- Joe Camel
Joe Camel (officially Old Joe) was the advertising
mascotfor Camel cigarettesfrom late 1987to July 12, 1997, appearing in magazine advertisements, billboards, and other print media.
R. J. ReynoldsU.S. marketingteam, looking for an idea to promote Camel's 75th anniversary, re-discovered Joe in the company's archives in the late 1980s.
Quote from the "New York Times": [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE2DF133CF931A25751C1A967958260&n=Top/News/Business/Small%20Business/Marketing%20and%20Advertising] ::"Joe Camel was actually born in Europe. The caricatured camel was created in 1974 by a British artist, Nicholas Price, for a French advertising campaign that subsequently ran in other countries in the 1970s. Indeed, Mr. O'Toole recalled a visit to France many years ago during which he glimpsed Joe Camel wearing a Foreign Legion cap. The inspiration behind Mr. Price's cartoon was the camel, named Old Joe, that has appeared on all Camel packages since the brand's initial appearance in 1913.
Joe Camel first appeared in the U.S. in 1988, in materials created for the 75th anniversary of the Camel brand by Trone Advertising. Trone is a mid-size agency in Greensboro, N.C., that Reynolds used on various advertising and promotional projects."
1991, the Journal of the American Medical Associationpublished a studyFischer PM, Schwartz MP, Richards JW Jr, Goldstein AO, Rojas TH. Brand logo recognition by children aged 3 to 6 years. Mickey Mouse and Old Joe the Camel. JAMA. 1991 Dec 11;266(22):3145-8. PMID 1956101] showing that more children 5 and 6 years old could recognize Joe Camel than could recognize Mickey Mouseor Darrian Greer, and alleged that the "Joe Camel" campaign was supposedly targeting children—despite R. J. Reynolds' contention that the campaign had been researched only among adults and was directed only at the smokers of other brands. At that time it was estimated that over 30% of all cigarettes sold in the U.S. were Marlboros. Subsequently, the American Medical Associationasked R. J. Reynolds Nabisco to pull the campaign. R. J. Reynolds refused, and the Joe Camel Campaign continued. In 1991, Janet Mangini, a San Francisco-based attorney, brought a suit against R. J. Reynolds, challenging the company for targeting minors with its "Joe Camel" advertising campaign. In her complaint, Mangini alleged that teenage smokers accounted for US$476 million of Camel cigarette sales in 1992. When the Joe Camel advertisements started in 1988, that figure was only at US$6 million, "implicitly suggesting such advertisements have harmed a great many teenagers by luring them intoextended use of and addiction to tobacco products."Mangini v. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., 7 Cal. 4th 1057, 1073-74 (1994). R. J. Reynolds. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dyf53a00.]
R. J. Reynolds to this day has denied Joe Camel was intended to be directed at children; the company maintains that Joe Camel's target audience was 25–49-year-old males and current Marlboro smokers. In response to the criticism, R. J. Reynolds instituted "Let's Clear the Air on Smoking", a campaign of full-page magazine advertisements consisting entirely of text, typically set in large type, denying those charges, and declaring that smoking is "an adult custom".
Internal documents produced to the court in Mangini v. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company,
San FranciscoSuperior Court No. 959516, demonstrated the industry's interest in targeting children as future smokers.Coughlin PJ, Janacek F Jr. A Review of R. J. Reynolds' Internal Documents Produced in Mangini vs. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Civil Number 939359: The Case that Rid California and the American Landscape of "Joe Camel". 1997. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/doc_research_mangini.jsp] The importance of the youth market was illustrated in a 1974 presentation by RJR's Vice-President of Marketing who explained that the "young adult market . . . represent [s] tomorrow's cigarette business. As this 14-24 age group matures,they will account for a key share of the total cigarette volume -- for at least the next 25 years."Tucker, CA. Presentation to the Board of Directors of RJR Industries (9/30/74). R. J. Reynolds. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/pqd49d00 ] A 1974 memo by the R. J. Reynolds Research Department points out that capturing the young adult market is vital because "virtually all [smokers] start by the age of 25" and "most smokers begin smoking regularly and select a usual brand at or before the age of 18." [Tredennick. THE PURPOSE OF THIS MEMORANDUM IS TO ANSWER THE QUESTION ""WHAT CAUSES SMOKERS TO SELECT THEIR FIRST BRAND OF CIGARETTES?"". 3 July 1974. R. J. Reynolds. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/agv29d00]
In July 1997, under pressure from the impending Mangini trial, Congress and various public-interest groups, RJR announced it would settle out of court and voluntarily end its Joe Camel campaign. A new campaign with a more adult theme debuted: instead of Joe Camel, it had a plain image of a
quadrupedal, non- anthropomorphic camel. This image is still used in advertisements for Camel today. As part of the agreement, RJR also paid $10 million to San Francisco and the other Californiacities and counties whointervened in the Mangini litigation. This money was earmarked primarily to fund anti-smoking efforts targeted at youthCoughlin PJ, Janacek F Jr. A Review of R. J. Reynolds' Internal Documents Produced in Mangini vs. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Civil Number 939359: The Case that Rid California and the American Landscape of "Joe Camel". 1997. http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/doc_research_mangini.jsp] .
A less serious controversy exists in the form of the supposed "hidden" image within Joe Camel's face. According to a popular urban legend, the camel is designed to resemble male genitalia. This situation is lamented in the
Pansy Divisionsong "Touch My Joe Camel". In it the lead singer claims, "The company denies it all They say it's not a cock and balls Little kids, even they understand It's not a camel's face, but a sexual gland"Ginoli, Jon. Touch My Joe Camel Lyrics. http://www.actionext.com/names_p/pansy_division_lyrics/touch_my_joe_camel.html]
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