Leopold Kronecker

Leopold Kronecker

name = Leopold Kronecker

caption = Leopold Kronecker
birth_date = birth date|1823|12|7|mf=y
birth_place = Liegnitz, Prussian province of Silesia
residence = Prussian
nationality = Prussian
death_date = death date and age|1891|12|29|1823|12|7
death_place = Berlin, Germany
field = Mathematics
work_institution = Humboldt University Berlin
alma_mater = University of Berlin
doctoral_advisor = Johann Encke
Gustav Dirichlet
doctoral_students =
Georg Cantor

Kurt Hensel

Adolf Kneser

Mathias Lerch

Franz Mertens

known_for = Kronecker delta
Kronecker product
Kronecker-Weber theorem
Kronecker's theorem
Kronecker's lemma
prizes =
footnotes =

Leopold Kronecker (December 7, 1823December 29, 1891) was a German mathematician and logician who argued that arithmetic and analysis must be founded on "whole numbers", saying, "God made the integers; all else is the work of man" (Bell 1986, p. 477). This put Kronecker in bitter opposition to some of the mathematical extensions of Georg Cantor, Kronecker's student (cf. Davis (2000), pp. 59ff). Kronecker was a student and lifelong friend of Ernst Kummer.


Leopold Kronecker was born in Liegnitz, Prussia (now Legnica, Poland) into a Jewish family [ [http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Kronecker.html Leopold Kronecker] ] . In 1845, Kronecker wrote his dissertation at the University of Berlin on number theory, giving special formulation to units in certain algebraic number fields. Peter Gustav Dirichlet was his teacher.

After obtaining his degree, Kronecker managed the estate and business of his uncle, producing nothing mathematical for eight years. In his 1853 memoir on the algebraic solvability of equations, Kronecker extended the work of Évariste Galois on the theory of equations. He accepted a professorship at "Friedrich-Wilhelms" University (today: Humboldt University) of Berlin in 1883.

Kronecker also contributed to the concept of continuity, reconstructing the form of irrational numbers in real numbers. In analysis, Kronecker rejected the formulation of a continuous, nowhere differentiable function by his colleague, Karl Weierstrass. In an 1850 paper, "On the Solution of the General Equation of the Fifth Degree", Kronecker solved the quintic equation by applying group theory.

Kronecker's finitism made him a forerunner of intuitionism in foundations of mathematics.Named for Kronecker are the Kronecker limit formula, Kronecker delta, Kronecker product, Kronecker-Weber theorem, Kronecker's theorem in number theory, and Kronecker's lemma. He was the supervisor of Kurt Hensel, Adolf Kneser, Mathias Lerch, and Franz Mertens, amongst others.

Kronecker died on December 29, 1891 in Berlin. He is buried in the "Alter St Matthäus Kirchhof" Cemetery in Berlin-Schöneberg, close to Gustav Kirchhoff.


* 1887. "On the concept of number" in Ewald, William B., ed., 1996. "From Kant to Hilbert: A Source Book in the Foundations of Mathematics", 2 vols. Oxford Uni. Press: 947-55.
* Jean van Heijenoort (1967), From Frege to Godel: A source Book in Mathematical Logic. 1879-1931, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. ISBN 0-674-32449-8 (pbk.)

* Eric Temple Bell, 1986. "Men of Mathematics", Simon and Schuster, New York.
* Martin Davis (2000), "Engines of Logic, Mathematicians and the origin of the Computer", W.W. Norton & Company, New York. ISBN 0-393-32229-7 pbk.


External links

* [http://www.math.uvsq.fr/~lecerf/software/kronecker/index.html A Polynomial Equation System Solver] based on the Kronecker Method.

NAME= Kronecker, Leopold
SHORT DESCRIPTION= German Mathematician
DATE OF BIRTH= December 7, 1823
PLACE OF BIRTH= Liegnitz, Prussia
DATE OF DEATH= December 29, 1891
PLACE OF DEATH= Berlin, Germany

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  • Leopold Kronecker — (* 7. Dezember 1823 in Liegnitz; † 29. Dezember 1891 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Mathematiker. Der Physiologe Hugo Kronecker (1839–1914), sechzehn Jahre jünger als er, war sein Bruder. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Léopold Kronecker — Leopold Kronecker Leopold Kronecker Léopold Kronecker (7 décembre 1823 29 décembre 1891) est un mathématicien et logicien allemand. Il est l élève et l ami à vie d Ernst Kummer. Persu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Leopold Kronecker — Leopold Kronecker. Leopold Kronecker (n. en Liegnitz actual Legnica en Polonia, 7 de diciembre de 1823 † Berlín, Alemania, 29 de diciembre de 1891). Matemático alemán. Biografía Hijo de un comerciante judío, con el tiempo se convertiría al… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Leopold Kronecker — (Liegnitz, actual Legnica, Polonia, 1823 Berlín, 1893) Matemático alemán. Estudió en la Universidad de Berlín, donde tuvo como profesores a Jacobi y Dirichlet. Más tarde retomaría el contacto con otro antiguo profesor y eminente matemático, Ernst …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Leopold Kronecker — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Kronecker. Leopold Kronecker Leopold Kronecker Naissance 7 décembre 1823 Legn …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Leopold Kronecker — noun German mathematician (1823 1891) • Syn: ↑Kronecker • Instance Hypernyms: ↑mathematician …   Useful english dictionary

  • KRONECKER (L.) — Le mathématicien allemand Kronecker nous apparaît, avec Kummer, comme l’un des plus grands arithméticiens du XIXe siècle et l’un des fondateurs de la «grande» théorie des nombres algébriques. Ses travaux sur le corps de classes dans un cas… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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  • Kronecker — ist der Name von Hugo Kronecker (1839–1914), deutscher Physiologe Leopold Kronecker (1823–1891), deutscher Mathematiker Sonstiges Satz von Kronecker Weber Kronecker Delta Kronecker Symbol Kronecker Produkt Kroneckersches Lemma …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Leopold — hace referencia a: Abreviatura científica para el botánico G. Leopold. Leopold Kronecker, matemático alemán. Leopold Mozart, músico austriaco. Leopold Ruzicka, químico suizo, premio Nobel de Química en 1939. Anzio annie, Cañón gigante ferroviario …   Wikipedia Español

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