Voltairehas been quoted jokingly as saying Canada was " a few acres of snow." [ Will Ferguson, "Bastards & Boneheads: Our Glorious Leaders, Past and Present", October 1999.] He was in fact referring to New Franceas it existed in the eighteenth century. The quote meant that Canada was economically worthless and that Francethus did not need to keep it. Many believe Voltaire's statement to be more an indictment of conquest in general. [Jean-Yves le Branchu, "The French Colonial Empire and the Popular Front Government," "Pacific Affairs", Vol. 10, No. 2. (Jun., 1937), page 125.]
"Soviet Canuckistan" is one unflattering
epithetfor Canada, used by Pat Buchananon October 31, 2002, on his televisionshow on MSNBCin which he denounced Canadians as anti-American and the country as a haven for terrorists. He was reacting to Canadian criticisms of US security measures regarding Arab Canadians.Nancy Carr, " [http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Canada/2002/10/31/3057.html U.S. talk-show host Pat Buchanan calls Canada 'whining,' 'freeloading' nation] ," Canadian Press, November 1, 2002.] At least one reference to the term can be found on-line as far back as April 2001. [ [http://www.amren.com/0104issue/0104issue.htm#letters Letters from Readers] , "American Renaissance", Apr. 2001.]
Buchanan has a history of unflattering references to Canada, having said in 1990 that if Canada were to break apart due to the failure of the
Meech Lake Accord, "America would pick up the pieces." He said two years after that "for most Americans, Canada is sort of like a case of latent arthritis. We really don't think about it, unless it acts up."
In the wake of Canada's refusal to participate in the
2003 invasion of Iraq, as well as its turning down of the Missile Defense Plan (CMDP), Ann Coulterhas recently become another prominent American critical of Canadian policies. She has often, in an off-handed manner (usually during interviews) proposed extreme solutions to Canadian dissent, such as a military invasion of Canada, [ [http://mediamatters.org/items/200412010011 "Coulter: Canada is 'lucky we allow them to exist on the same continent;' Carlson: 'Without the U.S., Canada is essentially Honduras'] ," Media Matters for America, URL accessed 29 June 2006.] and has said that Canada should be grateful that the US "allows" it to exist on the same continent.
In 2006, right-wing American strategist
Paul Weyrichsaid Canadians are "so liberal and hedonistic" that they have a philosophy of " cultural Marxism." [" [http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2006/01/27/weyrich-harper060127.html Canadians 'liberal and hedonistic' but can change, U.S. right-winger says] ," CBCNews, 27 Jan 2006.] Fred Phelpsof the Westboro Baptist Churchis strongly anti-Canadian. He operates a website entitled "God Hates Canada," criticizing gay rights in Canada. [ [http://www.godhatescanada.com/. God Hates Canada! ] ] Phelps is a highly controversial figure who claims that Godhates homosexuals, and thus, by extension, hates the United States, Sweden, Ireland, and any sort of entity that is tolerant of homosexuality.
Anti-Canadian sentiment has been observed in
Brazil. People boycotted Canadian goods to protest a Canadian ban of Brazilian beef imports, reportedly because of fears of mad-cow disease(the country has had zero cases). [ [http://canadaonline.about.com/library/weekly/aa020501a.htm Canada Bans Brazil Beef Products - Protection Against Mad Cow Disease ] ] Many Brazilians believed the Canadian ban was motivated by an unrelated trade dispute between the two nations. Canada's subsidies to aircraft manufacturer Bombardierand Brazil's subsidies to Bombardier's Brazilian rival Embraerhave been a source of much tension because they are said to interfere with each others' business. [Robert Westervelt, "Potash Firms Caught in Brazil-Canada Trade War," "Chemical Week"; February 28, 2001, Vol. 163 Issue 9, page 16.]
Anti-Canadian sentiment in Canada
Some hostility towards Canada can be seen within Canada itself.
