Operation Defensive Shield


Operation Defensive Shield
Operation Defensive Shield
Part of the Second Intifada
Ramallah 2002.jpg
Israeli tanks in Ramallah
Date 29 March–3 May 2002
Location West Bank
Result Israeli success; subsequent launching of Operation Determined Path
Belligerents
 Israel (IDF) Palestinian territories Fatah (Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades & Tanzim)
Flag of Hamas.svg Hamas
Islamic Jihad
Palestinian National Authority COA.svg Preventive Security Service
Commanders and leaders
Shaul Mofaz
Itzhak Eitan
Yasser Arafat
Mahmoud Tawalbe 
Strength
20,000 10,000
Casualties and losses
30 killed
127 wounded[1]
240 killed[2]
400 wounded[3][4]
4,258 detained[3][4]

Operation Defensive Shield (Hebrew: מבצע חומת מגן‎, Mivtza Homat Magen, lit. "Operation Defensive Wall") was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israel Defense Forces in 2002, during the course of the Second Intifada. It was the largest military operation in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War. The operation was an attempt by the Israeli army to stop the increasing deaths from terrorist attacks, especially in suicide bombings. The spark that gave rise to the action was the March 27 suicide bombing at a hotel in the Israeli resort city of Netanya. A Palestinian suicide bomber detonated himself amongst a crowd during Passover seder at the Park Hotel, killing 30 mostly elderly vacationers. The attack became known as the Passover Massacre.[5]

Operation Defensive Shield began on March 29, 2002, with an incursion into Ramallah placing Yasser Arafat under siege in his Ramallah compound, followed by incursions into the six largest cities in the West Bank, and their surrounding localities.[6] The Israel Defense Forces invaded Tulkarm and Qalqilya on April 1, Bethlehem the next day, Jenin and Nablus the next. From April 3–21, the period was characterized by strict curfews on civilian populations and restrictions of movement of international personnel, including at times prohibition of entry to humanitarian and medical personnel as well as human rights monitors and journalists.[7]

The UN report on the subject says, "Combatants on both sides conducted themselves in ways that, at times, placed civilians in harm's way. Much of the fighting during Operation Defensive Shield occurred in areas heavily populated by civilians and in many cases heavy weaponry was used."[7]

Contents

Background

The cycle of violence between Israelis and Palestinians escalated during the Second Intifada.[8] March and April 2002 saw a dramatic increase in suicide bomb attacks against Israelis by Palestinian militant groups such as Hamas, Islamic Jihad and the Fatah-affiliated Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades.[8][9][10]

The first wave of Israeli incursions began on 27 February through to 14 March, causing significant civilian loss of life.[8] Following nine attacks by Palestinian militants between March 2–5, the Israeli cabinet decided to massively expand its military activity against these groups. On March 5, while talking with reporters in the Knesset cafeteria, Sharon, pointing to the bloodiest week against Israelis since the start of the Second Intifada, explained the cabinet's decision: "The Palestinians must be hit, and it must be very painful... We must cause them losses, victims, so that they feel a heavy price."[11][12]

Suicide bombings continued, with attacks on 9 March (see Café Moment bombing),[13] and 20 March.[14] A larger attack on 27 March, known as the Passover massacre, in which 30 Israeli civilians were killed, prompted the Israeli government to announce Operation Defensive Shield on March 29, deploying the IDF in a second wave of incursions into the West Bank in what it termed a large-scale counter-terrorist offensive.[8][15][16] The Israel Defense Forces issued emergency call-up notices for 30,000 reserve soldiers, the largest call-up since the 1982 Lebanon War.[17][18]

Overall, in March 2002, some 130 Israelis including approximately 100 noncombatants were killed by Palestinians, while a total of 238 Palestinians including at least 83 noncombatants were killed in the same month by the IDF.[15][19][20]

Stated goals

The stated goals of the operation (as conveyed to the Israeli Knesset by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon on April 8, 2002) were to "to catch and arrest terrorists and, primarily, their dispatchers and those who finance and support them; to confiscate weapons intended to be used against Israeli citizens; to expose and destroy facilities and explosives, laboratories, weapons production factories and secret installations. The orders are clear: target and paralyze anyone who takes up weapons and tries to oppose our troops, resists them or endangers them - and to avoid harming the civilian population." IDF officers also noted that incursions would force Palestinian militants "to exert their energy by defending their homes in the camps instead of by plotting attacks on Israelis."[12]

