Taekwondo

Taekwondo

Infobox martial art



logocaption =
logosize = 50px


imagecaption = A WTF taekwondo sparring match
imagesize =
name = Taekwondo
aka = Taekwon-Do, Tae Kwon-Do, Tae Kwon Do
focus = Striking
country = flag|Korea
creator =
parenthood =
olympic = Since 2000 (WTF regulations)
website =
Infobox Korean name
hangul=태권도
hanja=跆拳道
mr=T'aekwŏndo
rr=Taegwondo

Taekwondo (Korean;태권도IPAEng|thɛʔkwʌndo; English;IPAEng|ˈteɪˈkwɒnˈdoʊ) is a Korean martial art and the national sport of South Korea. It is the world's most popular martial art in terms of number of practitioners. [cite book
title = Tae Kwon Do: The Ultimate Reference Guide to the World's Most Popular Martial Art
isbn = 978-0816038398
author = Park Yeon Hee
coauthors = Park Yeon Hwan, Jon Gerrard
year = 1989
publisher = Checkmark Books
] "Kyeorugi", or sparring, is an official Olympic sporting event. In Korean, "tae" 태 linktext|跆 means "foot"; "kwon" 권 linktext|拳 means "fist"; and "do" 도 linktext|道 means "way"; so "taekwondo" is loosely translated as "the way of the foot and fist" but can be best translated as, "the art of kicking and punching."

"Taekwondo"'s popularity has resulted in the varied evolution of the martial art into several domains: as with many other arts, it combines combat techniques, self-defense, sport, exercise, meditation and philosophy. "Taekwondo" is also used by the South Korean military as part of its training. [cite web
title = What is the "World Taekwondo Federation"?
author = Sung Il Oh
url = http://militaryarts.kr/article5.php
publisher = Korean Military Arts Federation
quote = Taekwondo is the basis for the physical fitness program of the Korean army.
]

Traditional "taekwondo" is typically not competition-oriented but stems from military roots with great emphasis on offense. Modern Taekwondo, on the other hand, tends to emphasize control and self-defense. Formally, there are two main styles of "taekwondo". One comes from the Kukkiwon, the source of the sparring system "shihap kyeorugi" which is now an event at the summer Olympic Games and which is governed by the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), the other comes from the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF). [cite news
title =General Choi Hong Hi
date=2002-06-26
accessdate=2008-07-18
work=The Daily Telegraph
publisher=Telegraph Media Group
location=London
url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1398386/General-Choi-Hong-Hi.html
]

Although there are doctrinal and technical differences between the two main styles and among the various organizations, the art in general emphasizes kicks thrown from a mobile stance, employing the leg's greater reach and power (compared to the arm). "Taekwondo" training generally includes a system of blocks, kicks, punches, and open-handed strikes and may also include various take-downs or sweeps, throws, and joint locks.