Quebec, some people, including some within the nationalist and sovereignty movements, harbour feelings of resentment towards English Canadaor the Canadian federation in general. Alleged reasons include historical events such as the initial British military conquest of New Franceand the following historic centuries-long discrimination towards French Québécois by English Quebecers and other Canadians. Front de libération du Québecmember and journalist Pierre Vallièreswrote a notable book called " Nègres blancs d'Amérique" (White Negros of America) in which the situation of French Québécois is paralleled with that of the blacks of the south of the United States.
Also, until the
Quiet Revolutionof the 1960s, the economy of Quebecand its high-ranking positions were controlled by the English minority in Quebec, despite the fact that the French Québécois comprised 90% of the province's population at the time. This led nationalist thinkers to denounce a colonial phenomenon that, as they believed, was at work between Quebec and the rest of Canada; some hold that residuals of this are still there in the present relationship. Journalist Normand Lesterpublished three volumes of " The Black Book of English Canada" detailing events of Canadian historyhe saw as being crimes perpetrated by the majority on the minority. [ [http://www.amazon.com/dp/077102259X/ Description of "The Black Book of English Canada"] , " Amazon.com", URL accessed 29 June 2006.]
Furthermore, other current sources of rancour include the fact that English Canadians are less
bilingualthan Québécois, the perception that English Canada is more conservative than Quebec and perceived paternalism and arrogance.
November 27 2006, one such source of rancour was the refusal of an important part of the English Canadian population and political elite to recognize Quebec as a nation, or a " distinct society". However, a motion presented by Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harperrecognizing the Québécois as "a nation within Canada" was passed on that day. Lucien Bouchardfamously said that Canada wasn't a "real country" sparking outrage across Canada. He later apologized for the remark.
Many in Newfoundland harbour an ambiguous attitude towards Canada. Many blame the federation for economic difficulties experienced since the dominion joined confederation in 1949. Some Newfoundlanders perceive a disrespectful attitude toward them from the rest of Canada, and
Newfiestereotypes and ethnic jokesthat depict Newfoundlanders as stupid and/or lazy are a source of ire. There is also a fear that Newfoundland culture and Newfoundland Englishare diminishing and will disappear because of insensitivity and ignorance from the rest of Canada. Newfoundland premier Danny Williams notably ordered all Canadian flags removed from provincial buildings during a dispute with the federal government in 2004. [ [http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2004/12/23/williams041223.html Maple Leaf flags removed in offshore feud ] ] Williams was, and remained, personally popular in Newfoundland, at times receiving as much as 75% support in polls.
indigenous peoples, some First Nationscall Canada an illegal nation state built on stolen land. One term used by some Native activists for non-aboriginal residents of Canada is " settlers". Fact|date=October 2008
Sometimes Canadians accuse each other of being anti-Canadian: For example,
Manitoba Premier Gary Doer(NDP) accused the governments of Ontarioand Albertaof being "anti-Canadian" due to their dislike for equalization payments. Doer's assessment is disputed, with one " Calgary Sun" columnist writing, "Get a grip, Gary." [Link Byfield, " [http://calsun.canoe.ca/News/Columnists/Byfield_Link/2006/06/16/1635485.html Far from equal] ," Fri, June 16, 2006, URL accessed 20 December 2006.]
From the right
Some anti-Canadian criticism from a few in the right of the political spectrum is coupled with proposals that the conservative province of
Albertasecede from the country to form a new nation, either on its own or with other Western provinces. A separatist party obtained more than one tenth of the vote in the 1982 Albertan general election although no other separatist party in Western Canada has obtained a similar share of the vote in a provincial election before or since 1982.
Such criticism most commonly comes from
libertarians, who criticize significant facets of Canadian life as being socialist, or from social conservatives, who couple it with criticism of issues such as same-sex marriage or abortion.
