- Shen Buhai
Shen Buhai (zh-cpw|c=申不害|p=Shēn Bùhài|w=Shen Puhai, d. 337 BC) was a Chinese bureaucrat who was the Chancellor of Han under Marquis Zhao of Han from 351 BC to 337 BC. Shen was born in the State of Zheng; he was likely to have been a minor official for the State of Zheng. After Han conquered Zheng in 375 BC, he rose up in the ranks of the Han officialdom. He was an innovator of administrative bureaucracy and was often linked with the Legalists. He is credited with writing the "Shenzi". Shen Buhai successfully reformed the bureaucracy in the State of Han; his reforms would later be copied by other states. He died of natural causes while in office.
Shen was chiefly concerned with government administration through the use of
bureaucracy. His system required a strong ruler at the center. Shen Buhai believed that the ideal ruler should remain distant from his officials, keeping his innermost thoughts secret and maintaining an independence of thought. According to Shen, the ruler needed to be the loneliest person in the world.
To Shen Buhai, the greatest threat to a ruler's power came from within. He believed that threats from powerful, independent ministers to usurp power were more dangerous than threats from external forces. Shen championed the concept of "Shu" (術 administrative methods/techniques). Shen advocated for maintaining checks against the power of officials, and in equality among the officials.
He touted the primacy of finding the right person for the job ("xingming" 刑名). He evaluated officials based on skill, achievement and seniority. He also encouraged routine assessments of officials.
Shen Buhai promulgated his own concept of
wu wei, which caused some scholars to link him with Taoism. In Shen's case, he believed that rulers maximized power by exercising power as little as possible. He also encouraged rulers to limit their scope, leaving the details of administration to capable ministers. Some modern scholars argued that Shen's legalism was more a blend of Taoismand Legalism than just purely the conceptual "Shu" school of Legalism.
Shen Buhai was criticized by both Confucians and Legalists. Unlike the Confucians, he never mentioned virtue; unlike the Shang Yang wing of the Legalists, he never mentioned Fa (Law). The Confucian
Xun Zistrongly criticized Shen Buhai's emphasis on secrecy and lack of trust in ministers. The legalist Han Feicriticized Shen for paying too much attention to methodology at the expense of laws.
Although Shen Buhai was later linked inseparably with the Legalists, it was Hanfei who merged the ideas of Shen Buhai with those of
Shang Yang. In 141 BC, under the reign of Emperor Wu of Han, Shen Buhai's name was listed with other legalist thinkers whose ideas were officially banned from the government; from that point on, scholarship on the ideas of Shen Buhai went into a steep decline.
Shen Buhai was known for his cryptic writing style. He was credited with writing a now extinct two chapter text, the "Shenzi" (申子). During the Han Dynasty, the compilation was organized into two outer chapters, and six inner chapters, but the admeasurement might be different as time goes by. The last mention of this work occurred in 1616, some scholars believe his work did not survived. During the
Qing Dynasty, three major attempts were made to reconstruct the contents of this work. The only traces of this work remain in surviving texts which quote from the "Shenzi" in "Qunshu Zhiyao", compiled in 631, and "Yilin", compiled around 786.
* Duyvendak, J.J.L., The Book of Lord Shang: Translated From the Chinese with Notes by J.J.L. Duyvendak.
* Creel, Herrlee G., The Origins of Statecraft in China. ISBN 0-226-12043-0
* Creel, Herrlee G., Shen Pu-hai: A Chinese Political Philosopher of the Fourth Century B.C. ISBN 0-226-12027-9
* Pan, Fuen, [http://22.214.171.124/web/Content.asp?ID=57373&Query=1 "Shen Buhai"] . "
Encyclopedia of China" (Philosophy Edition), 1st ed.
* Zhang, Guohua, [http://126.96.36.199/web/Content.asp?ID=10399&Query=1 "Shen Buhai"] . "
Encyclopedia of China" (Law Edition), 1st ed.
* Li, Shen, [http://188.8.131.52/web/Content.asp?ID=52356&Query=1 "Shenzi"] . "
Encyclopedia of China" (Chinese History Edition), 1st ed.
Hong Kong UniversityPhilosophy Department, " [http://www.hku.hk/philodep/ch/Shen%20Bu%20Hai.htm Shen Buhai] "
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Shen Buhai — (chinesisch 申不害 Shēn Bùhài, W. G. Shen Pu hai; * um 385 v. Chr.; † 337 v. Chr.) auch Shenzi (申子) war ein Philosoph und Politiker aus dem alten Staat Zheng der chinesischen Zeit der Streitenden Reiche, der mit seinen Schriften als einer… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Shen Buhai — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Shen (homonymie). Dans ce nom chinois, le nom de famille, Shen, précède le prénom. Shen Buhai, en chinois 申不害 (385–337 av. J. C.), est un légiste et ministre chinois du duc Zhao dans l État du Han. Biographie … Wikipédia en Français
Shen — (homonymie) Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Echuu Shen Jon, personnage de l univers étendu de la Guerre des étoiles, Kool Shen, rappeur français du groupe NTM, Shen (參宿 cān xiù) est une… … Wikipédia en Français
Shen — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Shen Congwen (1902–1988), chinesischer Schriftsteller Shen Buhai ( 385–337 v. Chr.), chinesischer Philosoph aus der Zeit der Streitenden Reiche, aus dem Reich Zheng Shen Dao, ein chinesischer Philosoph aus … Deutsch Wikipedia
Shen (homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Echuu Shen Jon, personnage de l univers étendu de Star Wars, Kool Shen, rappeur français du groupe NTM, Shen (參宿 cān xiù) est une loge lunaire de l… … Wikipédia en Français
Han (Etat) — Han (État) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Han. Histoire de la Chine … Wikipédia en Français
Han (État) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Han. Han 韓 (zh) 403 – 230 … Wikipédia en Français
Liste der Biografien/Sh — Biografien: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q … Deutsch Wikipedia
List of Chinese writers — Contents 1 Chronological list 1.1 Antiquity and Qin Dynasty 1.2 Han Dynasty and following 1.3 Tang Dynasty and following … Wikipedia
Qin-Dynastie — Gebiet der Qin Dynastie um 210 v. Chr. Die Qin Dynastie (chinesisch 秦朝 Qín Cháo, W. G. Ch’in Ch’ao) war die erste Dynastie des chinesischen Kaiserreiches. Sie entstand aus dem Staat Qin, dem westlichsten der sieben Staaten, die in der… … Deutsch Wikipedia