Old Agartalaby King Krishna Manikya in the eighteenth century, and then to the present Agartala in the 19th Century. The 19th century marked the beginning of Tripura's modern era, when King Bir Chandra Manikya Bahadur Debbarma modeled his administration on the pattern of British Indiaand enacted various reforms.
Ganamukti Parishad" movement led to the integration of the kingdom with India in 1949. Tripura was heavily affected by the partition of Indiaand the majority of the population now comprises HinduBengalis, many of whom came as refugees from East Pakistanafter independence in 1947. Tripura became a centrally administered Union Territory on July 1, 1963and attained the status of a full-fledged state on January 21, 1972.
Armed conflict in Tripura has been a problem since the end of the 1970s as an aftermath of
1971 Indo-Pak war. Mass migration of Bengalis from Bangladesh during this time has resulted in wide-spread insurgency and militancy in the state with groups such as the Tripura National Volunteers, the National Liberation Front of Tripuraand the All Tripura Tiger Force aiming to drive away the Bengali people.
Geography and climate
Tripura is a landlocked
hilly state in northeastern Indiawith altitudes varying from 50 to 3080 ft above sea level, though the majority of the population lives in the plains. Tripura has a tropicalclimate and receives rainfall during the monsoons. It is surrounded on the north, west, and south by Bangladeshand is accessible to the rest of India through the Karimganjdistrict of Assam and Aizawldistrict of Mizoramin the east. The state extends between 22°56'N and 24°32'N and 90°09'E and 92°10'E. Its maximum stretch measures about 184 km from north to south and 113 km from east to west with an area of 10,492 km². Tripura is the third smallest state of the country.
Although landlocked, Tripura has many rivers including the Manu River which originates here. [cite web
Tripura is the second most populous state in
North-East India, after Assam. According to the censusof 2001, Tripura has a total population of 3,191,168, with a density of 304 persons per square kilometer, and ranks 22nd among Indian states. It constitutes 0.31% population of India and 8.18% of the Northeast. In the 2001 census of India, Bengalis represent almost 70% of Tripura's population and the native tribal populations represent 30% of Tripura's population. The tribal population comprises several different tribes and ethnic groups with diverse languages and cultures with the largest tribal group being the Kokborok-speaking tribes of the Tripuri(16% of the state's population), the Jamatia, the Reangand the Noatiatribal communities. There is some tension between these native tribal populations and Bengali settlers in tribal areas.
Tripura ranks 22nd in the human resource development index and 24th in the poverty index in India according to 1991 sources. The literacy rate of Tripura is 73.66%, higher than the national rate of 65.20%.
Hinduism is the majority religion in the state, with 85.6% of the population following the religion. [ [http://www.censusindia.gov.in/ Indian Census] ] Muslims make up 8.0% of the population, Christians 3.2%, and Buddhists 3.1%. [ [http://www.censusindia.gov.in/ Indian Census] ]
This represents a major change in the religious composition of the state over time. In 1941 the population was 70% Hindu, 23% Muslim and 6% followers of tribal religions. [Columbia-Lippincott Gazeteer. p. 1947] It should be noted that in 1951 Tripura had 649,930 inhabitants, and the number was even less in 1941 because the Hindu exodus had not begun from
East Bengal, although that would not really become a factor in the state's population until the 1970s.
Today most of the Hindus in Tripura, both those who are Bengali and the Tripuri and numerous tribes, are adherents of an
animist- Shaktismhybrid of Hinduism, which was the state religion under the Tripuri kings. Brahminpriests (called "chantais") are regarded as custodians of " dharma" and occupy an exalted position in Tripura society. Important gods are Shivaand Tripureshwari ( patron goddess of Tripura and an aspect of Shakti). Several fertility gods are also worshipped, such as Lam-Pra (the twin deities of sky and sea), Mailu-ma (goddess of corn, identified with Lakshmi), Khulu-ma (goddess of the cotton plant) and Burha-cha (god of healing). Durga Puja, Navaratri, Vijayadashamiand the worship of the "Chaturdasha" deities are important festivals.
