- Calendar reform
A calendar reform is any significant revision of a
calendarsystem. The term sometimes is used instead for a proposal to switch to a different calendar.
Most calendars have several rules which could be altered by reform:
* Grouping of days of the year into
months, weeks, or other subdivisions, and days outside those subdivions, if any.
* Which years are
leap years and common years and how they differ.
* Numbering of years, selection of the epoch, and the issue of
* Start of the year (such as winter
solstice, 1 January, 1 March, spring equinox, Easter).
* Start of the week (usually Sunday or Monday, sometimes Saturday).
* Start of the day (midnight, sunrise, noon, or sunset).
* Naming of months, days, and special days and periods (such as leap day or intercalary day).
* Alignment with religious and economic cycles.
* Alignment with recurring astronomic phenomena.
* Literal notation of dates.
Historically, most calendar reforms have been made in order to synchronize the calendar in use with the astronomical year (either solar or sidereal) and/or the synodic month in lunar or
lunisolar calendars.Most reforms for calendars have been to make them more accurate.This has happened to various lunar and lunisolar calendars, and also the Julian calendar when it was modified into the Gregorian calendar.
Reform of lunar and lunisolar calendars
There have been 50 to 100 reforms of the traditional
Chinese calendarover 2500 years, most of which were intended to better fit the calendar months to astronomical lunations and to more accurately add the extra month so that the regular months maintain their proper seasonal positions, even though each seasonal marker can occur anywhere within its month. There have been at least four similar reforms of the lunisolar version of the Hindu calendar, all intended to make the month a better match to the lunation and to make the year a better fit to the "sidereal" year. There have been reforms of the 'solar' version of the Hindu calendar which changed the distribution of the days in each month to better match the length of time that the Sun spends in each "sidereal" zodiacal sign. The same applies to the Buddhist calendar.The first millennium reform of the Hebrew calendarchanged it from an observational calendar into a calculated calendar. The Islamic calendarwas a reform of the preceding lunisolar calendar which utterly divorced it from the solar year.
At the time when
Julius Caesartook power in Rome, the Roman calendarhad ceased to reflect the year accurately. The provision of adding an intercalarymonth to the year when needed had not been applied consistently, because it affected the length of terms of office.
The Julian reform lengthened the months (except February, owing to its religious significance) and provided for an
intercalaryday to be added every four years to February, creating a leap year.
This produced a noticeably more accurate calendar, but it was based on the calculation of a year as 365 days and 6 hours (365.25 d). In fact, the
tropical yearis 11 minutes and 14 seconds less than that. This had the effect of adding three-quarters of an hour every four years, and the effect accumulated. By the sixteenth century, the vernal equinox fell on March 10.
Pope Gregory XIIIthe leap rule was altered: century years, which are divisible by four, would not be leap years unless they are also divisible by 400. This makes the mean year 365.2425 days (365 d, 5 h, 49 min, 12 s) long. While this does not synchronize the years entirely, it would require 35 centuries to accumulate a day. This new calendar was synchronized with the traditional seasons again and was not applied to dates in the past, which caused a leap of at least ten days from the final day the Julian calendar was in effect. This reform slowly spread through the nations that used the Julian calendar, although the Russian church year still uses the Julian calendar. The times varied so widely that some countries had to drop more than ten days: Great Britain, for instance, dropped eleven.
When noting dates occurring within the period, "Old Style" and "New Style" are used to distinguish which calendar was used by the person who recorded the date.
Gregorian calendaris currently used by most of the world. There is also an international standard describing the calendar, ISO 8601, with some differences to traditional conceptions in many cultures.
Since the last papal reform, several proposals have been offered to make the Western calendar more useful or regular. Very few reforms, such as the rather different decimal French Republican calendar, had gained official acceptance, but was repealed shortly after its introduction. After World War II the new-formed
United Nationscontinued efforts of its predecessor, the League of Nations, to establish a new calendar but postponed the issue after a veto from the USA, which was mainly based upon concerns of religious groups about the proposed days out of the week cycle. Independently the World Council of Churchesstill tries to find a common rule for the date of Easter, [ [http://www.oikoumene.org/en/resources/documents/wcc-commissions/faith-and-order-commission/i-unity-the-church-and-its-mission/towards-a-common-date-for-easter/towards-a-common-date-for-easter.html Towards a Common Date of Easter] ] which might be eased by a new common calendar.Reformers cite several problems with the Gregorian calendar:
* It is not perpetual. Each year starts on a different day of the week and calendars expire every year.
* It is difficult to determine the weekday of any given day of the year or month.
* Months are not equal in length nor regularly distributed across the year, requiring
mnemonics (e.g. “ Thirty days hath September…”) to remember which month is 28, 29, 30 or 31 days long.
* The year’s four quarters (of three full months each) are not equal.
Business quarters that are equal would make accounting easier.
* Its epoch (origin) is not religiously neutral. The same applies to
monthand weekdaynames in many languages.
* Each month has no connection with the
lunar phases.It is impossible to solve all these issues in just one calendar.