The Palestinian attachment to the UN report on Operation Defensive Shield challenged the validity of the Israeli claim that it was targeting "terrorists," noting that, "[...] the record shows clearly that the nature of the actions taken, the amount of harm inflicted on the population and the practical results prove completely different political goals [...] the Israeli occupying forces have consistently targeted the Palestinian police and security forces, instead of 'terrorists', and have consistently tried to destroy the Palestinian Authority and declared it an 'enemy', instead of groups hostile to peace in the Middle East."[8]

The operation

Operation Defensive Shield was announced on March 29, but it is widely-assumed preparations began nearly a month before. In early April, the IDF was conducting major military operations inside all Palestinian cities, but the majority of the fighting ere centered on Bethlehem, Jenin, Nablus, and Ramallah. Over 20,000 Israeli reservists were activated during the conflict. [21]

Jenin

According to Israeli authorities, Jenin became a central base for terror groups and terror attacks mounted by several organizations, including Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, and Hamas. The IDF spokesman attributed 23 of the 60 suicide bombers that attacked Israel in 2002 to Palestinian from Jenin.[22]

On April 2, more than 1,000 IDF soldiers entered the camp, calling civilians and non-combatants to leave. An estimated 13,000 Palestinians were housed in Jenin prior to the operation.

The operation was led by the Fifth Infantry brigade, which had not yet been trained in close-quarters combat. During a series of sweeps, the Israeli military claimed the entire camp was booby-trapped. At least 2,000 bombs and booby traps were planted throughout the camp.[23] In response to the discovery, the Israelis dispatched a combat bulldozer to detonate any bombs that were placed in the streets.

Israeli commanders were still not confident that soldiers would be safe from booby traps and IEDs. A rapid ground attack would clearly be costly in IDF lives, but political pressure from the United States and elsewhere required a rapid end to the fighting. Former minister defense Shaul Mofaz promised combat-operations would be over by April 6, but that was clearly impossible.[24] The IDF slowly advanced into the city, encountering fierce resistance. Most of the fighting was conducted by infantry fighting house-to-house, while armored bulldozers were used to clear away booby traps and IEDs. Air support was limited to helicopters firing wire-guided missiles.[25] Palestinian commander Mahmoud Twalbe was killed by an Israeli bulldozer according to a British military expert, and blew himself up to collapse a house on Israeli soldiers, according to the Palestinians.

On the 3rd day of operations, an IDF unit accidentally wandered into a Palestinian ambush. 13 Israeli soldiers were killed and three of the bodies were captured before a Shayetet 13 naval commando unit could retrieve them.

After the ambush, the Israeli military developed a tactic that allowed units to advance father and more safely into the camps. Israeli commanders would send an armored bulldozers to ram the corner of a house, creating a hole.[24] A IDF Achzarit would then enter the hole, allowing troops to clear the house without going through booby-trapped doors. Palestinian resistance was halted following the adoption of the bulldozer method, and most residents of the Hawashin neighorhood surrendered before it was leveled. Palestinian commander Hazem Qabha refused to surrender and was killed.

Throughout the Battle of Jenin, and for a few days afterwards, the city and its refugee camp were under total closure. There was much concern at the time about possible human rights violations occurring in the camp. Allegations of a massacre in Jenin were spread by Palestinians in order to create pressure on Israel to halt the operation. Claims of complete destruction of the Jenin refugee camp, a massacre of 500 civilians, and mass graves being dug by Israeli soldiers were proven false after a United Nations investigation.hare Reports of a large-scale massacre were found to be untrue, a result of confusion resulting from the Israeli refusal to allow entry to outside observers, and/or Palestinian media manipulation.[26][27]

Ultimately, the Jenin incursion resulted in the deaths of 52 Palestinians. According to Israel, five were civilians[citation needed], while the rest were militants. Human Rights Watch reported that 27 militants and 22 civilians, as well as three unidentified persons, had been killed, based mostly on witness interviews. Israeli losses totalled 23 dead and 75 wounded.

