name = Bornholm Island
category = Island
image_size = 290px
symbol_size = 90px
country = Denmark | state=
district = "Bornholms Regionskommune"
district_type = Municipality | district_label=
part_type = | part_count =
part = | part1 =
area = 588
area_round = 0
lat_d = 55 | lat_m = 08 | lat_s = 0 | lat_NS= N
long_d= 14 | long_m= 55 | long_s= 0 | long_EW= E
population_as_of = 2008
population = 42817 | population_density=
established_type = Municipality
established = since January 2003
timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
postal_code = | postal_code_type = Postal codes
area_code = | area_code_type=
free_type = | free=
free1_type = | free1=
map_caption = Bornholm Island (far right) in Denmark
map_locator_x = 96.2
map_locator_y = 78.8
website = [http://www.brk.dk/ www.brk.dk]
Bornholm (IPA2|b̥ʌnˈhʌlˀm or [Help:IPA| [bɔʀnˈhɔlˀm] ) (
Old Norse: "Burgundarholm") is a Danish islandin the Baltic Sealocated to the east of (most of) Denmark, the south of Sweden, and the north of Poland. The main industries on the island include fishing, arts and crafts like glass making and pottery using locally worked clay, and dairy farming. Tourismis important during the summer.
It also refers to Bornholm Regional Municipality, the
municipality( _da. kommune) which covers the entire island. Bornholm was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county— the others being Copenhagenand Frederiksberg. On 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its shortlived (2003 until 2006) county privileges and became part of Region Hovedstaden(i.e. the "Copenhagen Capital Region").
The small islands
Ertholmeneare located 18 km (11 miles) to the northeast of Bornholm. They do not belong to either a municipality or a region but are administered by the Ministry of Defence.
Strategically located in the
Baltic Sea, Bornholm has been a bone of contention usually ruled by Denmark, but also by Lübeckand Sweden. The castle ruin Hammershus, on the northwestern tip of the island, is the largest fortress in northern Europe, testament to the importance of its location.
Many inhabitants speak "
bornholmsk", by some said to be a dialect of Danish that retains three grammatical genders, like Icelandic and most dialects of Norwegian, but unlike standard Danish. Its phonologyincludes archaisms (unstressed IPA| [a] and internal [d̥, g̊] , where other dialects have IPA| [ə] and IPA| [ð̞, ʊ / ɪ] ) and innovations (IPA| [tɕ, dʝ] for IPA| [kʰ, g̊] before and after front-tongue vowels). This renders the dialect difficult to understand for some Danish-speakers, whereas Swedish-speakers often consider bornholmsk to be easier to understand than other Danish dialects. The intonationresembles the Scanian dialectsspoken in the nearby Scania, the southernmost province of Sweden.
Bornholm Regional Municipality is the local authority (Danish, "kommune") covering the entire island. It comprises the five former (
April 1 1970until 2002) municipalities on the island ( Âlinja-Gudhjem, Hâzle, Næjse, Rønnaand Aatjerkeby) and the former Bornholm County. The island had 22 municipalities until March 1970, of which 6 market city and 16 parish municipalities. The market city municipalities were supervised by the county and not by the interior ministry as was the case in the rest of Denmark. The seat of the municipal council is the island's main town, Rønna. The first regional mayor is Bjarne Kristiansen. Ferryservices connect Rønna to Świnoujście( Poland), Sassnitz( Germany), Køge(near Copenhagen, Denmark) and catamaranto Ystad( Sweden). Simrishamn( Sweden) has a ferry connection during the summer. There are also regular catamaranservices between Najseand the Polish ports of Kolobrzeg, Lebaand Ustka. There are direct train and bus connections Ystad-Copenhagen, coordinated with the catamaran. There are also air connections from the Bornholm Airportto Copenhagen and other places.
Bornholm Regional Municipality was not merged with other municipalities on
January 1, 2007as the result of the nationwide "Kommunalreformen" ("The Municipal Reform" of 2007), which is quite understandable, since the island, as can be seen on maps, is quite far from the rest of Denmark.