Most plans evolve around the solar year of little more than 365 days. This number does not divide well by seven or twelve, which are the traditional numbers of days per week and months per year respectively. The nearby numbers 360, 364 and 366 are divisible in better ways. There are also lunar centric proposals.
Many calendar reforms have offered solutions to make the calendar perpetual. These reforms would make it easy to work out the day of
weekof a particular date, and would make changing calendars each year unnecessary.There are, roughly speaking, two options to achieve this goal: leap week calendars and intercalary days.Both make it easier to work out the day of week by having exactly 52 weeks in each year. The former add a whole 53rd week every five or six years, the latter have an extra day not belonging to any week and two such in leap years. Proposals mainly differ in their selection of a leap rule, placing of the leap item (usually middle or end of the year), in the start day of the week and year, in the number (12 or 13) and size of months and in connected naming; some are compatible to the week dateof ISO 8601.
World Calendar, favored by the UN in the 1950s, and the International Fixed Calendar, quite popular among economists between the World Wars, are proposals that start each year on a Sunday. The remaining 364 days then form 52 weeks of 7 days. The World Calendar has every third month beginning on the same day of week.In the World Calendar, the 365th and 366th day are considered holidays and named Worlds Day and Leap Year Day. These “off-calendar” days stand outside the seven-day week and caused some religious groups to strongly oppose adoption of The World Calendar. Such concerns helped prevent the World Calendar from being adopted. Supporters of the World Calendar, however, argue that the religious groups’ opposition overlooked every individual’s right to celebrate these holidays as extra days of worship, or s. This option, they reason, maintained the seven-day worship cycle for those who share that concern, while allowing benefits of a perpetual calendar to be shared by all. Leap week calendars add a leap week of seven days to the calendar every five or six years to keep the calendar roughly in step with the tropical year. They have years of either 364 days (52 weeks) or 371 days (53 weeks), thus preserving the 7-day week.
Some calendars have quarters of regularly patterned uneven months e.g. a 35 day (five week) month and a pair of 28 day (four week) months, with a leap week appended to the final month when needed. The Common Civil Calendar and Time calendar has months of 30 and 31 days, but inserts a leap week in the middle of the year, when needed.
The 53-week calendar, used in government and in business for
fiscal years, is a variant of this concept. Each year of this calendar can be up to 371 days long.
Still other proposals abandon attempts to make the calendar perpetual, instead opting for eleven 30-day months and one long month at the end of 35 (or 36) days.
Some calendar reformers seek to equalize the length of each month in the year. This is often accomplished by creating a calendar that has 13 months of 4 weeks (28 days) each, making 364 days.
An early 13-month proposal was the 1849
Positivist calendar, created by Auguste Comte. It was based on a 364-day year which included one or two “blank” days. Each of the 13 months had 28 days and exactly four weeks, and each started on a Monday. The International Fixed Calendaris a more modern descendant of this calendar.
Some proposals add one or two days to the calendar each year to account for the annual solar cycle, while others keep these days off the calendar entirely, to make the calendar perpetual.
Around 1930 Colligan invented the
Pax Calendar, which avoids off-calendar days by adding a 7-day leap week to the perpetual 364-day year for 71 out of 400 years.
Dividing the years into 52 weeks creates 13 months of 28 days (4 weeks), and 4 quarters of 91 days (13 weeks). This creates months and quarters of fixed, even duration, but not quarters containing a whole number of months.
Lunisolar calendars usually have 12 or 13 months of 29 or 30 days.
Some propose to improve leap rules of existing calendars, such as the
Hebrew calendar. The Rectified Hebrew calendaruses a more accurate leap cycle of 4366 months per 353-year cycle, with 130 leap years per cycle, and a progressively shorter " molad" interval, intended to replace the 19-year leap cycle and the constant "molad" interval of the traditional fixed arithmetic Hebrew calendar, respectively.
Calendar proposals that introduce a thirteenth month or change the Julian-Gregorian system of months often also propose new names for these months. New names have also been proposed for days out of the week cycle (e.g. 365th and leap) and weeks out of the month cycle.
Proposals to change the traditional month and weekday names are less frequent. The Gregorian calendar obtains its names mostly from gods of historical religions (e.g.
Thursdayfrom Nordic Thoror Marchfrom Roman Mars) or leaders of vanished empires ( Julyand Augustfrom the first Cæsars), or ordinals that got out of synchronization (September through December, originally seventh through tenth, now ninth through twelfth).
Calendar reformers, therefore, seek to correct what they see as deficiencies by focusing on more homogeneous sets of individuals, who usually share common traits.
Positivist calendar, for example, proposed naming the 13 months in his calendar after figures from religion, literature, philosophy and science.Similarly, the Hermetic Lunar Week Calendaruses 12 or 13 lunar months named after 13 pioneers in contributors to research for physioactive plants and chemicals.The Simple Lunisolar Calendarnames its months after the letters of the Greek alphabet.