History

The history of "taekwondo" has been a matter of contention. "Taekwondo" organizations officially state that "taekwondo" was derived from earlier Korean martial arts.cite web
url = http://www.kukkiwon.or.kr/english/information/information01.jsp?div=01
title = Kukkiwon: Taekwondo History
accessdate = 2008-06-27
] cite web
url = http://www.wtf.org/site/about_taekwondo/history/ancient.htm
title = About Tae Kwon Do
publisher = The World Taekwondo Federation
] cite web
url = http://www.koreataekwondo.org/KTA_ENG/html/ency/intro01_4.asp
title = Historical Background of Taekwondo
publisher = The Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA)
] cite web
url = http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761585873/Tae_Kwon_Do.html
title = Tae Kwon Do
year = 2008
publisher = Microsoft Corporation
work = Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia
] cite web
url = http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/580146/tae-kwon-do
title = Tae Kwon Do
year = 2008
publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica
work = Encyclopædia Britannica Online
] cite web
url = http://www.taekwondobible.com/discussion/compare/style-compae.html
title = Comparing Styles of Taekwondo, Taekkyon and Karate(Video)
publisher = TaekwondoBible.com
] Others state that "taekwondo" is derived from native Korean martial arts with influences from neighboring countriescite book
last = Lawler
first = Jennifer
title = The Secrets of Tae Kwon Do
year = 1999
publisher = Masters Press
location = Chicago
isbn = 1-57028-202-1
chapter = The History of Tae Kwon Do
quote = Tae Kwon Do itself developed in Korea from Chinese origins.
] cite journal
author = 허인욱 (In Uk Heo)
year = 2004
month = January
title = 형성과정으로 본 태권도의 정체성에 관하여 (A Study on Shaping of the Taekwondo)
journal = 체육사학회지 (Korean Journal of History for Physical Education)
volume = 14
issue = 1
pages = pp. 79-87
url = http://www.reportnet.co.kr/detail/997/996990.html
language = Korean with English abstract
accessdate = 2008-06-27
quote =
] cite web
url = http://www.worldtaekwondo.com/history.htm
title = The History of Taekwondo
author = Glen R. Morris
] cite web
author = Patrick Zukeran
url = http://www.probe.org/content/view/1121/65/
title = The Origins and Popularity of the Martial Arts
publisher = Probe Ministries
year = 2003
] cite journal
last = Henning
first = Stanley E.
year = 1981
month = December
title = The Chinese Martial Arts in Historical Perspective
journal = Military Affairs
volume = 45
issue = 4
pages = pp. 173-179
publisher = Society for Military History
issn = 0899-3718
quote = The Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-220 A.D.) was a period during which conscript armies, trained in the martial arts, expanded the Chinese empire to Turkestan in the west and Korea in the northeast, where commanderies were established. It is possible that Chinese "shoubo" was transmitted to Korea at this time, and that it was the antecedent to Korean Taekwondo. According to one recent Korean source, "Taekwondo is known to have had its beginning in the period 209-427 A.D. ..."
] or that it was primarily derived from karate learned by Koreans during the Japanese occupation.cite journal
last = Capener
first = Steven D.
year = 1995
month = Winter
title = Problems in the Identity and Philosophy of T'aegwondo and Their Historical Causes
journal = Korea Journal
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher = Korean National Commission for UNESCO
issn = 0023-3900
quote = ..."t'aegwondo" was first brought into Korea from Japan in the form of Japanese "karate" around the time of the liberation of Korea from Japanese colonial rule...
] cite book
last = Madis
first = Eric
editor = Green, Thomas A. and Joseph R. Svinth
title = Martial Arts in the Modern World
year = 2003
publisher = Praeger Publishers
isbn = 0275981533
chapter = The Evolution of Taekwondo from Japanese Karate
quote = The following essay links the origins of taekwondo to twentieth-century Shotokan, Shudokan, and Shito-ryu karate and shows how the revised history was developed to support South Korean nationalism.
] [ [http://www.donga.com/docs/magazine/new_donga/200204/nd2002040010.html 이종우 국기원 부원장의 ‘태권도 과거’충격적 고백! ] Dong-a Ilbo"TKD was transformed from karate(China origin)."]

The oldest Korean martial art was an amalgamation of unarmed combat styles developed by the three rival Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Silla and Baekje.cite book
last = Capener
first = Steven D.
coauthors = H. Edward Kim (ed.)
title = Taekwondo: The Spirit of Korea (portions of)
publisher = Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Republic of Korea
year = 2000
location =
pages =
url = http://www.martialartsresource.com/anonftp/pub/the_dojang/digests/spirit.html
isbn =
] Young men were trained in unarmed combat techniques to develop strength, speed, and survival skills. The most popular of these techniques was "subak", with "taekkyeon" being the most popular of the segments of "subak".