Tripura has several diverse ethno-linguistic groups, which has given rise to a composite culture. The dominant culture is Bengali, while minority cultures are those of the Tripuris,
Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Lushai, Mogh, Munda, Oraon, Santhaland Uchoi. Tripura has a rich cultural heritage of music, fine arts, handicraftsand dance. Music is an integral part of the tribal people of Tripura. Some of their indigenous instruments are the " sarinda", " chongpreng" and " sumui" (a kind of flute). Songs are sung during religious occasions, marriages and other festivals. Agricultural festivals are integral to the culture of the state.
Dance is important to the tribal way of life. Dances are performed during
Goria Puja. Hojagiri dance is performed by standing on a pitcher and is performed by the Reang clans. The Bihu danceis performed by the Chakmas during Chaitra Sankranti(the last day of the month of " Chaitra").
Flora and fauna
The state is located in the bio-geographic zone of 9B-North-East Hills and possesses an extremely rich bio-diversity. The local flora and faunal components of Indo-Malayan and Indo-Chinese sub-regions. There are 379 species of trees, 320
shrubs, 581 herbs, 165 climbers, 16-climbing shrubs, 35 ferns and 45 epiphytes.Fact|date=April 2007
Wildlife sanctuaries of the state include
Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary, Gumti Wildlife sanctuary, Roa Wildlife Sanctuary and Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary.National Park of India|National Park of the state include Clouded Leopard National Park, Sepahijola and Rajbari National Park, Trishna.
Tripura schools are run by the state government or by private organisations, including religious institutions. Instruction is mainly in English or Bengali, though Kokborok and other tribal languages are also used. Secondary schools are affiliated with the CISCE, the CBSE, or the Tripura Board of Secondary Education. Under the
10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for 2 years in a junior college, also known as pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility. Notable higher education institutions of Tripura are MBB College, National Institute of Technology, Tripura Institute of Technology, Tripura Universityand ICFAI University all located in Agartala.
cricketare the most popular sports in the state. The state capital Agartalahas its own club football championships every year where many local clubs compete in a league and knockout format.
Tripura participates as an Eastern state team in the
Ranji Trophy, the Indian domestic Cricket competition. The state also is a regular participant of the Indian National Games and the North Eastern Games.
Acharya Gour Ganguly, leader of Agartala's satyagraha movement in the 1970s against atrocities on women
Places of interest
Tripura Sundari temple
* [http://nativene.com Native-NE: The Community Website of North East India]
* Jagadis Gan-Chaudhuri (1985), "An Anthology of Tripura", Inter India Publications ISBN 8121000750
* Roychoudhury, N.R. (1977), "Tripura Through the Ages: A Short History of Tripura from the Earliest Times to 1947 A.D.", Bureau of Research & Publications on Tripura.
* Bhattacharjee, P.R. (1994), "Economic Transition in Tripura" (Hardcover), Vikas Publishing House ISBN 978-0706971712
* Palit, P.K. (2004), "History of Religion in Tripura " (Hardcover) Kaveri Books ISBN 978-8174790644
* Debbarma, Chandramani (2006), "Glory of Tripura Civilisation" Parul Prakashani, Agartala
* [http://tripura.nic.in Official website of the government of Tripura.]
* [http://53.1911encyclopedia.org/H/HI/HILL_TIPPERA.htm Tripura from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica]
* [http://ignca.nic.in/craft057.htm Introduction to Tripura by Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts (IGNCA)]
* [http://www.tripurasociety.org Tripura Society's website]
* [http://www.twipra.com/tprofile/default.asp Profile of Twipra (Tripura)]
* [http://www.tripura.org.in Tripuri Peoples' Website]
* [http://www.tripurauniversity.org/ A Cyber Joint for Tripura University Alumni]
* [http://indiarail.info/faq/7-faqs/19-indian-railways-history-from-1947-to-today.html Indian Railways History in North East of India]
* [http://www.tripurainfo.com Biggest News and Information Portal of Tripura]
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