- White nationalism
White nationalism is a political
ideologywhich advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of national identity for white people, in opposition to multiculturalism. The contemporary white nationalist movement in the United Statesis a reaction to the decline (based on US census projections) in white demographics, politics and culture.cite web|url=http://www.firstthings.com/article.php3?id_article=2047 |title=The New White Nationalism in America |first=Scott |last=McConnell |authorlink=Scott McConnell |publisher=" First Things" |date=August/September 2002] According to Samuel Francis, a key white nationalist writer, it is "a movement that rejects equality as an ideal and insists on an enduring core of human nature transmitted by heredity." [White Nationalists Seek Respectability in Meeting of 'Uptown Bad Guys' Newhouse News Service April 4, 2000] Anti-racist organizations generally have argued that ideas such as white prideand white nationalism exist merely to provide a sanitized public face for white supremacy. [Moriz, Justin J. [http://www.adversity.net/USPTO/ethnic_pride/ "Case 45: 'White Pride' vs. U.S. Patents and Trademarks Office"] . Adversity.net for Victims of Reverse Discrimination. 2005. accessed September 10, 2006.]
The goal of white nationalism is to appeal to a larger audience. Most are nonviolent groups working for separatism. [cite book |title= The New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration |last=Swain |first=Carol M. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2002 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge |isbn=0521808863 |pages=16 ] However, some white nationalists argue for mass genocide of those deemed to be "non-white."
Supporters see themselves defending the legitimate civil rights of
white peopleagainst society's alleged racial double standards.cite web|url=http://www.vanderbilt.edu/news/releases/2003/4/11/interviews_offer_unprecedented_look_into_the_world_and_words_of_the_new_white_nationalism |title=Interviews offer unprecedented look into the world and words of the new white nationalism |first=Carol M. |last=Swain |publisher= Vanderbilt University|date= 2003-04-11] Jared Taylor, another key writer in the movement, claims similar racial views were held by many mainstream American leaders before the 1950s. [White Nationalists Seek Respectability in Meeting of 'Uptown Bad Guys' Newhouse News Service April 4, 2000] Opponents accuse them of hatred, racial bigotry and destructive identity politics. [http://www.zmag.org/Sustainers/content/2002-12/16wise.cfm Znet: December 16, 2002, Making Nice With Racists: David Horowitz and The Soft Pedaling Of White Supremacy, by Tim Wise]
Samuel P. Huntington, the modern movement is increasingly cultured, intellectual and academically trained. [The Hispanic challenge. Foreign Policy March 1, 2004] Rather than espouse violence, they use statistics and social sciencedata to argue for a self-conscious white identity. [Despite new leaders, and with them new tactics and new ideas, the goal of white separatists remains to convince Americans that racial separation is the only way to survive. National Public Radio (NPR) August 14, 2003 Thursday] They say a natural hierarchy should triumph over the "false promise of egalitarianism" [White Nationalists Seek Respectability in Meeting of 'Uptown Bad Guys' Newhouse News Service April 4, 2000] and that the downfall of white dominance spells doom for representative government, the rule of law and freedom of speech. [Jared Taylor, A Racist In The Guise Of 'Expert', Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (Pennsylvania), January 23, 2005]
Supporters say they stand for racial self-preservation and claim culture itself is a product of race. [The Hispanic challenge. Foreign Policy March 1, 2004] As a result, according to Huntington, they say the demographic shift in the US towards non-whites brings a new culture that is intellectually and morally inferior. [The Hispanic challenge. Foreign Policy March 1, 2004] With it comes
affirmative action, immigrantghettos and declining educational standards. [Despite new leaders, and with them new tactics and new ideas, the goal of white separatists remains to convince Americans that racial separation is the only way to survive. National Public Radio (NPR) August 14, 2003 Thursday] By challenging established policy on immigration, civil rights and racial integration, they seek to build bridges with moderately conservative white citizens. [ [http://chronicle.com/free/v48/i45/45a01201.htm Can We Improve Race Relations by Giving Racists Some of What They Want?] The Chronicle of Higher Education July 19, 2002] White separatismand supremacism are two smaller subgroups within white nationalism. The former seek a separate white nation-state, while the latter add ideas from social Darwinismand Nazismto their ideology. Some white nationalists deny they are in either category. Both schools of thought generally avoid the term "supremacy", saying it has negative connotations. [The New Nativism; The alarming overlap between white nationalists and mainstream anti-immigrant forces. The American Prospect November, 2005]
White nationalism has a long tradition in English-speaking countries. According to one view, it is a product of the modern centralized state's emergence in the West, like all nationalisms. [Can Nationalism studies and ethnic, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies July 1, 2004] The term originated as a self-description by some groups, primarily in the United States, to describe their belief in a racially defined collective identity of white or Caucasian people. In the past, xenophobic ethnic policies may be seen as congruent to white nationalism.