Those who demonstrated strong natural aptitude were selected as trainees in the new special warrior corps, called the Hwarang. It was believed that young men with a talent for the liberal arts may have the grace to become competent warriors. These warriors were instructed in academics as well as martial arts, learning philosophy, history, a code of ethics, and equestrian sports. Their military training included an extensive weapons program involving swordsmanship and archery, both on horseback and on foot, as well as lessons in military tactics and unarmed combat using "subak". Although "subak" was a leg-oriented art in Goguryeo, Silla's influence added hand techniques to the practice of "subak".

During this time a few select Sillan warriors were given training in Taek Kyon by the early masters from Koguryo. The Taek Kyon trained warriors then became known as the Hwarang. The Hwarang set up a military academy for the sons of royalty in Silla called Hwarang-do, which means "The way of flowering manhood." The Hwarang studied Taek Kyon, history, Confucian Philosophy, ethics, Buddhist Morality, and military tactics. The guiding principles of the Hwarang warriors were loyalty, filial duty, trustworthiness, valor, and justice. The makeup of the Hwarang-do education was based on the Five Codes of Human Conduct written by a Buddhist scholar, fundamental education, Taek Kyon and social skills. Taek Kyon was spread throughout Korea because the Hwarang traveled all around the peninsula to learn about the other regions and people.

In spite of Korea's rich history of ancient and traditional martial arts, Korean martial arts faded into obscurity during the Joseon Dynasty. Korean society became highly centralized under Korean Confucianism and martial arts were poorly regarded in a society whose ideals were epitomized by its scholar-kings. [cite book
last = Cummings
first = B.
title = Korea's Place in the Sun
publisher = W.W. Norton
date = 2005
location = New York, NY
pages =
isbn =
] Formal practices of traditional martial arts such as "subak" and "taekkyeon" were reserved for sanctioned military uses. However folks practice of taekkyeon as a kicking game still persisted into the 19th century. There are many associations of Taekwon-do, including (not limited to) the ITF, ITA, WTF, WTA, and the ATA.

Modern Development

The Japanese occupation of Korea formally began in 1910, under repression of all facets of Korean identity including folk culture, language and history.cite web
url = http://www.stanford.edu/group/hwimori/culture_of_resistance.htm
title = Culture of Resistance
accessdate = 2008-08-22
] Koreans were forced to take Japanese names and to worship at Shinto shrines; Korean-language newspapers and magazines were banned; and during the war, hundreds of thousands of Koreans were forced into service to support Japanese war efforts.cite book
last = Han
first = Woo-Keun
title = The History of Korea
publisher = The Eul-Yoo Publishing Company
location = Korea
year = 1970
isbn = 978-8932450827
] Martial arts such as "taekkyeon" (or "subak") were also prohibited during this time;cite paper
author = Kyungji Kim
title = Taekwondo: a brief history
version =
publisher = Korea Journal
year = 1986
url =
format =
accessdate = 2007-11-16
] however, "taekkyeon" survived through underground teaching and folk custom.cite web
url = http://www.kukkiwon.or.kr/english/information/information01.jsp?div=01
title = Kukkiwon: Taekwondo History
accessdate = 2008-06-27
] [ [http://www.taekkyonkorea.com/guide/?file=history History of Taekkyon. "Taekkyon Korea"] ko] [cite DVD
first = Lee
last = Yong-bok
publisher = Korea Taekkyon Association
title = Taekkyon: Traditional Korean Martial Art (2005)
"Taekkyon is a native Korean martial art that was nearly lost forever during the early 1900s. Preserved by Grandmaster Song Duk-ki until his death, it is considered a Cultural Asset by the Korean government"
] [cite web
url = http://www.escapeartist.com/efam/93/art_Korea_Martial_Art.html
title = Korean Taekkyon: Tradition Martial Art Dance Form
publisher = Escape from America magazine
author = Antonio Graceffo
] During the occupation the few Koreans who were able to study in Japan were exposed to Japanese martial arts in some cases receiving black beltsPark, S. W. (1993): About the author. In H. H. Choi: "Taekwon-Do: The Korean art of self-defence", 3rd ed. (Vol. 1, pp. 241–274). Mississauga: International Taekwon-Do Federation.] . Others were exposed to martial arts in China and Manchuria. [cite book
first = Doug
last = Cook
publisher = YMAA Publication Center
location = Boston
year = 2006
title = Traditional Taekwondo: Core Techniques, History and Philosophy
isbn = 978-1594390661
pages = p. 19
chapter = Chapter 3: The Formative Years of Taekwondo
] cite web
url = http://www.worldtaekwondo.com/history.htm
title = The History of Taekwondo
author = Glen R. Morris
] [cite web
url = http://www.itf-information.com/information02.htm
title = interviews with General Choi.
publisher = The Condensed Encyclopedia Fifth Edition
author = Choi Hong Hi
year = 1999
Copyright = 1988, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1999 General Choi, Hong Hi.
"Young Choi’s father sent him to study calligraphy under one of the most famous teachers in Korea, Mr. Han II Dong. Han, in addition to his skills as a calligrapher, was also a master of Taek Kyon, the ancient Korean art of foot fighting. The teacher, concerned over the frail condition of his new student, began teaching him the rigorous exercises of Taek Kyon to help build up his body."
]