Nablus

Israeli soldiers in Nablus
Israeli soldiers in Nablus

Israeli troops participated in an incursion into Nablus, which was estimated to have held over 8,000 Palestinian militants, in addition to Palestinian security forces. Israeli forces surrounded the city, and clashed with Palestinians around refugee camps, while Israeli attack helicopters pounded Palestinian positions in the main square. The main attack focused on the Nablus Casbah, with the Paratroopers Brigade entering from the west, the Golani Brigade from the south, and armored divisions from the east. Troops gradually moved into the city by destroying walls within houses to get into the next house, in order to avoid booby-trapped doors and road-side bombs. Israeli forces relied heavily on sniper units, with troops often trying to get militants to fire and reveal themselves. During the battle over 70 Palestinian militants were killed, while Israel lost one officer to friendly fire.[24]

The IDF arrested over 100 Palestinians, and discovered several explosive laboratories.

Bethlehem

In Bethlehem, following the entry of the IDF, a group of 39 wanted gunmen armed with assault rifles and explosives holed themselves up in the nativity church. The group held 46 priests and other personnel of the church as hostages, along with about 200 civilians, including children.[28] The Vatican warned Israel not to damage the church, which marks the site of the birth of Jesus. For 5 weeks the Israelis held the city and church under curfew, with periodic breaks. Israeli snipers killed seven militants, while another was killed in an exchange of fire which also wounded two Israel Border Police gendarmes. On March 10 the siege ended, with a deal seeing some militants deported to the Gaza Strip, and the rest exiled to Cyprus.[29][30]

Ramallah

In Ramallah, the IDF entered the city on 29 March, and besieged the Mukataa, Yasser Arafat's presidential compound, in an effort to isolate him physically and diplomatically. The IDF raided the hiding place of Marwan Barghouti on 14 April, and arrested him, and the following day, arrested Taleb Barghouti. The IDF also raided the headquarters of the Preventive Security Force, where they uncovered numerous incriminating documents, including a plan to recruit female Israeli soldiers as spies.[31]

The UN report on the subject noted: "It was not only the Palestinian people whose movement was restricted during Operation Defensive Shield. In many instances, humanitarian workers were not able to reach people in need to assess conditions and deliver necessary assistance because of the sealing of cities, refugee camps and villages during the operation. There were also cases of Israeli forces not respecting the neutrality of medical and humanitarian workers and attacking ambulances."[7]

In reply to these complaints, the Israeli Army stated that the curfew was placed in order to prevent civilians from being caught in gunfights and getting hurt. Palestinian ambulances were stopped for checks following the discovery of an explosive belt in a Red Crescent ambulance.[32]

Tulkarm

IDF Reserve Paratroop Battalion 55 entered Tulkarm with armored support. Militants abandoned their weapons and melted into the local population. A Taggart fort that had served as their headquarters was destroyed by an Israeli airstrike. Nine militants were killed in the battle. The IDF also raided nearby villages, arresting hundreds of wanted men.[31]

Aftermath

Casualties

During the fighting, 30 Israeli soldiers were killed and 127 were wounded, while 497 Palestinians were killed and 1,447 were wounded according to a United Nations investigation.[8] However, B'Tselem only registered 240 Palestinians killed by Israeli security forces in the West Bank during the period in which the military operation was carried out.[2] Approximately 7,000 Palestinians were detained by Israel[8] including 396 wanted suspects.[33]

The World Bank estimated that over $361 million worth of damage was caused to Palestinian infrastructure and institutions,[8] $158 million of which came from the aerial bombardment and destruction of houses in Nablus and Jenin.[7]

Strategic outcome

The effects of Operation Defensive Shield, as recorded by the Israeli Intelligence & Terrorism Information Center, were an initial drop in half (46 percent) in the number of suicide bombings—from 22 in February–March to 12 in April–May—and a 70 percent drop in executed attacks between the first half of 2002 and the second half (43 January–June, 13 July–December). While 2003 had a total of 25 executed suicide bombings in comparison to 56 in 2002, the main difference was the number of attacks which did not come to realization (184) either due to Israeli interception or problems in the execution. 2003 also saw a 35 percent drop in the number of fatalities from 220 deaths in 2002 to 142 deaths resulting from suicide bombings.[34]