In the 19th and early 20th century racial definitions of the American nation were common, resulting in race-specific immigration restrictions, such as the Chinese Exclusion Act. The 1915 film "
Birth of a Nation" is an example of an allegorical invocation of white nationalism during this time.In its darkness, 'Kong' shows the human heart. Newsday (New York) December 15, 2005]
White Australiaideal was semi-official policy in Australia for many decades, while in South Africa, white nationalism was championed by the New National Party[Apartheid-era party is ending its existence, The International Herald Tribune August 9, 2004] starting in 1948, as the struggle over apartheid heated up. [Kani explores a post-apartheid world on stage. ABC Transcripts (Australia) May 11, 2005] In recent years, the Internet has provided an expansion of audiences for white nationalism. [Patriotism in Black and White The American Prospect January 13, 2003]
White nationalism in the US combines elements of American racial nationalism and race-based
identity politics. Starting in the 1960s, it grew as the conservative movement developed in mainstream society. [Black politics are in a black hole, Newsday (New York), January 14, 2005] Samuel Huntingtonargues that it developed as a reaction to a perceived decline in the essence of American identity as European, Anglo-Protestant and English-speaking. [Bush and Kerry show opposing faces of two different Americas. Business Day (South Africa) October 21, 2004] Some American white nationalists, for example, say immigration should be restricted to selected people of European ancestry. [Dating the White Way Newsweek August 9, 2004]
White nationalists say every nationality feels a natural affection for its own kind. Thus they believe in a common identity, common interests, and common political action for white people. This identity is valid for the entire white population, but not an obligation for others.
Most supporters say 'white nationalism' refers to political activities "within" an existing country. They have not necessarily rejected their existing national identity and allegiance, nor that they seek to destroy existing states. They see themselves as patriotic preservers of European history and culture. In other words, their racial identity coincides with this patriotism: For them, everything that is good about their homeland is white.
The present form of American white nationalism, inclusive of Caucasian immigrant groups, is relatively recent. Conversely, "white nationalism" in Europe normally indicates a racial variant of an existing ethnic nationalism. For example, the British National Party opposes large-scale immigration of Russians and Poles, even though they are white.
Their mission statement states that "The British National Party exists to secure a future for the indigenous peoples of these islands in the North Atlantic which have been our homeland for millennia. We use the term indigenous to describe the people whose ancestors were the earliest settlers here after the last great Ice Age and which have been complemented by the historic migrations from mainland Europe.The migrations of the Celts, Anglo-Saxons, Danes, Norse and closely related kindred peoples have been, over the past few thousands years, instrumental in defining the character of our family of nations." [ [http://www.bnp.org.uk/mission-statement/ The BNP Mission Statement] ] uire migration of whites to a remote and thinly populated location. However, some other forms of white separatism proposed by white nationalists take the form of far-reaching
racial segregationwithin an existing nation-state.—
Definition of "white"
White nationalists define 'white' in a restricted way. In the United States, it implies European ancestry, self-identification with European culture and European
ethnicity. Likewise, the neologism European-Americanis a contrast with Asian-Americanand African-American.
