- Plan of salvation
According to doctrine in several sects of the
Latter Day Saint movement, the plan of salvation (also known as the plan of happiness) is a plan that Godcreated to save, redeem, and exalt humankind. The elements of this plan are drawn from various scriptural sources, including The Bible[
Members of the
Latter Day Saint movementbelieve that the following scriptural references support the doctrines of the plan of salvation:
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/matt/13/43#43 Matthew 13:43] (Degrees of Glory) - "Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear."
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/john/14/2#2 John 14:2] (Degrees of Glory) - "In my Father's house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you."
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/2_cor/12/2#2 2 Corinthians 12:2] (Degrees of Glory) - "I knew a man in Christ above fourteen years ago, (whether in the body, I cannot tell; or whether out of the body, I cannot tell: God knoweth;) such an one caught up to the third heaven."
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/1_cor/15/40-41#40 1 Corinthians 15:40-41] (Degrees of Glory) - "There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory."
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/gen/2/4-5#4 Genesis 2:4-5] (Pre-existence) - "These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground."
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/gen/2/7#7 Genesis 2:7] - (Pre-existence) - "And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."
*( [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/job/38/4#4 Job 38:4] ) - (Pre-existence) - "Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding."
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/eccl/12/7#7 Ecclesiastes 12:7] (Pre-existence) - "Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it."
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/jer/1/5#5 Jeremiah 1:5] (Pre-existence) - "Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations."
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/zech/12/1#1 Zechariah 12:1] (Pre-existence) - "The burden of the word of the Lord for Israel, saith the Lord, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him."
* [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/heb/12/9#9 Hebrews 12:9] (Pre-existence) - "Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live?"] ,
Book of Mormon, Doctrine & Covenants, Pearl of Great Price and numerous statements made by the leadership of the LDS Church.
In the 1840s,
Joseph Smith, Jr.stated that the human spiritexisted with God before the creation of the Earth. Thus, Latter-day Saints believe in a pre-mortal existence, in which people are literally the spirit children of God. Latter-Day Saints often point to [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/jer/1/5#5 Jeremiah 1:5] as one example of evidence in the Bible for a pre-existence. In this section Jeremiah the prophet is told that the Lord knew him before He formed him in the belly and before he came out of the womb, and was sanctified and ordained to be a prophet at that time. This teaching is primarily based however upon revealed doctrine by Joseph Smith and others in the early years of his Church. Prior to the existence of spirits, some element of the human spirit, called "intelligence", existed eternally in the same sense that God existed eternally, but in a less progressed form of energy or matter. This may explain the Church's teaching that man and God are co-eternal (carefully distinguishing "co-eternal" from "equal", which is not a part of LDS doctrine). Within Mormonism God is looked upon as both creator and Heavenly Father.
During this pre-mortal existence, Heavenly Father presented the following plan to His children:
Human beings would be born on Earth. There they would receive a physical
bodynecessary to exaltation and a fullness of joy. On earth, they would be tested through trials of their faith, and be subject to mortality. A "veil" would be set in place to obscure humankind's memory of its divine origins, thus allowing for "walking by faith" and for greater freedom of choice by enabling individuals to make their own decisions. Latter-day Saints believe that only those who live good lives, prove themselves obedient to Heavenly Father's commandments, receive the ordinances of salvation, and repent of their sins will be able to return to Heavenly Father's presence (The Celestial Kingdom). However, because each human being's experiences in mortality are unique to them, every individual will be judged in accordance with the opportunities they had while living on Earth (e.g.: someone with severe psychological problems would be judged differently from someone with perfect mental health).
Integral to this Plan was freedom of choice, which Heavenly Father considered an inviolable right of all his children; every individual would have opportunities to make certain choices that would determine the course of their life on Earth and in the . No human would ever have their agency taken away in an attempt to force righteous behavior. People would be free to do evil and good, both to themselves and to those around them. Because such freedom would make it possible for Heavenly Father's children to break commandments and sin, a Savior would be needed to offer them freedom from the just consequences of their sins and allow them to
Repent: this figure would have to overcome both sin and death, making it possible for obedient and repentant individuals to return to Heavenly Father's presence through a plan of mercy. The pre-mortal Jesus Christ, then known as Jehovah, volunteered to be this Savior, agreeing to take upon himself infinite suffering for every sin, mistake, and all pain and suffering ever to be experienced throughout all time by all of God's children. He also agreed to die and be resurrected, thus making it possible for ALL individuals (obedient or not) to be resurrected. The Holy Spiritwould be sent to encourage righteous behavior and guide human beings towards Jesus Christ and Heavenly Father, but would never interfere with the free exercise of human agency.