Beverly Milton-Edwards, Professor of Politics at Queen's University in Belfast, writes that while aspects of Palestinian militancy were reduced after the operation, Israel's objective of ending the Al-Aqsa Intifada remained unmet. Israeli destruction of institutions belonging to the Palestinian Authority (PA) and the "emasculation" of the PA and its President, Yasser Arafat, opened a vacuum in the social and welfare system that was rapidly filled by the Hamas, whose popularity grew. Milton-Edwards concludes that, "The unequivocal victory [sought by Israel] eventually remained elusive and the Israelis and Palestinians resumed a variety of forms of low intensity warfare with each other.".[35]

Fact-finding and criticism

A UN fact-finding mission was established under UN Security Council Resolution 1405 (April 19, 2002) into Operation Defensive Shield following Palestinian charges that a massacre had occurred in Jenin. In its attachment to the UN report the Palestinian Authority decried Israel's "culture of impunity" and called for "an international presence to monitor compliance with international humanitarian law, to help in providing protection to Palestinian civilians and to help the parties to implement agreements reached."[7] A report of the European Union attached in the report stated, "The massive destruction, especially at the centre of the refugee camp, to which all heads of mission in Jerusalem and Ramallah can testify, shows that the site had undergone an indiscriminate use of force, that goes well beyond that of a battlefield." [7]

Human Rights Watch determined that "Israeli forces committed serious violations of international humanitarian law, some amounting prima facie to war crimes."[36]

Amnesty International reported that war crimes occurred in the Jenin refugee camp and in Nablus, including: unlawful killings; a failure to ensure medical or humanitarian relief; demolition of houses and property occurred (sometime with civilians still inside); water and electricity supplies to civilians were cut; torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment in arbitrary detention occurred; and Palestinians civilians were used for military operations or as "human shields." According to Amnesty, "the IDF acted as though the main aim was to punish all Palestinians." [37]

Palestinian Authority civilian property

The UN report noted that, "United Nations agencies and other international agencies, when allowed into Ramallah and other Palestinian cities, documented extensive physical damage to Palestinian Authority civilian property. That damage included the destruction of office equipment, such as computers and photocopying machines, that did not appear to be related to military objectives. While denying that such destruction was systematic, the Israeli Defence Forces have admitted that their personnel engaged in some acts of vandalism, and are carrying out some related prosecutions."[8] Cheryl Rubenberg writes that data and records held by Palestinian civilian institutions were systematically destroyed by the IDF; among the institutions affected were the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), the Palestinian Authority's Ministries of Culture, Education and Health, and the Palestine International Bank.[38] Amira Hass, an Israeli reporter for Ha'aretz, criticized the IDF for targeting computer files and printed records, dubbing the offensive "Operation Destroy the Data".[39]

European Union reaction

The European Union began considering economic sanctions against Israel. Spanish Foreign Minister Josep Pique, whose country held the EU Presidency, said that "sanctions against Israel are a possible scenario", and that EU states were discussing the possibility, saying that "some countries are in favor of introducing sanctions very, very soon, others are more reluctant, so we have to discuss it". Belgian Foreign Minister Louis Michel also said that the EU could rethink its trade relations with Israel. European Parliament in Strasbourg, France, passed a non-binding resolution calling for economic sanctions on Israel, an arms embargo on both parties, and for the European Union to "suspend immediately" its trade and cooperation agreement with Israel. It condemned the "military escalation pursued by the Sharon government" and the "oppression of the Palestinian civilian population by the Israeli army", while also condemning suicide bombings. According to Yediot Aharonot, Israel's refusal to allow Spanish EU officials Javier Solana and Josep Pique into the Mukataa to meet with Yasser Arafat, while allowing American envoy Anthony Zinni to enter, was the "straw that broke the camel's back". The resolution was passed by a vote of 269 to 208, with 22 abstentions.

Jenin massacre allegations

Poster of Mohammed Bakri's film 'Jenin, Jenin'.

