C-12 Huron


C-12 Huron

Infobox Aircraft
name= C-12 Huron


caption= C-12F Huron
type= Civil utility aircraft

manufacturer= Beechcraft
designer=
first flight=
introduced=
retired=
status= Active service
primary user= United States Air Force
more users= United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy
produced=
number built=
unit cost= $2 million
developed from = Beechcraft Super King Air
variants with their own articles=

The C-12 Huron is the military designation for a series of twin-engine turboprop aircraft that are military versions of various versions of the Beechcraft Super King Air. C-12 variants are used by the United States Air Force, United States Army, and the United States Navy. These aircraft are used for various duties, including embassy support, medical evacuation, passenger and light cargo. Some aircraft are modified with surveillance systems for various missions, including the Cefly Lancer and the Guardrail programs.

Design and development

The first C-12A models entered service with the Army in 1974 and was used as a liaison and general personnel transport. The aircraft was essentially an "off-the-shelf" Super King Air 200, powered by the type's standard Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-41 engines. [http://www.wingsoverkansas.com/history/article.asp?id=346 King Air timeline from Wings over Kansas] ]

The U.S. Navy followed suit in 1979, ordering a version of the Super King Air A200C (modified with a 52 inch by 52 inch cargo door from the Super King Air 200C), designating it the UC-12B, for logistics support between naval and marine corps air stations and other activities, both in CONUS and overseas. The cabin can readily accommodate cargo, passengers or both. It is also equipped to accept litter patients in medical evacuation missions. Through 1982, the Navy ordered 64 of these aircraft.

Guardrail

The U.S. Army selected the C-12 platform for use as an intelligence-gathering aircraft under the "Guardrail" series of programs. The "Guardrail" program uses variants RC-12D, -12H, -12K, -12N, -12P, and -12Q variants. The aircraft's role is as an electronic snooper, listening in for enemy radio transmissions. The aircraft is flown by a flight crew of two, and the missions equipment is operated remotely from a ground control center. "Guardrail" is a Corps Level Airborne signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection/location system that integrates the Improved GUARDRAIL V (IGR V), Communication High Accuracy Airborne Location System (CHAALS), and the Advanced QUICKLOOK (AQL) systems into the same aircraft platform. Key features include integrated COMINT and ELINT reporting, enhanced signal classification and recognition, fast Direction Finding (DF), precision emitter location, and an advanced integrated aircraft cockpit. [http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/guardrail.htm Guardrail details from FAS] ]

The RC-12D was operated during the 1980s by the 2nd Military Intelligence Battalion, 207th Military Intelligence Brigade (Eyes of the Jayhawk) located out of Echterdingen Kaserne, at the Stuttgart Airport. The 207th MI brigade deployed with VII Corps to Al Qaisumah Airport, in Saudi Arabia, in December of 1990 in support of Operations Desert Shield, Operation Desert Storm and Operation Desert Calm.Fact|date=February 2007

As of 2006, four U.S Army Aerial Exploitation Battalions (AEB) operate these aircraft. The 3rd Military Intelligence (MI) Battalion operates the RC-12D and -12H in South Korea. The 1st Military Intelligence Battalion flies the RC-12K from its base in Wiesbaden, Germany. The 15th Military Intelligence Battalion, stationed at Fort Hood, Texas, operates the RC-12P and -12Q models. The 224th Military Intelligence Battalion flies the RC-12N and is based at Hunter Army Airfield in Savannah, Georgia. The crew training location for these and other Special Electronic Mission Aircraft (SEMA) is Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Every AEB with the exception of the 3rd MI BN has conducted wartime intelligence collection in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The 3rd MI Battalion flies Sensitive Reconnaissance Operation (SRO) missions on the Korean peninsula.

With the advances in technology and advent of tactical UAVs, the Army has announced that it is seeking a replacement for the "Guardrail" aircraft. [ [http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htecm/articles/20060130.aspx article "Death from Above", Strategy Page] ]

C-12J

To meet the needs of transporting larger groups, the Army purchased six C-12J aircraft, based on the Beechcraft 1900C commuter airliner. Of the military C-12J's one is used for GPS jamming tests at the 586th Flight Test Squadron, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico. [http://www.holloman.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet_media.asp?fsID=5921 Air Force Fact Sheet] ] Another is based at the 517th Airlift Squadron, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. [http://www.elmendorf.af.mil/3Wing/Groups/3OG/517AS/Webdocs/index.htm] ] Three were based at the 55th Airlift Flight, Osan Air Base, South Korea. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/c-12j.htm C-12J at Global Security.org] ] They have been relocated to the 459th Airlift Squadron, Yokota Air Base, Japan. The remaining two are used by U.S. Army Aviation. [http://www.usarmyaviation.com/fixedwing.htm Army aviation web page] ]

Although the UD- series 1900s were manufactured exclusively for military use, the United States military and other military and government organizations use 1900s from other series such as the UB-series 1900C photographed above, and 1900Ds which may be found elsewhere.