Otherswho have suggested, more generally, to reuse an existing 13 × 4 naming system. The one found is
playing cards. Thus either months are numbered Ace, Two through Ten, Jack, Queen and King with four weeks each, named after the four suits (♣♠♥♦); or the roles are reversed if the calendar has four quarters with thirteen weeks each. Leap days or weeks are assigned the Joker. This system has internationalisation problems, though, because even where the 52-card deck is known, the order of suits may vary. Also the contemporary roman alphabethas 26 letters, which could be used, together with a further binary indicator, as keys for 52 weeks.
Year 1 of the
Holocene calendaris at 10,000 BCE.
Calculating the day of the week
* Specific proposals
** [http://personal.ecu.edu/mccartyr/calendar-reform.html Calendar Reform by Rick McCarty]
** [http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/calendarDir/calendar.reform.html C&T calendar home page]
** [http://jimeikner.googlepages.com/calendar The 13-Month Sol Calendar]
** [http://www.newearthcalendar.com/ The New Earth Calendar] (13-month calendar)
** [http://theabysmal.wordpress.com/calendar-reform-synaptic-synopsis/ The Abysmal Calendar (formerly Synaptic)] (13-month calendar)
** [http://CalendarPetin-Meton.narod.ru/index.htm The PETIN-METON Calendar]
** [https://hopkinsnet.jhu.edu/servlet/page?_pageid=1794&_dad=portal30p&_schema=PORTAL30P Johns Hopkins press release on C&T]
** [http://www.go2zero.com/rwc/rwc.html Bob McClennon's Refomed Weekly Calendar] (Leap week rule has a drafting error)
** [http://www.sym454.org/ The Symmetry454 Calendar home page]
** [http://www.sym454.org/hebrew/ The Rectified Hebrew Calendar home page]
** [http://www.30x11.com The 30x11 Calendar home page]
** [http://www.mithrandir.com/Tranquility/tranquility.html Tranquility Calendar] (13-month calendar)
** [http://www.geocities.com/peacecrusader888/calendaridx.htm Aristean Calendar]
** [http://www.kluznick.com/Calendar.html The Kluznickian Calendar] (13 months)
** [http://www.calendarzone.com/Reform/ Calendar Zone Reform Calendars]
** [http://www.calendarsociety.org A New Calendar - options for calendar reform]
** [http://www.hermetic.ch/cal_stud/palmen/lweek1.htm Leap week calendars] in which each year has either 364 or 371 days
** [http://www.tortuga.com/eng/ The 13-Moon Change movement]
** [http://www.sym454.org/seasons/ The Lengths of the Seasons] (numerical integration analysis)
** [http://www.sym454.org/lunar/ The Length of the Lunar Cycle] (numerical integration analysis)
** [http://www.sym454.org/leap/ Solar Calendar Leap Rules] (astronomical evaluations)
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03168a.htm "Catholic Encyclopedia" "Reform of the Calendar"] Historical information
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
CALENDAR REFORM — Attempts at calendar reform have been prompted by two desires: to achieve a closer synchronization of the civil year of 365 days with the astronomic fact that the earth revolves around the sun in nearly 365¼ days, and to make a symmetrical… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Calendar, Reform of the — • Such alterations were too obvious to be ignored, and throughout the Middle Ages many observers both pointed them out and endeavoured to devise a remedy Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Reform of the date of Easter — has been proposed several times because the current system for determining the date of Easter is seen as presenting two significant problems: Its date varies from year to year (by the Western system of calculation, it can fall on any of 35… … Wikipedia
Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 — Parliament of Great Britain Long title An Act for Regulating the Commencement of the Year; and for Correcting the Calendar now in Use Statute book chapter 1 … Wikipedia
Reform of the Calendar — Reform of the Calendar † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Reform of the Calendar For the measurement of time the most important units furnished by natural phenomena are the Day and the Year. In regard of both, it is convenient and usual to… … Catholic encyclopedia
calendar — calendrical /keuh len dri keuhl/, calendric, calendarial /kal euhn dair ee euhl/, calendarian, calendaric, adj. /kal euhn deuhr/, n. 1. a table or register with the days of each month and week in a year: He marked the date on his calendar. 2. any … Universalium
Calendar — For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation). For the Gregorian calendar for this year, see Common year starting on Saturday. A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial,… … Wikipedia
Calendar era — A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar. For example, the Gregorian calendar numbers its years in the Western Christian era (the Coptic and Ethiopic churches have their own Christian eras, see below). The instant, date, or… … Wikipedia
Calendar year — Generally speaking, a calendar year begins on the New Year s Day of the given calendar system and ends on the day before the following New Year s Day. By convention, a calendar year consists of a natural number of days. To reconcile the calendar… … Wikipedia
Reform of the Roman Breviary — Reform of the Roman Breviary † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Reform of the Roman Breviary By the Apostolic Constitution Divino Afflatu of Pius X (1 November, 1911), a change was made in the psalter of the Roman Breviary. Instead of printing … Catholic encyclopedia