A great deal of the media attention to Operation Defensive Shield centered around Palestinians claims of a large scale massacre in Jenin and Palestinian cabinet minister Saeb Erekat was widely quoted by the press as saying there were 500 massacred Palestinians in the Israeli assault on Jenin.[40]

Human Rights Watch found no evidence to sustain claims of massacres or large-scale extrajudicial executions by the IDF in Jenin refugee camp. However, many of the civilian deaths documented by Human Rights Watch amounted to unlawful or willful killings by the IDF. Many others could have been avoided if the IDF had taken proper precautions to protect civilian life during its military operation, as required by international humanitarian law. Among the civilian deaths were those of Kamal Zgheir, a fifty-seven-year-old wheelchair-bound man who was shot and run over by a tank on a major road outside the camp on April 10, even though he had a white flag attached to his wheelchair; fifty-eight year old Mariam Wishahi, killed by a missile in her home on April 6 just hours after her unarmed son was shot in the street; Jamal Fayid, a thirty-seven-year old paralyzed man who was crushed in the rubble of his home on April 7 despite his family's pleas to be allowed to remove him; and fourteen-year-old Faris Zaiban, who was killed by fire from an IDF armored car as he went to buy groceries when the IDF-imposed curfew was temporarily lifted on April 11 [41] Human Rights Watch stated that of at least 52 Palestinians were killed, at least 27 were suspected to have been armed Palestinian militants.

Multiple deaths were also caused by refusal (whether enforced by militia groups or voluntary is disputed) of Palestinian families to leave their houses, of which specific bulldozers, clearing the way for operations, were not alerted of on a house-to-house basis (See Israel-Gaza war 2008-2009 for similar issues; where IDF warnings were continually issued that specific houses carrying munitions were to be targeted, with Hamas response of forcing families to remain inside their houses.)[citation needed]

Initially Israel welcomed an investigation, announcing that it would cooperate fully with the Secretary General's fact-finding effort. According to the United Jewish Communities, Israel made a number of points regarding the team's methodology, in order to "safeguard the impartiality of its work."[42] However, Israeli government receptivity to cooperating with the UN fact-finding mission decreased when Kofi Annan did not appoint a predominantly technical team with specialized military and forensic expertise, but rather political-administrative figures without such specialized skills (including Cornelio Sommaruga, controversial for previous "Red Swastika" remarks),[43] and after Palestinian officials reduced the casualty toll in Jenin on May 1, 2002.[44] to be between 50-60 deaths while Israel maintained there were only seven or eight civilian casualties. The charges of a massacre which had sparked demands for a U.N. investigation, had now been dropped. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, disbanded the UN fact-finding team in Jenin supposed to determine whether a massacre had taken place with the comment:"Clearly the full cooperation of both sides was a precondition for this, as was a visit to the area itself to see the Jenin refugee camp at first hand and to gather information. This is why the Secretariat engaged in a thorough clarification process with the Israeli delegation."[7]

In 2002 Mohammed Bakri, a prominent Arab actor and Israeli citizen, directed and produced a documentary Jenin, Jenin, to portray "the Palestinian truth" about the "Battle of Jenin". In the documentary Bakri propagates that indeed a massacre of civilians occurred in Jenin. A French Jewish film maker, Pierre Rehov, also directed a documentary on what happened in Jenin during Defensive Shield. His film, The Road to Jenin, was produced to counter the claims of a massacre, and to counter the narrative of Mohammed Bakri. CAMERA made a review of the two documentary films. According to the review, Bakri has admitted to shortening his film by 25 min in the wake of criticism.

Reported first-hand allegations

David Rohde of The New York Times on the April 16 reported:

Saed Dabayeh, who said he stayed in the camp through the fighting, led a group of reporters to a pile of rubble where he said he watched from his bedroom window as Israeli soldiers buried 10 bodies. "There was a hole here where they buried bodies," he said. "And then they collapsed a house on top of it." The Palestinian accounts could not be verified. The smell of decomposing bodies hung over at least six heaps of rubble today, and weeks of excavation may be needed before an accurate death toll can be made.[45]