When the occupation ended in 1945, Korean martial arts schools ("kwan"s) began to open in Korea under various influences. cite web
url = http://www.dbpia.co.kr/view/ar_view.asp?arid=830797
title = Comparative Study of the Techniques of Taekwondo and Taekkyon
author = Choi Young-Ryul, Jeon Jeong-Woo
year = 2006
pages = 197~206
publisher = Institution of physical exercise, Korea
type of publication = Academic Journal
] There are differing views on the origins of the arts taught in these schools. Some believe that they taught martial arts that were based primarily upon the traditional Korean martial arts taekkyon and subak [cite web
url = http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=LB&p_theme=lb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=10ADF88FD5D15A6B&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM
title = Brief History of Taekwondo
publisher = Long Beach Press-Telegram
year = 2005
] , or upon a variety of martial arts such as taekkyon, kungfu and karate.cite web
url = http://dbpia.co.kr/view/ar_view.asp?start_page=1&end_page=10&view_

title = An Analysis on the various views of Taekwondo History
author = Jung Kun-Pyo, Lee Kang-Koo
year = 2007
pages = 3~12(10 pages)
publisher = Institution of Physical science, Korea
type of publication = Academic Journal
] Others believe that these schools taught arts that were almost entirely based upon karate.cite paper
author = Capener, Steven D.
title = Problems in the Identity and Philosophy of T'aegwondo and Their Historical Causes
version =
publisher = Korea Journal
date = Winter 1995
url = http://www.ekoreajournal.net/archive/detail.jsp?BACK

format =
accessdate = 2008-01-14
] cite paper
author = Burdick, Dakin
title = People and Events of Taekwondo's Formative Years
version = volume 6, issue 1
publisher = Journal of Asian Martial Arts
year = 1997
url = http://journalofasianmartialarts.com/
format =
accessdate =
]

In 1952, at the height of the Korean War, there was a martial arts exhibition in which the "kwan"s displayed their skills. In one demonstration, Nam Tae Hi smashed thirteen roof tiles with a forefist punch. Following the demonstration, South Korean President Syngman Rhee instructed Choi Hong Hi to introduce the martial arts to the Korean army.cite web
last = Oh Do Kwan
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Taekwon-Do Pioneers
work = TaeKwon History
publisher = Oh Do Kwan
date = 2006
url = http://www.ohdokwan.ca/namtaehi.html
accessdate = 2008-03-25
]