There is no corresponding 'European' ethnicity in Europe itself. In fact, some opponents of the
European Unionquestion its legitimacy, precisely because there is no corresponding ethnic or cultural group. [See: [http://www.arena.uio.no/publications/wp99_4.htm] ] Despite their self-definition as 'European', many American white nationalists would not regard "all" descendants of European immigrantsas "white". For an acceptable definition, white nationalists draw primarily on 19th-century racial taxonomy, which neither reached a consensus on racial categories nor is accepted by geneticists. (For example, geneticist Neil Rischclassifies racial groups in a way that few white nationalists would accept; Jews, Germans and Pakistanis are all Caucasoid.) [New York Times: "Race Is Seen as Real Guide to Track Roots of Disease", 2002. [http://web.mit.edu/racescience/in_media/race_disease_nyt_july2002.htm] ]
Different variants of racial-origin theories, such as
Nordicismand Germanism, define different groups as 'white', both excluding some Southern and Eastern Europeans because of perceived racial taint [http://www.white-history.com/refuting_rm/] . Pan Aryanism — itself originally a component of Nazirace theories — defines most Europeans as Aryan-origin whites. Some white nationalists use the term 'Pan-Europeanism' for a definition including all European ethnic groups.
Other white nationalists hope that
population geneticswill provide clear criteria for 'white'. Some have adopted a definition based on the Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b. This marker is prevalent in most Western European populations, possibly reflecting the re-expansion into Europe of a smaller human population in Southern Europe, after the last ice age.
Opponents to white nationalism charge that white nationalists are in fact white supremacists, Ku Klux Klan members or
white power skinheads, and that white nationalists are not so much interested in their own 'white heritage' as in power over non-whites. It is unclear what, if any, white organization would not be deemed such by opposition. White nationalism is sometimes described as a reaction by whites who believe they are disenfranchised by the rise of liberal multiculturalideologies based on toleranceand multiculturalism, as well as the gains of other racial and ethnic groups against the majority white population in many Western nations.
White nationalists respond that they are simply organizing in ways similar to organizations such as the
NAACPand other groups that are generally not seen as controversial, and that to accuse white-nationalist groups of racism while approving of, or tolerating, other racially oriented groups is hypocritical and racist towards white people. Kofi Buenor Hadjor responds by stating that black nationalismis rather the response to white nationalism, while white nationalism is the expression of white supremacy. [cite book |title=Another America: The Politics of Race and Blame |last=Hadjor |first=Kofi Buenor |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1995 |publisher=Haymarket Books |location= |isbn=1931859345 |pages=100 ] Some white nationalists respond to the accusation of white supremacism by saying that they are white separatists, and that separation precludes domination of one group by another.
Criticswho? point out that while posturing as
civil rightsgroups advocating the interests of their ethnic or racial group, white nationalist groups frequently draw on the nativist traditions of the American Ku Klux Klanand the British National Front. [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= BNP: A party on the fringe |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1507680.stm |work= |publisher= BBC News|date=August 24, 2001 |accessdate=2008-02-14 ]
The term "white nationalist" has been used by
neo-Nazi, white supremacist, and Christian Identitygroups, which have differing ideologies but share an identification with the white race.
The American Renaissance [cite web |url=http://www.adl.org/learn/Ext_US/amren.asp?&&MSHiC=1252&L |title=New Century Foundation (American Renaissance) |accessdate=2008-02-14 |author= |date=2005 |work= |publisher=
Anti-Defamation League] , Council of Conservative Citizens[cite web |url=http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/CCCitizens.asp?xpicked=3&item=12 |title=Council of Conservative Citizens |accessdate=2008-02-14 |author= |date=2005 |work= |publisher= Anti-Defamation League] [cite web |url=http://www.splcenter.org/intel/news/item.jsp?aid=13 |title=Nazis, racists join Minuteman Project |accessdate=2008-02-14 |author= |date=April 22, 2005 |work= |publisher= Southern Poverty Law Center] , the National Alliance [cite web |url=http://www.adl.org/learn/Ext_US/N_Alliance.asp |title=National Alliance |accessdate=2008-02-14 |author= |date=2005 |work= |publisher= Anti-Defamation League] [cite web |url=http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?sid=175 |title=Anti-Immigration Groups |accessdate=2008-02-14 |author= |date= |work= |publisher= Southern Poverty Law Center] and National Vanguard[cite web |url=http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=790 |title=White Nationalism |accessdate=2008-02-14 |author= |date= |work= |publisher= Southern Poverty Law Center] are four examples of groups in the United Statesthat self-identify as white nationalist, but have been categorized as white supremacist and racistgroups by such organizations as the SPLC and the ADL.