Stewart Bell of the National Post on the April 15 reported that Ahmed Tibi, an Arab member of the Israeli Knesset, said he had met hundreds of Palestinians displaced by what he termed the "massacre" in Jenin. According to Tibi, "Everyone has a tragedy, about executions they saw, about their whole family that was killed, about the most tangible concern -- where is my family?" Bell reported that Jenin's population recounted "vivid accounts" of fighting and homes being demolished but first-hand accounts of massacres was scarce. One such rumor was a grocery store owner near Jenin who spoke of seeing Israeli troops using a refrigerated truck to hold the bodies of massacred Palestinians, which he said was still parked on a nearby hill. He refused to elaborate out of fear from "collaborators." Bell reported that a National Post reporter inspected the truck and found that it contained apples and other food for the Israeli soldiers.[46]

References

  1. ^ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs See Soldiers who fell in action in Operation Defensive Shield
  2. ^ a b List of Palestinians killed by Israeli security forces in the West Bank (see the 29.03.2002-3.05.2002 period)
  3. ^ a b "Operation Defensive Shield (2002)". http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3685678,00.html. 
  4. ^ a b http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/defensiveshield.html
  5. ^ Passover suicide bombing at Park Hotel in Netanya March 27, 2002
  6. ^ Taylor & Francis Group (2004) Europa World Year Book 2: Kazakhstan-Zimbabwe Published by Taylor & Francis, ISBN 185743255X p 3314
  7. ^ a b c d e f g 'Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to General Assembly resolution ES-10/10 (Report on Jenin)', United Nations, May 7, 2002
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Report of the Secretary-General prepared pursuant to General Assembly resolution ES-10/10 August 1, 2002.
  9. ^ Palestinian Authority funds go to militants, BBC, November 7, 2003
  10. ^ Arafat Blames Israel for Tel Aviv Bombing, Palestinian Media Watch, July 12, 2004
  11. ^ New York Jewish Times, 4 March 2002, 'Weekend of terror leaves 23 Israelis dead'
    - On March 4, the first Qassam rocket attack of March 2002 was made into Israel; there were no casualties. (Source: IDF Spokesperson Statistics).
    - [1] Palestinian gunmen took up a position on a pedestrian bridge above Petah Tikva Road at the center of Tel Aviv and attacked two restaurants below, "The Steak Gathering" and "Sea Food Market" killing 3 Israelis and injuring 31 (four severely).
    - [2] suicide bomber detonated in an Egged No. 823 bus.
    - [3][4] Bethlehem bypass "tunnel" attack.
    - [5][6] Qassam rocket attack on Sderot injured a 16 month-old baby.
  12. ^ a b TIME, 18 March 2002, Streets Red With Blood
  13. ^ "Suicide bombing at Cafe Moment in Jerusalem". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 9 March 2002. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/3/Suicide%20bombing%20at%20Cafe%20Moment%20in%20Jerusalem%20-%209-Ma. 
  14. ^ Bar-On, Mordechai (2006). Never-Ending Conflict: Israeli Military History. Stackpole Books. p. 236. ISBN 0811733459. 
  15. ^ a b 'Major Ziv: A new wave of attacks is coming' (YNET)
  16. ^ Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 29 Mar 2002, Statements by Israeli PM Sharon and DM Ben-Eliezer 29 Mar 2002
  17. ^ La Guardia, Anton (2003). War Without End: Israelis, Palestinians, and the Struggle for a Promised Land. St. Martin's Press. p. 348. ISBN 031231633X. 
  18. ^ 'The Battle of Jenin' by Matt Rees, May 13, 2002 (TIME), Also TIME, 13 May 2002, 'Untangling Jenin's Tale'
  19. ^ Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  20. ^ Source: Btselem casualty statistics. Note that the combatant status of many of the Palestinian dead is unknown. It is only known that they were killed during IDF operations in Palestinian population centres. Btselem however has determined that at least 83 of the Palestinians killed during March 2002 were noncombatants.
  21. ^ Harel, Amos; Avi Isacharoff (2004). The Seventh War. Tel-Aviv: Yedioth Aharonoth Books and Chemed Books. pp. 274–275. ISBN 9655117677 9789655117677. 
