Pinaceae

Pinaceae

Taxobox
name = Pinaceae



image_width = 250px
image_caption = "Pinus sylvestris"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Pinophyta
classis = Pinopsida
ordo = Pinales
familia = Pinaceae
familia_authority = Lindley
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = Subfamily Pinoideae "Pinus" - pines (about 115 species) Subfamily Piceoideae "Picea" - spruces (about 35 species) Subfamily Laricoideae "Cathaya" (one species) "Larix" - larches (about 14 species) "Pseudotsuga" - douglas-firs (five species) Subfamily Abietoideae "Pseudolarix" - golden larch (one species) "Abies" - firs (about 50 species) "Cedrus" - cedars (two to four species) "Keteleeria" (three species) "Nothotsuga" (one species) "Tsuga" - hemlock (nine species)

The family Pinaceae (pine family), is in the order Pinales and includes many of the well-known conifers of commercial importance such as cedars, firs, hemlocks, larches, pines and spruces. It is the largest conifer family in species diversity, with between 220-250 species (depending on taxonomic opinion) in 11 genera, and the second-largest (after Cupressaceae) in geographical range, found in most of the Northern Hemisphere with the majority of the species in temperate climates but ranging from subarctic to tropical. One species just crosses the equator in southeast Asia. Major centres of diversity are found in the mountains of southwest China, Mexico, central Japan and California.

They are trees (rarely shrubs) growing from 2 to 100 m tall, mostly evergreen (except "Larix" and "Pseudolarix", deciduous), resinous, monoecious, with subopposite or whorled branches, and spirally arranged, linear (needle-like) leaves. The female cones are large and usually woody, 2-60 cm long, with numerous spirally-arranged scales, and two winged seeds on each scale. The male cones are small, 0.5-6 cm long, and fall soon after pollination; pollen dispersal is by wind. Seed dispersal is mostly by wind, but some species have large seeds with reduced wings, and are dispersed by birds. The embryos are multi-cotyledonous, with 3-24 cotyledons.

Classification

The 11 genera are divided into four subfamilies, based on the cone, seed and leaf morphology:
# Cones biennial, rarely triennial, with each year's scale growth distinct, forming an umbo on each scale. Cone scale base broad, concealing the seeds fully from abaxial view. Seed without resin vesicles. Seed wing holding the seed in a pair of claws. Leaves with primary stomatal bands adaxial (above the xylem) or equally on both surfaces. Subfamily Pinoideae ("Pinus")
# Cones annual, without a distinct umbo. Cone scale base broad, concealing the seeds fully from abaxial view. Seed without resin vesicles, blackish. Seed wing holding the seed loosely in a cup. Leaves with primary stomatal bands adaxial (above the xylem) or equally on both surfaces. Subfamily Piceoideae ("Picea")
# Cones annual, without a distinct umbo. Cone scale base broad, concealing the seeds fully from abaxial view. Seed without resin vesicles, whitish. Seed wing holding the seed tightly in a cup. Leaves with primary stomatal bands abaxial (below the phloem vessels) only. Subfamily Laricoideae ("Larix, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga")
# Cones annual, without a distinct umbo. Cone scale base narrow, with the seeds partly visible in abaxial view. Seed with resin vesicles. Seed wing holding the seed tightly in a cup. Leaves with primary stomatal bands abaxial (below the phloem vessels) only. Subfamily Abietoideae ("Abies, Cedrus, Pseudolarix, Keteleeria, Nothotsuga, Tsuga")

References

* Farjon, A. 1998. "World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 300 p. ISBN 1-900347-54-7.

External links

* [http://www.pinetum.org/photos.htm Arboretum de Villardebelle] Photos page - many images.
* [http://www.pinetum.org/cones/mpfcones.htm Arboretum de Villardebelle] Cones page - images of cones of many species
* [http://www.pinetum.org/noteRBGE.htm Classification of Pinaceae]
* [http://www.conifers.org/pi/index.htm Gymnosperm Database] - Pinaceae


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Pinaceae — Pinaceae …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pinaceae — es una familia de plantas de la orden Pinales, división Pinophyta, clase Pinopsida. Son árboles o raramente arbustos, generalmente perennifolios, resiníferos, monoicos, de ramificación monopódica. Hojas aciculares, dispuestas helicoidalmente… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Pinaceae —   [zu lateinisch pinus »Kiefer«], wissenschaftlicher Name der Kieferngewächse …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Pinaceae — Pinaceae, Familie der ⇒ Pinales mit ca. 250 Arten, zu denen die wichtigsten heimischen Nadelbäume gehören; nadelförmige, schraubig angeordnete, immergrüne (Lärche sommergrüne) Blätter; zwei Samen pro Samenschuppe; holzige Zapfen. Die… …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • Pinaceae — Pinus brutia …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pinaceae —   Pináceas Pinus sylvestris …   Wikipedia Español

  • Pinaceae — Kieferngewächse Gemeine Kiefer (Pinus sylvestris), Illustration Systematik Unterreich: Gefäßpflanzen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pinaceae — noun a family of Pinaceae • Syn: ↑family Pinaceae, ↑pine family • Hypernyms: ↑gymnosperm family • Member Holonyms: ↑Coniferales, ↑order Coniferales …   Useful english dictionary

  • Pinaceae — …   Википедия

  • Pinaceae — ▪ tree family       the pine family of conifers, 11 genera and 210 species of trees (rarely shrubs) native to north temperate regions. Fir (Abies), Keteleeria, Cathaya, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga), hemlock (Tsuga, with Nothotsuga sometimes… …   Universalium


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