Feu


Feu

Feu was previously the most common form of land tenure in Scotland, as conveyancing in Scots law was dominated by feudalism until the Scottish Parliament passed the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000. [Section 1: "The feudal system of land tenure, that is to say the entire system whereby land is held by a vassal on perpetual tenure from a superior is, on the appointed day, abolished.": cite web | title=Definition of Feu | url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/legislation/scotland/acts2000/asp_20000005_en_2#pt1-l1g3 | publisher=Office of Public Sector Information | accessdate=2007-12-02] The word is the Scots variant of fee. ["FEU: ("Scots Law") A free and gratuitous right to lands made to one for service to be performed by him; a tenure where the vassal, in place of military services, makes a return in grain or in money.": cite web | title=Definition of Feu | url=http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Feu | publisher=TheFreeDictionary.com | accessdate=2007-12-02]

History

Prior to 1832 only the vassals of the crown had votes in parliamentary elections for the Scots counties, and this made in favour of subinfeudation as against sale outright. This was changed by the Scottish Reform Act 1832 which increased the franchise in Scotland from 4,500 to 64,447 ["The first Reform Act has increased the electorate of Scotland fourteen-fold from 4,500 to 64,447. The number of adult males who can vote is one in eight, compared to one in five in England, and one in 125 in Scotland before the Reform Act. Scotland's representation rises from 45 to 53.": cite web | title=From the first Reform Act until the enfranchisement of women: 1832 - 1918 | url=http://www.alba.org.uk/timeline/1832to1918.html | publisher= [http://www.alba.org.uk/ Scottish Politics by Alba Publishing] | accessdate=2007-12-02]

In Orkney and Shetland land is still largely possessed as udal property, a holding derived or handed down from the time when these islands belonged to Norway. ["Ancient Norse Udal land rights are still valid in the islands - very much so. In the 19th century the Chancellor of the Exchequer came up against Udal law and lost.": cite web | title=Norse landing | url=http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/s2.cfm?id=220792003 | publisher=The Scotsman | accessdate=2007-12-02] Such lands could previously be converted into feus at the will of the proprietor and held from the Crown or the Marquess of Zetland.

At one time the system of conveyancing by which the transfer of feus was effected was curious and complicated, requiring the presence of parties on the land itself and the symbolical handing over of the property (for example, by throwing a shoe onto the dirt) together with the registration of various documents. However, legislation since the middle of the 19th century has changed all that.Fact|date=December 2007 The system of feuing in Scotland, as contrasted with that of long leaseholds in England, tended to secure greater solidity and firmness in the average buildings of the northern country.Fact|date=December 2007

Various reforms were attempted before feu was eventually abolished by the "Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. (Scotland) Act 2000".

In feu holding there is a substantial annual payment in money or in kind in return for the enjoyment of the land. The crown is the first overlord or superior, and land is held of it by crown vassals, but they in their turn may feu their land, as it is called, to others who become their vassals, whilst they themselves are mediate overlords or superiors; and this process of sub-infeudation may be repeated to an indefinite extent. The Conveyancing (Scotland) Act 1874 rendered any clause in a disposition against subinfeudation null and void. [Full text of the act: cite web | title=Conveyancing (Scotland) Act 1874 | url=http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk/legResults.aspx?LegType=All+Legislation&Year=1874&searchEnacted=0&extentMatchOnly=0&confersPower=0&blanketAmendment=0&TYPE=QS&NavFrom=0&activeTextDocId=1079717&PageNumber=1&SortAlpha=0 | publisher=UK Statute Law Database | accessdate=2007-12-02]

Casualties, which are a feature of land held in feu, are certain payments made to the superior, contingent on the happening of certain events. The most important was the payment of an amount equal to one years feu-duty by a new holder, whether heir or purchaser of the feu. The Conveyancing Act of 1874 abolished casualties in all feus after that date, and power was given to redeem this burden on feus already existing. If the vassal does not pay the feu-duty for two years, the superior, among other remedies, may obtain by legal process a decree of irritancy, whereupon tinsel or forfeiture of the feu follows.