By the mid-1950s, nine "kwan"s had emerged. Syngman Rhee ordered that the various schools unify under a single system. The name "taekwondo" was either submitted by Choi Hong Hi, or Song Duk Son of Chung Do Kwan and was accepted on April 11, 1955. As it stands today, General Choi is the founder of Taekwondo. , but not used by every Kwan until 1965.cite book
last = Sik
first = Kang Won
coauthors = Lee Kyong Myung
title = A Modern History of Taekwondo
publisher = Pogyŏng Munhwasa
location = Seoul
year = 1999
isbn = 978-8935801244
] The Korean Taekwondo Association (KTA) was formed in 1961 to facilitate the unification.cite web
title = History
work = Korea Taekwondo Association
publisher = www.koreataekwondo.org
date = 2003
url = http://www.koreataekwondo.org/english/html/kta/kta_index.html
accessdate = 2007-08-11
] Shortly thereafter, "taekwondo" made its début worldwide. Standardization efforts in South Korea stalled, as the "kwan"s continued to teach differing styles. Another request from the Korean government for unification resulted in the formation of the Korea Tae Soo Do Association, which changed its name back to the Korean Taekwondo Association in 1965 following a change of leadership.

Currently, "Taekwondo" is practiced in 188 countries with over 70 million practitioners and 4 million individuals with black belts throughout the world. [ [http://www.boisestate.edu/tkd/what%20is%20tkd.html Boise state University taekwondo Club] "Today Taekwondo is the most recognized Korean Martial Art. Taekwondo's popularity is not only here in the U.S., but internationally as well. Its evolution and development as an international amateur sport have grown quickly. Taekwondo is practiced in 188 countries with over 70 million practitioners and 3 million individuals with black belts throughout the world." ] It is now one of only two Asian martial arts that are included in the Olympic Games; it became a demonstration event starting with the 1988 games in Seoul, and became an official medal event starting with the 2000 games in Sydney.

Features

"Taekwondo" is known for its emphasis on kicking techniques, which distinguishes it from martial arts such as karate or southern styles of kung fu. The rationale is that the leg is the longest and strongest weapon a martial artist has, and kicks thus have the greatest potential to execute powerful strikes without successful retaliation. One defining kick of "taekwondo" is the back kick or the side kick.

"Taekwondo" as a sport and exercise is popular with people of both sexes and of many ages. Physically, "taekwondo" develops strength, speed, balance, flexibility, and stamina. An example of the union of mental and physical discipline is the breaking of boards, which requires both physical mastery of the technique and the concentration to focus one's strength.

A "taekwondo" student typically wears a uniform ("dobok" 도복), often white but sometimes black or other colors, with a belt ("tti" 띠) tied around the waist. The belt indicates the student's rank. The school or place where instruction is given is called the "dojang" 도장.

Although each "taekwondo" club or school will be different, a "taekwondo" student can typically expect to take part in most or all of the following:

* Learning the techniques and curriculum of "taekwondo"
* Both anaerobic and aerobic workout, including stretching
* Self-defense techniques ("hosinsul" 호신술)
* Patterns (also called forms, "pumsae" 품새, "teul" 틀, "hyeong" 형)
* Sparring (called "kyeorugi" 겨루기, or "matseogi" 맞서기 in the ITF), which may include 7-, 3-, 2- and 1-step sparring, free-style sparring, arranged sparring, point sparring, and other types
* Relaxation and meditation exercises
* Throwing and/or falling techniques ("dunjigi" 던지기 and "torojigi" 떨어지기)
* Breaking ("gyeokpa" 격파 or "weerok"), using techniques to break boards for testing, training and martial arts demonstrations. Demonstrations often also incorporate bricks, tiles, blocks of ice or other materials. Can be separated into three types:
** Power breaking - using straightforward techniques to break as many boards as possible.
** Special techniques - breaking fewer boards but using jumping or flying techniques to attain greater heights, distances, or to clear obstacles.
** Speed breaking- the breaker holds a board with one hand and tries to break it by going fast enough to break it and not by using their power
* Exams to progress to the next rank
* A focus on mental and ethical discipline, justice, etiquette, respect, and self-confidence

Some "taekwondo" instructors also incorporate the use of pressure points, known as "ji ap sul", as well as grabbing self-defense techniques borrowed from other martial arts, such as Hapkido and Judo.

