Zaparoan languages

Zaparoan languages

Infobox Language family
region=western Amazon
fam1=Saparo-Yawan ?

Zaparoan (also Sáparoan, Záparo, Zaparoano, Zaparoana) is an endangered language family of Peru and Ecuador with fewer than 700 speakers.


Zaparoan consists of 6 languages:

*Záparo (a.k.a. Zápara, Sáparo, Kayapwe, Káyapwï; dialects are Záparo and Conambo)
*Arabela (a.k.a. Chiripuno, Chiripunu)
*Andoa (a.k.a. Shimigae, Semigae, Gaye, Gae)
*Aushiri (not to be confused with Huaorani which is also known as Aushiri)
*Iquito (a.k.a. Akenóini, Iquita, Amacacore, Hamacore, Quiturran, Puca-Uma, Ikito)
*Cahuarano (a.k.a. Kawarano, KawaráIPA|ːn)

Andoa and Aushiri are extinct. All languages are severely endangered.

Genetic relations

Payne (1984) and Kaufman (1994) suggest a relationship with the Yaguan family in a "Sáparo-Yáwan" stock, contrary to Greenberg's (1987) classification.

Swadesh (1954) also groups Zaparoan with Yaguan within his "Zaparo-Peba" phylum.

Greenberg (1987) places Zaparoan together with the Cahuapanan family into a "Kahuapana-Zaparo" grouping within his larger "Andean" phylum, but this is generally rejected by historical linguists.

Kaufman (1994) notes that Tovar (1984) includes the unclassified Taushiro under Zaparoan following the tentative opinion of SSILA.

Stark (1985) includes the extinct Omurano under Zaparoan. Gordon (2005) follows Stark.

External links

* Ethnologue: [ Zaparoan]
* Proel: [ Familia Zaparoana]
* [ Zaparo’s lost secrets]


* Adelaar, Willem F. H.; & Muysken, Pieter C. (2004). "The languages of the Andes". Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press.
* Campbell, Lyle. (1997). "American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
* Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world" (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version:
* Greenberg, Joseph H. (1987). "Language in the Americas". Stanford: Stanford University Press.
* Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), "Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages" (pp. 13-67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
* Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), "Atlas of the world's languages" (pp. 46-76). London: Routledge.
* Payne, Doris. (1984). Evidence for a Yaguan-Zaparoan connection. In D. Derbyshire (Ed.), "SIL working papers: University of North Dakota session" (Vol. 28; pp. 131-156).
* Stark, Louisa R. (1985). Indigenous languages of lowland Ecuador: History and current status. In H. E. M. Klein & L. R. Stark (Eds.), "South American Indian languages: Retrospect and prospect" (pp. 157-193). Austin: University of Texas Press.
* Suárez, Jorge. (1974). South American Indian languages. In "Encyclopaedia Britannica" (15th ed., Vol. 17, pp. 105-112).
* Swadesh, Morris. (1959). "Mapas de clasificación lingüística de México y las Américas. México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
* Tovar, Antonio; & Larrucea de Tovar, Consuelo. (1984). "Catálogo de las lenguas de América de Sur" (nueva edición). Madrid: Gredos.

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