Also part of the plan was a foreordination of prophets and teachers who would have gifts and callings among men to teach and re-teach correct principles so that agency could be used wisely. [ [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/jer/1/5#5 Jeremiah 1:5] ;
The Pearl of Great Price[http://scriptures.lds.org/en/abr/3/23#23 Abraham 3:23] ] Heavenly Father stressed the important role parents would have to teach their children the path of righteousness and happiness [ [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/deut/6/7#7 Deuteronomy 6:7] ] , and the blessingof the holy scriptures that would give a foundation of gospelknowledge, including the knowledge of the saving role of Jesus Christ and the importance of ordinances and covenants in the gospel.
As the plan was explained, God's spirit children also understood that full gospel truth could be lost on the earth as men and women could choose against living by the truth at any point, and could devise other beliefs and ways to live that would be appealing to the natural mind. Yet they also understood that there would be opportunities before the final judgment for every child of God to hear of Jesus Christ and to either accept Him or reject Him.
Latter-day Saints believe that this plan ordained by Heavenly Father was not contrived arbitrarily, but was designed based on eternal truths to allow for the greatest possible progress toward a fullness of joy, happiness and love for the greatest number of His spirit children. He loves each of them unconditionally and desires that they progress, knowing that this leads to greater happiness and a potential fullness of joy.
War in Heaven
After Heavenly Father presented this plan,
Lucifervolunteered to save mankind by taking away man's agency. Nobody would be "able" to fail the test and so, Lucifer claimed, everyone would be able to return to the presence of Heavenly Father. As recompense for the implementation of his plan, Lucifer demanded that the power and the glory which Heavenly Father possessed be transferred to him, effectively making him "God." However, as Lucifer alone would have complete freedom of choice under his plan, no other spirit could achieve exaltation. Heavenly Father countered that this would make the test worthless, and knew Lucifer sought only power and glory for himself - as a result he rejected Lucifer's plan.
Enraged, Lucifer chose to rebel against Heavenly Father and rallied to him "a third part" of Heavenly Father's children who also preferred Lucifer's plan. The two factions warred, and Lucifer and his followers were cast out of Heaven;
Luciferbecame Satan, and those who followed him became fallen, and his servants [ [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/rev/12/7-9#7 Revelations 12:7-9] ] . They were denied the right to have their own physical bodies (and, consequently, the ability to procreate) but were not affected by the "veil". Latter-Day Saints believe that Satan and his servants have since sought to undo or counteract Heavenly Father's plan by tempting mortal individuals to evil actions, gaining power over them and their bodies, and by attempting to restrict their freedom of choice by whatever means possible.
Latter-day Saint beliefs include the general Christian belief in a
Spirit Worldbetween death and the resurrection. They believe that they will pass through the "veil of forgetfulness" again before they are judged thereafter, therefore gaining a remembrance of their pre-mortal existence, and that the spirits of all of mankind continue to prepare for judgment day and their eventual resurrection where they will receive a reward according to their faith and works. They believe that righteous individuals continue to proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ in the Spirit World, teaching others and offering them the opportunity to accept Jesus Christ as their Saviour and follow Heavenly Father's plan.
The Latter-day Saints believe that the final judgment of mankind will occur after the final resurrection, and that Jesus Christ is ultimately the Judge of all men. Joseph Smith taught:
Another description of the benevolence of the final judgment was presented by President
George Q. Cannonof the First Presidency of the LDS Church in 1884:
Unlike Nicene Christianity, Latter-day Saints believe that the scriptures teach of multiple types or levels of salvation:
Immortality" is explained as a gift freely given to everyone, made possible by Jesus' death and resurrection. [See lds|1 Corinthians] | 1_cor 15|22] ] The church teaches that "The spirit and the body shall be reunited again in its perfect form...even as we now are at this time. ...This restoration shall come to all, both old and young, both bond and free, both male and female, both the wicked and the righteous; and even there shall not so much as a hair of their heads be lost; but every thing shall be restored to its perfect frame." [lds| Alma|alma|11|43|44]
*After everyone has been resurrected, all will be judged by
Jesus Christ. As part of this judgment, each person is assigned to one of three heavenly kingdoms (sometimes called Degrees of Glory): the Celestial Kingdom, [See lds|Romans|rom|8|17] the Terrestrial Kingdom, [lds|D&C|dc|76|74] and the Telestial Kingdom. [lds|D&C|dc|76|110] [See also [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/1_cor/15/40#40 1 Corinthians 15:40] and [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/2_cor/12/2#2 2 Corinthians 12:2] ] . The kingdom within heaven for which each person has qualified is conditional upon acceptance of, and true faith in, Jesus Christ as the Saviorand Redeemerof mankind - this is demonstrated through baptism and obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel, including repentance.
*In order to achieve "eternal life", the highest quality and happiest of the degrees of salvation, one must enter into the Celestial Kingdom.