In Europe, nationalist parties such as France's
Front National, Germany's National Democratic Party and Belgium's Vlaams Belangpromote nationalism and oppose immigration (especially non-white immigration), but do not describe themselves as "white nationalist". In most European nation-states, the nation is traditionally defined by ancestry and long-term association of a single ethnic group with the national homeland. If that ethnic group is already 'white' - as for instance with the Germans in Germany - then additional definition as 'white' is superfluous. It is when this redefinition is disputed, that ethnic or racial limits on the composition of the nation become a political issue.
Citations and notes
* cite book
author = Josey, Charles Conant
title = The Philosophy of Nationalism
location= Washington, DC | publisher= Cliveden Press
year = 1983 
id = ISBN 1-87846-510-4
* cite book
author = Levin, Michael E.
title = Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean
location= Westport, CT | publisher= Praeger Publishers
year = 1997
id = ISBN 0-27595-789-6
* cite book
author = McDaniel, George (ed.)
title = A Race Against Time: Racial Heresies for the 21st Century
location= Oakton, VA | publisher= New Century Foundation
year = 2003
* cite book
author = Ankerl, Guy
title = Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations,
location = Geneva, INUPRESS
Id= ISBN 2-88155-004-5
Year = 2000
Pages = 150-156
id = ISBN 0-96563-832-4
* cite book
author = Robertson, Wilmot
title = The Dispossessed Majority
location= Cape Canaveral, FL | publisher= Howard Allen
year = 1981
id = ISBN 0-91457-615-1
* cite book
author = Robertson, Wilmot
title = The Ethnostate
location= Cape Canaveral, FL | publisher= Howard Allen
year = 1993
id = ISBN 0-91457-622-4
* cite book
author = Swain, Carol M.
title = Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in America
location= New York, NY | publisher= Cambridge University Press
year = 2003
pages = 312 pages
id = ISBN 0-52101-693-2
The Passing of the Great Race"
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
White pride — is a slogan used primarily in the United States and Canada to agitate for a white European racial identity and is closely aligned with white supremacy and white separatism. [ *citation | last=Dobratz| first=Betty A. |last2=Shanks Meile |first2=… … Wikipedia
White Africans of European ancestry — White Africans africano branco wit afrikane africain blanc africano blanco africano bianco … Wikipedia
White fist — Infobox Flag Name = the White Fist Article = Symbol = The White fist, also known as the Aryan fist or the White Power fist is a visual meme generally associated with National Socialism and White nationalism.It is one graphical representation of… … Wikipedia
White people — Whites redirects here. For other uses, see White (disambiguation). Race … Wikipedia
White pride — Члены «Арийской гвардии» протестуют против антирасистского ралли в Калгари, Альберта, Канада 21 марта 2009 года. … Википедия
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant — This article is about the cultural ethnonym. For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). White Anglo Saxon Protestant Regions with significant populations All parts of the United States Languages Major: American English. Religion Protestantism … Wikipedia
White movement — White Army redirects here. For other uses, see White Army (disambiguation). White Movement Бѣлое движенiе Белое движение Participant in the Russian Civil War … Wikipedia
White skin Brown Masks — is a book by Kaja Silverman. Plot Kaja Silverman starts his book by referring to two important notions which are ‘nation’ and ‘race’. In Seven pillars of wisdom we find that the concepts of nation and race are subjected to a complete… … Wikipedia
White separatism — is a separatist political movement that seeks separate economic and cultural development for white people. White separatists generally claim genetic affiliation with Anglo Saxon cultures, Nordic cultures, or other white European cultures. Some… … Wikipedia
White Terror — Données clés Réalisation Daniel Schweizer Sociétés de production Dschoint Ventschr Filmproduktion Pays d’origine Suisse … Wikipédia en Français