A noteworthy example of right-wing anti-Canadianism arose in 1997 when
Stephen Harper, who was at the time vice-president of the right-wing lobby group the National Citizens Coalition, stated he believed "Canada is a Northern European welfare state in the worst sense of the term, and very proud of it." [http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20051213/elxn_harper_speech_text_051214/20051214/] The speech was made to members of the American right-wing think tank the Council for National Policyand in the duration since it was given arguments have been made both for and against whether Harper's words were heartfelt, or if he was embellishing for the benefit of his audience. Harper himself dismissed the comments when they were cited by the centrist Liberal Party in attack ads against him during the 2006 Canadian federal election, saying that they were meant as humour, not serious analysis. [Susan Riley, "Harper's suspect evolution", 16 December 2005, A18.] (Ironically, Harper became prime minister of Canadain 2006)
From the left
communistorganizations in Canada view a Canadian nationalist or isolationist line as revisionist, anti-communist and pro- nationalistin itself. They believe the communist view of the national question in Canada should be internationalistand consider that other nationalities exist within the nation-state, such as the Québécois, First Nationsand Acadianpeoples; as well as the borders being artificial boundaries put in place during the colonial period and held in place under capitalism. These views are usually held by Maoist, Trotskyiteand other revolutionarygroups that tend not to participate in mainstream activities such as elections. Such alternative views can be viewed as anti-Canadianism by more nationalist tendencies on both the left and right.
Anti-Canadianism and humour
Humorous anti-Canadianism often focuses on broadly-known attributes of Canada and Canadians (such as cold weather or public health care), [See "Canadian Bacon" for jokes about the weather and health care, and "
The Simpsons" episode " The Bart Wants What It Wants" for jokes about Canadian health care] as the finer details of Canadian culture and politics are generally not well known outside Canada. Consequently, such humour is often made at the expense of accuracy outside Canada. However, these broad targets are more accurately caricatured within Canada itself. The fact that Americans especially but also others are perceived to know surprisingly little about Canada is a frequent theme in Canadian humour and such examples of self-deprecating humour are nearly universal among Canadian humorists. In keeping with this attitude, some genuinely critical anti-Canadianisms (such as "Soviet Canuckistan") are embraced by some Canadians as humorous, in defiance of the original intent.
Blame Canada", a song from the film "" in which the town's parents blame Canada for the trouble their children have been getting into, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Song. The song was, however, generally understood to be using anti-Canadian statements as a parody of "American" cultural values, such as a perceived tendency toward scapegoatingand the shirking of parental responsibility, rather than a statement of actual anti-Canadianism.
Canadian Idiot", by "Weird Al" Yankovic, a parody of the song "American Idiot" by Green Day, is a friendly critique of Canadian stereotypes. The right-wing American character that "Weird Al" Yankovicplays in the song uses many common Canadian stereotypes, such as the statement by some that Canadians supposedly "live on donuts and moose meat." Near the end of the songs, Weird Al Yankovic (through his character) proclaims that the United States should preemptively strike Canada. This statement supports the theory that he may actually be making fun of right-wing America, and their anti-Canadian antics. He has not, however, actually stated his position on any political issue.
*Canadian Bacon, a fictional film by
Michael Moore, also parodies anti-Canadianism, depicting a post-Cold War American president ( Alan Alda) who provokes anti-Canadian sentiment in a gambit to produce an economic stimulus through a new Cold War: the movie's tagline is "Surrender pronto, or we'll level Toronto." The movie makes heavy use of irony in driving home the message that many aspects of Canadian culture are superior to Moore's own American culture, such as one scene in which an RCMP jailer writes heartfelt letters to ex-inmates, and another in which the Sheriff of Niagara Falls, New York "attacks" Canada by spreading litter in a public park.
I Am Canadian
* [http://www.isp.msu.edu/CanadianStudies/dimitry.htm "Toronto Star" article by Dimitry Anastakis]
* [http://ccr.ptbcanadian.com/simpsons/ "Simpsons, Eh?"]
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