In Old Norse the island was known as "Borgundarholm", and in ancient Danish especially the island's name was "Borghand" or "Borghund"; these names were related to Old Norse "borg" "height" and "bjarg/berg" "mountain, rock", as it is an island that rises high from the sea. [Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. "Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture". London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1997: p. 269] Other names known for the island include "Burgendaland" (9th century), "Hulmo" / "Holmus" (
Adam of Bremen), "Burgundehulm" (1145), and "Borghandæholm" (14th century). [Politikens Nudansk Ordborg (1993), 15th edition, entry "Bornholm" da icon] Alfred the Greatuses the form "Burgenda land". [King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of Orosius, London, 1859, edited by J. Bosworth] Some scholars [Essai sur l'histoire du peuple burgonde, de Bornholm (Burgundarholm) vers la Bourgogne et les Bourguignons, 1965, by Rene Guichard, published by A. et J. Picard et Cie.] believe that the Burgundiansare named after Bornholm; the Burgundians were a Germanic tribewhich moved west when the western Roman Empirecollapsed, and occupied and named Burgundyin France.
Bornholm formed part of the historical
Lands of Denmarkwhen the nation united out of a series of petty chiefdoms. It was originally administratively part of the province of Scaniaand was administered by the Scanian Lawafter this was codified in the 13th century. Control over the island evolved into a long-raging dispute between the See of Lund and the Danish crown culminating in several battles. The first fortress on the island was " Gamleborg" which was replaced by "Lilleborg", built by the king in 1150. In 1149, the king accepted the transfer of three of the island's four herreder to the archbishop. In 1250, the archbishop constructed his own fortress, Hammershus. A campaign launched from it in 1259 conquered the remaining part of the island including Lilleborg. The island's status remained a matter of dispute for an additional 200 years.
Bornholm was pawned to
Lübeckfor 50 years starting 1525. Its first militia, Bornholms Militswas formed in 1624.
Swedish forces conquered the island in 1645, but returned the island to Denmark in the following peace settlement. After the war in 1658, Denmark ceded the island to Sweden under the
Treaty of Roskildealong with the rest of the Scanian provinces and Trøndelagand it was occupied by Swedish forces.
A revolt broke out the same year, culminating in
Villum Clausen's shooting of the Swedish commander Johan Printzensköldon December 8, 1658. [http://www.bornholmsmuseum.dk/1658/1658_1.htm] Following the revolt, a deputation of islanders presented the island as a gift to King Frederick III on the condition that the island would never be ceded again. This status was confirmed in the following peace settlement (1660).
A immigration of Swedes, notably from
Smålandand Skåne, occurred during the 19th century, seeking work and better conditions. Most of these people did not remain on the island.
Bornholm, as a part of
Denmark, was captured by Germany relatively early in the Second World War, and served as a lookout post and listening station during the war, as it was a part of the eastern front. The island's perfect central position in the Baltic Seameant that it was an important "natural fortress" between Germanyand Sweden, effectively keeping submarines and destroyers away from Nazi occupied waters. Several concrete coastal installations were built during the war, and several coastal batteries had tremendous range. However, none of them were ever used and only a single test shot was fired during the occupation. These remnants of Nazi rule have since then fallen into disrepair and are mostly regarded today as historical curiosities. Many tourists visit the ruins each year, however, providing supplemental income to the tourist industry. On 22 August 1943a V-1 flying bomb(numbered V83, probably launched from a Heinkel He 111) crashed on Bornholm during a test - the warhead was a dummy made of concrete. This was photographed or sketched by the Danish Naval Officer-in-Charge on Bornholm, Lieutenant Commander Hasager Christiansen. This was the first sign British Intelligence saw of Germany's aspirations to develop flying bombs and rockets - which were to become known as V1 and V2.
Bornholm was heavily bombarded by Soviet forces in May 1945.
Gerhard von Kamptz, the German superior officer in charge of the island garrison refused to surrender to Soviets, as his orders were to surrender to the Western Allies. The Germans sent several telegrams to Copenhagenrequesting that at least one British soldier should be transferred to Bornholm, so that the Germans could surrender to the western allied forces instead of the Russians. When von Kamptz failed to provide a written capitulation as demanded by the Soviet commanders, Soviet aircraft relentlessly bombed and destroyed more than 800 civilian houses in Rønna and Næsje and seriously damaged roughly 3000 more during 7-8 May 1945. Here it's important to note that during the Russian bombing of the two major cities on May 7th. and again May 8th. The Danish radio was not allowed to broadcast the news because it would spoil the liberation dances in Denmark.Many Bornholmers never forgot that. Sadly no one is teached about these facts in school today.
