Frumentius


Frumentius

Infobox Saint
name=Saint Frumentius
birth_date=4th century
death_date=c. 380
feast_day=
August 1 (Ethiopian)
December 18 (Coptic)
November 30 (Byzantine)
October 27 (Catholic/Western)
venerated_in=


imagesize=140px
caption=Saint Frumentius of Ethiopia
birth_place=Tyre
death_place=Ethiopia
titles=Confessor, Bishop, and Apostle to Ethiopia
beatified_date=
beatified_place=
beatified_by=
canonized_date=
canonized_place=
canonized_by=
attributes=
patronage=Ethiopia
major_shrine=
suppressed_date=
issues=

Frumentius (Ge'ez ፍሬምናጦስ "frēmnāṭōs") (died ca. 383) was the first bishop of Axum, and is credited with bringing Christianity to Ethiopia.cite book |author=Saheed A. Adejumobi |authorlink= |editor= |others= |title=The history of Ethiopia |edition= |language= |publisher=Greenwood Press |location=Westport, Conn |year=2007 |origyear= |pages=p171 |quote= |isbn=0-313-32273-2 |oclc= |doi= |url= http://books.google.com/books?id=3Un6_LGIEyQC&pg=PA171&dq=Frumentius+383&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=V01xSLWZCIPcswPgr7GZDg&sig=ACfU3U1AIzZMPe00XkcHofjulTxfJ3FTFg|accessdate=] He was a Syro-Phoenician Greek born in Tyre.

According to the 4th century historian Rufinus (x.9), who cites Frumentius' brother Edesius as his authority, as children (ca. 316) Frumentius and Edesius accompanied their uncle Metropius on a voyage to Ethiopia. When their ship stopped at one of the harbors of the Red Sea, people of the neighborhood massacred the whole crew, with the exception of the two boys, who were taken as slaves to the King of Axum. The two boys soon gained the favour of the king, who raised them to positions of trust, and shortly before his death, gave them their liberty. The widowed queen, however, prevailed upon them to remain at the court and assist her in the education of the young heir, Ezana, and in the administration of the kingdom during the prince's minority. They remained and (especially Frumentius) used their influence to spread Christianity. First they encouraged the Christian merchants present in the country to practise their faith openly; later they also converted some of the natives.

When Ezana came of age, Edesius returned to Tyre, where he stayed and was ordained a priest. Frumentius, on the other hand, eager for the conversion of Ethiopia, accompanied Edesius as far as Alexandria, where he requested Athanasius, Patriarch of Alexandria, to send a bishop and some priests to Ethiopia. By Athanasius' own account (Athanasius, "Epistola ad Constantinum"), he believed Frumentius the most suitable person for the job and consecrated him as bishop, traditionally in the year 328, or according to others, between 340-346. Frumentius returned to Ethiopia, erected his episcopal see at Axum, baptized King Ezana, who had meanwhile succeeded to the throne, built many churches, and spread Christianity throughout Ethiopia. The people called Frumentius "Kesate Birhan" (Revealer of Light) and "Abba Salama" (Father of Peace), and he became the first "Abune" — a title given to the head of the Ethiopian Church.

A letter exists from the Emperor Constantius II to King Ezana and his brother Saizanas, in which he vainly requested them to substitute the Arian bishop Theophilus for Frumentius.

The most recent (2004) edition of the "Roman Martyrology" succintly states, "In Aethiopia, sancti Frumentii, episcopi, qui, primum ibi captivus, deinde, episcopus a sancto Athanasio ordinatus, Evangelium in ea regione propagavit [In Ethiopia, (the feast) of Saint Frumentius, bishop, who first was a captive there, and then, as a bishop ordained by Saint Athanasius, he spread the Gospel in that region] ."

The Coptic Orthodox Church celebrates the feast of Frumentius on December 18, [ [http://www.kidusmichael.com/EthiopianChristianity.htm Date of Feast/Consecration as Bishop of Ethiopia] ] the Eastern Orthodox on November 30, and the Roman Catholic on October 27. Saint Frumentius is, however, venerated on August 1 in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=atHpI1Gqzi0C&pg=PA252&lpg=PA252&dq=frumentius+december+18&source=web&ots=gx5dNwtDf1&sig=o7WiY3yQY8lttSsW__SNsikO9tg] ] Ethiopian tradition also credits him with the first Ge'ez translation of the New Testament.

ee also

*Daniel the Stylite

References

*1911
* "Martyrologium Romanum", Editio Altera, (Citta del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2004), 401.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Frumentius — (auch Feremenatus; * in Tyrus, Syrien/Libanon; † um 383) war Apostel von Äthiopien, erster Bischof von Axum, Heiliger und Gründer der Äthiopischen Kirche. Rufinus zitiert Frumentius Bruder Aedesius, wie sie als Kinder (um 316) ihren Onkel… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • FRUMENTIUS — saint (315 env. env. 380) Au temps de l’empereur Constantin, un certain Meropios de Tyr, accompagné de ses deux disciples Frumentius et Édésius, fut, en revenant des Indes, obligé d’aborder au port d’Adoulis en Éthiopie (au sud de Massaouah).… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Frumentius — Frumentius, Apostel der Abyssinier, ein geborener Römer, gerieth als Jüngling mit seinem Oheim Metrodoros in abyssinische Gefangenschaft, wurde Diener u. Liebling des Fürsten, Erzieher von dessen Sohn Aizan u. Regierungsverweser während dessen… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Frumentĭus — Frumentĭus, Abba Salama, »Vater des Heils oder Friedens«, Apostel der Abessinier, wurde, noch jung, auf einer Handelsreise in Abessinien mit seinem Gefährten Ädesius gefangen genommen und als Sklave an den königlichen Hof gebracht, wo es ihm… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Frumentius — Frumentĭus, Apostel der Abessinier, aus Ägypten oder Phönizien, erst Sklave, dann Erzieher am königl. Hofe in Abessinien, um 326 Bischof von Axum …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • FRUMENTIUS — in India interiori Evangelium praedicavit, qui ab Athanasio ob id institutus suit Ep. Totam hanc historiam lege apud Sozom. l. 2. c. 25. et Socratem l. 1. c. 15 …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Frumentius, S. (3) — 3S. Frumentius, Ep. Apost. Aethiop. (27. Oct. al. 23. März). Um das J. 316 unternahm der christliche Philosoph (Naturforscher) Meropius von Tyrus in Phönizien eine Seereise nach dem äthiopischen Indien, um dieses noch wenig gekannte Land zu… …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

  • Frumentius — Frumence d Aksoum Frumence ou Frumentius (saint né à Tyr, mort vers 383) fut un commerçant qui, selon la légende, introduisit le christianisme en Éthiopie, en convertissant le roi Ezana. D origine syrienne et de culture grecque, il fut le premier …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Frumentius, S. (1-2) — 1–2SS. Frumentius, MM. (23. März). Vom Lat. fromentum = Getreide; also etwa Kornmann etc. – Diesen Namen trugen zwei Kaufleute, welche während der vandalischen Verfolgung unter dem arianischen Könige Hunerich zu Karthago in Afrika um ihres… …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

  • Frumentius — (fourth century)    Saint, Bishop and Missionary.    Frumentius was said to have been captured off a merchant ship by Ethiopians. He seized the opportunity to spread the gospel among his captors and was subsequently consecrated a Bishop by… …   Who’s Who in Christianity


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