Each level of salvation as explained above relies upon Christ's grace through His infinite
atonement, and is conditional upon each person's eventual acceptance of Jesus Christ as their personal Savior from the consequence of sinand spiritual death. Through His physical and spiritual suffering in the Garden of Gethsemaneand on the cross, He makes it possible for each person to be made clean from the metaphorical stains of human imperfections, and justifies and sanctifies each righteous person for admission into the glory that they have merited as they come unto Him with "full purpose of heart." [ [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/2_ne/contents 2 Nephi] [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/2_ne/9 9] & [http://scriptures.lds.org/en/2_ne/31 31] ]
Outer Darkness" is reserved for those very few people who, after gaining a full knowledge of the Gospel, willfully deny and contend against the Holy Ghost. These individuals who inherit no glory are called Sons of Perdition. Although resurrected, and thus immortal, they willfully rebelled and rejected the right to salvation. [Doxey, Roy W, Doctrine and Covenants Speaks, 1970, Ch. 2]
Latter-day Saints believe following the plan of salvation entails obedience to God's commandments. This includes: active faith through emulation of Jesus Christ and adherence to His teachings; worship of God the Father, and of Jesus as the
Messiah/ Christand Son of God; constant repentance and abandonment of sinful practices; teaching the Gospelof Jesus Christ to others to aid in their eternal progress; enjoyment of and gratitude for the blessings available to human beings throughout their mortal existences; and resistance to the influence of Satan and his servants.
Latter-day Saints believe that loving kindness, compassion and mercy toward other human beings are integral to the plan, and are an essential part of the growth that human beings experience in this life. Charitable work and relief aid are similarly vital; Latter-day Saints are encouraged to fast for two meals once a month and donate (at least) the cost of those meals as "
fast offerings" for support and aid of local members suffering from financial difficulties. Money is also donated to sectarian, non-denominational and secular relief agencies world-wide, and many Latter-day Saints volunteer at soup kitchens, homeless shelters and blood drives, among other things. Latter-day Saints youth organizations frequently include community service among their regular activities in an effort to encourage application of the Christian principles inherent in the plan of salvation.
It is important to note that, as part of the plan, those who are incapable of understanding the consequences of their actions, or who cannot control themselves, or otherwise cannot exercise free will are not held accountable for their actions. They are considered "innocents". Thus children who die before they reach "the age of accountability" (in practice, eight years of age) are automatically saved; because they could not understand God's laws or make choices accordingly, they could not truly sin. Similarly, individuals with severe mental handicaps may be considered innocent.
Agency & Theodicy
Additionally, the concept of
free willin the plan of salvation (usually referred to as "agency" or "free agency" by Latter-day Saints) is the basis of Latter-day Saint theodicy. God will not force anyone to obey His laws. Latter-Day Saints believe that, were God to automatically protect the righteous in every instance, people would be universally frustrated in their attempts to sin, thus effectively removing any true opportunity to exercise agency. An individual's sinful act may have tragic consequences for others, but Heavenly Father will still not deny any individual their freedom to choose good or evil. Latter-day Saints understand that, as a consequence, "bad things" may happen to "good people." A good person may, for example, be killed by another individual who chose to drive recklessly or while intoxicated; infectious diseases may be spread by a lack of attention to detail in sterilization procedures; bad people may choose to steal the possessions or oppress good people; etc. In the end, it is all seen as part of the Divine plan in which all humanity is given the chance to decide their own courses of action in mortality and in the hereafter.
Hypothesized influence of Emanuel Swedenborg
D. Michael Quinnin his book "Early Mormonism and the Magic World View", has speculated that various parts of the plan of salvation were taken by Joseph Smith, Jr.from Emanuel Swedenborg's book "Heaven and Hell". In the book, Swedenborg wrote that "There are three heavens" that are "entirely distinct from each other."Fact|date=July 2007 He called the highest heaven "the Celestial Kingdom,"Fact|date=July 2008 and stated that the inhabitants of the three heavens corresponded to the "sun, moon and stars."Fact|date=July 2007 Swedenborg's book also mentions a veil, spirit prisonand celestial marriage.Fact|date=July 2007
Quinn further argues that the book was available to Smith, and that he was familiar with it. One account claims that Smith told Latter Day Saint convert Edward Hunter that "Emanuel Swedenborg had a view of the world to come, but for daily food he perished."Fact|date=July 2007 Additionally, Quinn asserts that the book was in the Palmyra public library (Joseph Smith's hometown) beginning in
1817, and that " [n] ine miles from Smith's farm, in 1826 the Canandaigua newspaper also advertised Swedenborg's book for sale. The bookstore offered Swedenborg's publications for as little as 37 cents."Fact|date=July 2007
* Joseph Fielding Smith, The Way to Perfection, 1949.
* Alvin R. Dyer, Who Am I, 1966.
* Joseph Fielding McConkie, Straight forward Answers to Tough Gospel Questions, 1998, p. 96 (Chapter 6).
* Joseph Fielding Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 1976, p. 310.
* [http://salvation.scottsworld.info/theplans.htm Plan of Salvation explained with illustration and scriptures]
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