Types of tenure

There have been other forms of tenure:
#"Booking" is a conveyance peculiar to the burgh of Paisley but does not differ essentially from feu. ["BOOKING, tenure of, system of land tenure in Paisley burgh necessitating an entry on the burgh register": cite web | title=Glossary of Scots terms (B) | url=http://pagesperso-orange.fr/euroleader/wedderburn/glossaryB.htm | publisher= [http://pagesperso-orange.fr/euroleader/wedderburn/index.htm Wedderburn Family Site] | accessdate=2007-12-02]
#"Burgage" is the system by which land is held in Royal Burghs. ["BURGAGE, burgh law. 2. form of tenure under which land in a Royal Burgh is held by the king (or the land itself)": (ibid.)]
#"Blench holding" is by a nominal payment, as of a penny Scots, or a red rose, often only to be rendered upon demand. ["BLENCH FERME (also blench-duty), mode of land-tenure, a nominal or peppercorn rent ; cp. Blanch rent, or Free blench. Blench holding, the holding of land under this system of tenure": (ibid.)]
#"Ward", the original military holding, was abolished in 1747 (20 G. II. c. 20), as an effect of the rising of 1745. ["WARD, (waird), feudal land tenure rights conferred through military service obligations of tenants.": cite web | title=Glossary of Scots terms (W) | url=http://pagesperso-orange.fr/euroleader/wedderburn/glossaryW.htm | publisher= [http://pagesperso-orange.fr/euroleader/wedderburn/index.htm Wedderburn Family Site] | accessdate=2007-12-02]

Other jurisdictions

In England the statute Quia Emptores, passed in 1290, made subinfeudation impossible, as the new holder simply effaces the grantor, holding by the same title as the grantor himself.
#Socage [Socage was the tenure used in England during feudal times for farmers. ] has long disappeared, as has
#Mortification.

References

*1911

ee also

*Fee simple
*Fee tail
*Feoffee
*Forfeiture
*Trespass for mesne profits


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  • feu — 1. (feu) s. m. 1°   Développement de chaleur et de lumière. 2°   Calorique. 3°   Chez les anciens, un des quatre éléments. 4°   Objet de culte. 5°   Feu central du globe. 6°   Incendie ; embrasement. 7°   Toute matière combustible allumée.… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • feu — Feu, m. Ignis, Aucuns le veulent escrire par oe diphthongue, foeu, comme venant de Focus, Il vient de {{t=g}}phôs,{{/t}} mot Grec qui signifie lumiere, et en vulgaire Grec, Feu. Prendre les oiseaux de riviere par nuict au feu, c est à dire, avec… …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • feu — feu·ar; feu; feu·dal·ism; feu·dal·ist; feu·dal·is·tic; feu·dal·i·ty; feu·dal·iza·tion; feu·dal·ize; feu·dal·ly; feu·da·to·ri·al; feu·dum; feu·er·bach·i·an; in·feu·da·tion; sub·in·feu·date; feu·dal; feu·da·tary; feu·da·to·ry; sub·feu; …   English syllables

  • feu — In Scotland, a manner of ownership. A feu interest in land gives the owner (feuar) an equivalent of a freehold title subject to payment of any annual feu duties and compliance with title conditions. Related links feudal superior dominium plenum …   Law dictionary

  • Feu — (f[=u]), n. [See 2d {Feud}, and {Fee}.] (Scots Law) A free and gratuitous right to lands made to one for service to be performed by him; a tenure where the vassal, in place of military services, makes a return in grain or in money. Burrill. [1913 …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • FEU — steht als Abkürzung für: Federación Estudiantil Universitaria, die Föderation kubanischer Universitätsstudenten den ehemaligen Landkreis Feuchtwangen in Bayern, z. B. im Kfz Kennzeichen Forty foot Equivalent Unit, siehe ISO Container Federation… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • feu — [fyo͞o] n. 〚Scot for FEE〛 Scot. Law 1. Historical a right to hold land for which the holder must pay in grain or money rather than in military service 2. a right to use land in perpetuity for a fixed annual payment 3 …   Universalium

  • FEU — UK US noun [C] MEASURES, TRANSPORT ► ABBREVIATION for forty foot equivalent unit: a unit for measuring goods transported on ships in containers (= very large metal boxes). One FEU is equal to 25 metric tons or 72 cubic metres …   Financial and business terms

  • feu — [fyo͞o] n. [Scot for FEE] Scot. Law 1. Historical a right to hold land for which the holder must pay in grain or money rather than in military service 2. a right to use land in perpetuity for a fixed annual payment 3. the land so held or used vt …   English World dictionary

  • Feu ! — ● Feu ! commandement marquant le début d un tir …   Encyclopédie Universelle


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