- Type (metaphysics)
metaphysics, a type is a category of being. A humanis a type of thing; a cloud is a type of thing ( entity); and so on. A particular instanceof a type is called a "token" of that thing; so Socrateswas a token of a human being, but is not any longer since he is dead. Likewise, the capital Ain this sentence is a token of the first letter of the Latin alphabet.
Much has been made of the "
type-token distinction" by some philosophers, including Charles Peirce, who coined the term. In recent years, the distinction has been used by philosophers of mind such as Donald Davidsonto clarify various ideas about identity theoryand other physicalist theories of consciousness.
Bertrand Russell's Theory of types.
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