Pharyngealization is a
secondary articulationof consonants or vowels by which the pharynxor epiglottisis constricted during the articulation of the sound. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, pharyngealization can be indicated by one of two methods:
tildeor swung dashthrough the letter indicates either velarizationor pharyngealization, as in IPA| [ɫ] (" dark l", the pharyngealized equivalent of IPA| [l] ), or
#The symbol <IPA|ˤ> (a
superscriptreversed glottal stop) after the letter standing for the pharyngealized consonant, as in IPA| [tˤ] (the pharyngealized equivalent of IPA| [t] ).
Arabic uses phonemic secondary pharyngealization for the "emphatic"
coronal consonants. Ubykh, a Northwest Caucasian language formerly spoken in Russiaand Turkey, uses pharyngealization in 14 pharyngealized consonants. Chilcotin has pharyngealized consonants that trigger pharyngealization of vowels. Many languages (e.g. Salishan, Sahaptian) in the Plateau culture area of North America also have pharyngealization processes triggered by pharyngeal or pharyngealized consonants that affect vowels. In Danish many of the vowel phonemes have distinct pharyngealized qualities, and in the Tuu languagesepiglottalized vowels are phonemic.
For many languages, pharyngealization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that
dark ltends to be dental or dentoalveolar while clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position. [Harvcoltxt|Recasens & Espinosa|2005|p=4]
last = Recasens
first = Daniel
first2 = Aina
title= Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects
journal= Journal of the International Phonetic Association
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
pharyngealization — noun The act or process of pharyngealizing … Wiktionary
pharyngealization — pha·ryn·ge·al·iza·tion … English syllables
pharyngealization — … Useful english dictionary
pharyngealize — pharyngealization, n. /feuh rin jee euh luyz , jeuh luyz , far euhn jee euh luyz /, v.t., pharyngealized, pharyngealizing. Phonet. to pronounce with pharyngeal coarticulation. Also, pharyngalize /feuh ring geuh luyz /; esp. Brit., pharyngealise,… … Universalium
Arabic language — Arabic redirects here. For other uses, see Arabic (disambiguation). For the literary standard, see Modern Standard Arabic. For vernaculars, see varieties of Arabic. For others, see Arabic languages. Arabic العربية/عربي/عربى al ʿarabiyyah/ʿarabī … Wikipedia
Tsez language — Tsez цезяс мец / cezyas mec Pronunciation [t͡sɛzˈjas mɛt͡s] Spoken in Russia Region Southern Dagestan … Wikipedia
Old Chinese phonology — The phonology of Old Chinese describes the language reflected by the rhymes of the Shijing and the phonetic components of Chinese characters, corresponding to the earlier half of the 1st millennium BC. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the… … Wikipedia
Dida language — Dida Spoken in Ivory Coast Native speakers 200,000 (1993) Language family Niger–Congo Atlantic–Congo Kru … Wikipedia
Tilde — For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ◌̃ Tilde Punctuation … Wikipedia
Velarized alveolar lateral approximant — ɫ Image … Wikipedia