On May 9 Soviet troops landed on the island and after a short fight, the German garrison (about 12,000 strong [cite web|url=http://eng.9may.ru/eng_inform/m9004261|title=Soviet Information Bureau report, May 11, 1945|accessdate=2007-09-17] ) surrendered. [cite web|url=http://www.bornholm.info/Historie/482we.aspx?langId=2|title=Bornholm during World War II|accessdate=2007-09-06] Soviet forces left the island on
April 5, 1946. Thus, Bornholm could be said to have played a part - to its inhabitants' bad luck - in the inception of the Cold War.
NATO radarinstallations have been placed on the island.
After the evacuation of its forces from Bornholm, the Soviets took the position that "The stationing 'foreign troops' on Bornholm would be considered a declaration of war against the Soviet Union, and that Denmark should keep troops on it at all times to protect it from such foreign aggression". This policy remained in force also after NATO was formed and Denmark joined it - i.e. the Soviets accpted the stationing of Danish troops, which were perforce part of NATO but were far from that alliance's most powerful element, but strongly objected to the presence of other NATO troops on the island - particularly, of US troops.
This caused diplomatic problems at least twice: once when an American
helicopterlanded outside the city of Svânika due to engine problems in a NATO exercise over the Baltic Sea, and once (sometime between 1999 and 2003) when the Danish government suggested shutting down "Almegårdens Kaserne", the local military facility, since "the island could quickly be protected by troops from surrounding areas and has no strategic importance after the fall of the Iron Curtain".
The island also hosts some notable examples of 19th and early 20th century architecture, amongst others, about 300
woodenhouses in Rønnaand Næjse, donated by Swedenafter World War II, when the island was repairing damage caused by the war.
The Danish painter
Oluf Høstwas born in Svanekein 1884.
The Danish writer and painter
Gustaf Munch-Petersenmoved to Bornholm in 1935 and married Lisbeth Hjorth while living on the island.
At age 8, socialist writer
Martin Andersen Nexømoved to the island, and took his last name after the city of Næjseon its east coast. M.P. Möller, a pipe-organ builder and manufacturer, was born on Bornholm and lived in a town a few miles south of Âlinja.
Jacob Ludvigsen born in 1947. He founded Christiania, the free state near Copenhagen 1971 and moved to Bornholm in 1972. He lives between Østermarie and Svânika.
References in popular culture
The island is home to 15 medieval churches, four of which are Round Churches and display unique artwork and architecture.
Other islands in the Baltic Sea
Gotland, Öland, Åland
# "The Island of Bornholm", a chapter in "Selected Prose" by Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin, 1969, Northwestern University Press.
# "The Battle of Bornholm" in "The hidden folk: stories of fairies, dwarves, selkies, and other secret beings", by Lise Lunge-Larsen, 2004, Houghton Mifflin.
# "The Templars' Secret Island: The Knights, the Priest, and the Treasure", 1992, by Erling Haagensen and Henry Lincoln
# "Behind the Da Vinci Code", 2006 documentary by "
The History Channel"
# "Bornholm i krig 1940-1946" ("Bornholm in War"), Bornholm museum, 2001, ISBN 8788179494. Book of photos from World War II.
# Bernt Jensen: "Soviet Remote Control: the Island of Bornholm as a Relay Station in Soviet-Danish Relations, 1945-71", in "Mechanisms of Power in the Soviet Union", Macmillan Press, 2000, ISBN 0-312-23089-3.
* [http://www.brk.dk/ Municipality's official website] (Dansk+Deutsch+English)
* [http://kort.krak.dk/borgerdk.kortsoegning/imapDKbig.asp Krak searchable/printable municipality map] da icon
* [http://www.bornholmeren.dk/en/ Bornholm Map and Web Index]
* [http://www.bornholmsmuseum.dk/ Bornholm's Museum] (Dansk+Deutsch+English+Polski)
* Municipal statistics: [http://www2.netborger.dk/Kommunefakta/ NetBorger Kommunefakta] , delivered from [http://www.kmd.dk/ KMD aka Kommunedata (Municipal Data)] (Danish)
* [http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=DESC&db=:2909699&id=I570458518 Kings of Bornholm]
* [http://www.bornholm.modos.pl/ Bornholm] (Polish)
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