  22. ^ "Suicide Bombers from Jenin". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. July 2, 2002. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2002/7/Suicide%20Bombers%20from%20Jenin. Retrieved October 18, 2008. 
  23. ^ Palestinian fighter describes 'hard fight' in Jenin
  24. ^ a b c Harel, Amos; Avi Isacharoff (2004). The Seventh War. Tel-Aviv: Yedioth Aharonoth Books and Chemed Books. ISBN 9655117677 9789655117677.  (Hebrew)
  25. ^ Dershowitz, Alan: The Case for Israel (2002)
  26. ^ BBC, 3 May 2002, BBC News | MIDDLE EAST | 'No Jenin massacre' says rights group
  27. ^ USA Today, 1 August 2002, USATODAY.com - U.N. report: No massacre in Jenin
  28. ^ http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-2274973,00.html
  29. ^ "Children to be released from Church of the Nativity". CNN. 2002-04-24. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/meast/04/24/mideast.bethlehem/. 
  30. ^ "Church of Nativity a Mess, but Suffers Little Permanent Damage". Fox News. 2002-05-10. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,52445,00.html. 
  31. ^ a b http://www.zionism-israel.com/dic/Defensive_Shield.htm
  32. ^ (Higgins, Alexander G., "International Red Cross says 'unacceptable' Israeli actions curbed its West Bank operations," Associated Press Newswires, 6 April 2002.)
  33. ^ Statistics on Operation “Defensive Shield”
  34. ^ "סיכום נתונים אודות הטרור הפלסטיני במהלך העימות הנוכחי עם ישראל עד פסגת שארם אלשיח' (28 ספטמבר 2000 - 8 פברואר 2005)". www.terrorism-info.org.il. http://www.terrorism-info.org.il/malam_multimedia/html/final/sp/pa_t/det_8feb_05.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-26.  (Hebrew)
  35. ^ Milton-Edwards, 2008, p. 157-158.
  36. ^ Human Rights Watch, May 2002, Jenin: IDF Military Operations: Summary, Israel, the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, and Palestinian Authority Territories, Vol 14, No. 3
  37. ^ "Israel and the Occupied Territories Shielded from scrutiny: IDF violations in Jenin and Nablus". Amnesty International. 4 November 2002. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGMDE151432002?open&of=ENG-PSE. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  38. ^ Rubenberg, 2003, pp. 351-352.
  39. ^ Amira Hass, Haaretz, 24 April 2002, Operation Destroy the Data
  40. ^ CNN, 5 May 2002, CNN Transcripts: 'Interview with Condoleezza Rice; Last Chance for Arafat?; How to Best Protect the Cockpit?'
    - "BLITZER: Mr. Erakat, you probably know that you've come under some widespread criticism here in the United States for initially charging that the Israelis were engaged in a massacre in Jenin. Perhaps 500 Palestinians murdered in that massacre, you suggested. But now all of the evidence suggests that perhaps 53 or 56 Palestinians died in that fighting in Jenin.
    ERAKAT: It depends -- first of all, on the number 500, I said 500 but I said at the same time I cannot confirm them because I didn't have the chance to go and pull the rubble out and to clean the rubble out, and I don't know exactly, and I said I cannot confirm it.
    But what defines a massacre? Israel called, when they had this bombing in the Netanya restaurant, 26 people, they called it a massacre. So what's a massacre?
    "
  41. ^ [7]
  42. ^ United Jewish Communities, 1 May 2002, The Israeli Cabinet Decision Regarding the UN Fact Finding Team
  43. ^ Jewish World Review, 10 May 2002 "Kofi's Choice: The U.N. secretary general gets entangled in l'Affaire Sommaruga"
  44. ^ Paul Martin (1 May 2002). "Jenin `massacre´ reduced to death toll of 56" (Reprint). PAGE ONE (The Washington Times): p. 01. http://www.papillonsartpalace.com/jenin.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
    Archived from Washington Times site; as retrieved from [8] [9][10]
  45. ^ David Rohde, The New York Times, 16 April 2002, MIDEAST TURMOIL: THE AFTERMATH; The Dead and the Angry Amid Jenin's Rubble
  46. ^ Bell, Stewart (April 15, 2002). "What happened at Jenin?". National Post. 

Bibliography

  • Milton-Edwards, Beverley (2008). The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A People's War (Illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415410436, 9780415410434. 
  • Rubenberg, Cheryl (2003). The Palestinians: in search of a just peace (Illustrated ed.). Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 1588262251, 9781588262257. 

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