Variants

King Air 200-based variants

;C-12A : Used by the U.S. Army for liaison and attache transport. Based on the King Air A200 (serial numbers BC-1 through BC-61, BD-1 and up).;UC-12B : Navy version, with an additional cargo door. Based on the King Air A200C (serial numbers BJ-1 and up).;NC-12B : Navy single-aircraft version, UC-12B BuNo 161311 equipped with four P-3C Sonobuoy launchers.;TC-12B : Navy training version of the UC-12B.;C-12C : Army and Air Force version of the C-12A with upgraded engines. Based on the King Air A200 (serial numbers BC-62 and up).;C-12D : Army and Air Force version. Based on the King Air A200CT, changes include larger cargo door, "high-flotation" landing gear (a Beechcraft option for larger main landing gear wheels for use on unimproved runways) (serial numbers BP-1, BP-22, BP-24 through BP-51).;UC-12D : Based on the King Air A200CT (serial numbers BP-7 though BP-11).;RC-12D : "Guardrail" program, used by the Army for signals intelligence (SIGINT) and electronic surveillance missions with the Guardrail V sensor system. Acquired in 1984, based on the King Air A200CT (13 aircraft, serial numbers GR-1 through GR-13).;C-12F : Air Force transport version. Based on the King Air A200CF (serial numbers BP-52 through BP-63) and the King Air B200C (serial numbers BP-64 and up).;RC-12F : Navy version of the UC-12F modified with surface search radar.;UC-12F : Navy version. Based on the King Air B200C (serial number BU-1 and up, BV-1 and up, BW-1 and up).;RC-12G : Army version used for real-time tactical intelligence support under the "Crazyhorse" program. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/systems/sema.htm Special Electronic Mission Aircraft listing at GlobalSecurity.org] ] Based on the King Air A200CT (three aircraft, serial numbers FC-1 and up).;RC-12H : Army version, used for "Guardrail" missions, based on RC-12D, but improved Guardrail V equipment. Acquired in 1988, based on the King Air A200CT (6 aircraft, serial numbers GR-14 through GR-19).;RC-12K : Army version for "Guardrail" SIGINT use with improved Guardrail Common Sensor (GRCS) equipment. Also has upgraded engines. Acquired in 1991, based on the King Air A200CT (9 aircraft, serial numbers FE-1 through FE-24).;C-12L : Three A200s acquired for use in the "Cefly Lancer" program as RU-21Js. In 1984 the three aircraft modified with new VIP interiors, and returned to the US Army as C-12Ls.cite book |last= Harding|first= Stephen|authorlink= |coauthors= |title= U.S. Army Aircraft Since 1947|year= 1997|publisher= Schiffer Publishing Ltd.|location= Atglen, PA, USA|isbn= 96-69996| pages = 30] ;UC-12M : Navy UC-12B and UC-12F aircraft with upgraded cockpit instrumentation.;RC-12M : Navy RC-12F with upgraded cockpit instrumentation, plus other systems and structural upgrades.;RC-12N : Army RC-12K modified with more powerful engines for increased payload, and improved missions systems, acquired in 1994 (15 aircraft used).;RC-12P : Army RC-12N modified with improved systems, increased takeoff weights. Based on the King Air A200CT (9 aircraft, serial numbers FE-25 and up).;RC-12Q : Army RC-12P with GRCS systems, and modified with a radome mounted on the top of the fuselage (3 aircraft).;C-12R : Off the shelf BE200 modified with EFIS glass cockpit instrumentation.;C-12T : Upgrade of earlier Army (C-12F) versions with improved cockpit instrumentation.;C-12U : Upgrade of C-12T Army version with improved cockpit instrumentation in order to meet global air traffic management directives.

King Air 350-based variants

;C-12S : Army version based on the King Air 350, with seating for 8 to 15 passengers and quick cargo conversion capability.

Beechcraft 1900-based variant

;C-12J : Used by Air National Guard, carries 2 crew and 19 passengers. Based on the Beechcraft 1900C (serial numbers UD-1 through UD-6).

"Note: The U.S. military also operates other King Air versions under other designations, including the C-6 Ute and T-44 series. In addition, there are a number of Beechcraft 1900s operated by the military under civilian registrations, using their civilian model designations."

pecifications (King Air B200)

aircraft specifications

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop

ref=Airliners.net,cite airliners.net|title=Raytheon Beechcraft King Air 200 |url=http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=328|accessdate=2006-07-30] Janescite book |title=Jane's All the World's Aircraft |last=Jackson |first=Paul |coauthors=Munson, Kenneth; Peacock, Lindsay |publisher=Jane's Information Group |id=ISBN 0-7106-2684-3]

crew=1-2
capacity=13 passengers
length main=43 ft 9 in
length alt=13.34 m
span main=54 ft 6 in
span alt=16.61 m
height main=15 ft 0 in
height alt=4.57 m
area main=303 ft²
area alt=28.2 m²
empty weight main=7,755 lb
empty weight alt=3,520 kg
max takeoff weight main=12,500 lb
max takeoff weight alt=5,670 kg

engine (prop)=Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-42
type of prop=turboprops
number of props=2
power main=850 shp
power alt=635 kW

max speed main=333 mph
max speed alt=289 knots, 499 km/h
max speed more=at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
range main=2,075 mi
range alt=1,800 nm, 3,338 km
range more=with maximum fuel and 45 minute reserve
ceiling main=32,800 ft
ceiling alt=10,700 m
climb rate main=2,450 ft/min
climb rate alt=12.5 m/s
loading main=41.3 lb/ft²
loading alt=201.6 kg/m²
power/mass main=0.14 hp/lb
power/mass alt=220 W/kg

ee also

aircontent

related=
* Beechcraft King Air
* Beechcraft Super King Air
* Beechcraft 1900

similar aircraft=
* Cessna 425
* Cessna 441
* Mitsubishi Mu-2
* Piper PA-31T Cheyenne
* Embraer EMB 121 Xingu

sequence=
lists=
see also=

References

* DoD 4120-15L, "Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles", United States Department of Defense, May 12, 2004

External links

* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/c-12-variant.htm C-12 on globalsecurity.org]
* [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/c-12.htm C-12 on fas.org]
* [http://www.apiworldwide.com/API/Global/1/English/1/ConversionAirApplicationChart/1039.html API model application chart, provided variant model basis and serial number ranges]


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