Organizations

The two different systems of "taekwondo" are named after their respective organizations, the International Tae Kwon Do Federation (ITF) and the World Tae Kwon Do Federation (WTF). The ITF was founded in 1966 by General Choi Hong Hi. After his death in 2002, a number of succession disputes splintered the ITF into three different groups, all claiming to be the original.The three ITF organizations are private, Two of the three are located in Austria, with the third in Canada. The unofficial training headquarters of the International Taekwondo Federation is located at the Taekwondo Palace in Pyongyang, North Korea and was founded in the mid-1990s.

The Korea Taekwondo Association Central Dojang was opened in South Korea in 1972. A few months later, the name was changed to the Kukkiwon. The following year, the World Taekwondo Federation was formed. The International Olympic Committee recognized the WTF and "taekwondo" sparring in 1980.

Although the terms "WTF" and "Kukkiwon" are often mistakenly used interchangeably, the Kukkiwon is a completely different organization which trains and certifies instructors and issues official "dan" and "pum" certificates worldwide. The Kukkiwon has its own unique physical building that contains the administrative offices of Kukkiwon (World Taekwondo Headquarters) in Seoul, South Korea and is the system of "taekwondo". The WTF is just a tournament committee and is not a style or a system.

There are many other private organizations like the American Taekwondo Federation (ATF), the American Taekwondo Association (ATA), the International Taekwondo Alliance (ITA), the Action International Martial Arts Association (AIMAA), the Amateur Athletic Union Taekwondo (AAU), the International Taekwondo Association (ITA), the American Taekwondo Foundation (ATF), the Global Taekwon-Do Federation (GTF) and so on several more organizations. Events and competitions held by private organizations are mostly closed to other "taekwondo" students. However, the WTF-sanctioned events allow any person, regardless of school affiliation or martial arts style, to compete in WTF events as long as he or she is a member of the WTF Member National Association in his or her nation, which is open to anyone to join. The major technical differences among these many organizations revolve around the patterns, called "hyeong" 형, "pumsae" 품새, or "teul" 틀, sets of prescribed formal sequences of movements that demonstrate mastery of posture, positioning, and technique, sparring rules for competition, and philosophy.

In addition to these private organizations, the original schools ("kwans") that formed the organization that would eventually become the Kukkiwon continue to exist as independent fraternal membership organizations that support the WTF and the Kukkiwon. The official curriculum of the "kwans" is that of the Kukkiwon. The "kwans" also function as a channel for the issuing of Kukkiwon "dan" and "pum" certification (black belt ranks) for their members.

Ranks, belts and promotion

Traditional tae kwon do uses only 10 "geups"/Gups or ranks. Today's more contemporary schools often have added to this system or have varied it based on age and such. "Taekwondo" ranks are sometimes separated into "junior" and "senior" or "student" and "instructor" sections. The junior section typically consists of ten ranks indicated by the Korean word "geup" 급 (also Romanized as "gup" or "kup"). The junior ranks are usually identified by belts of various colors, depending on the school, so these ranks are sometimes called "color belts". "Gup" rank may be indicated by stripes on belts rather than by colored belts. Students begin at tenth "gup" (usually indicated by a white belt) and advance toward first "gup" (usually indicated by a red belt with a black stripe).

The senior section is made up of nine full ranks of black belt. These ranks are called "dan" 단, also referred to as "black belts" and "degrees" (as in "third "dan" or "third-degree black belt"). Black belts begin at first degree and advance to second, third, and so on. The degree is often indicated on the belt itself with stripes, Roman numerals, or other methods; but sometimes black belts are plain and unadorned regardless of rank.

To advance from one rank to the next, students typically complete promotion tests in which they demonstrate their proficiency in the various aspects of the art before a panel of judges or their teacher. Promotion tests vary from school to school, but may include such elements as the execution of patterns, which combine various techniques in specific sequences; the breaking of boards, to demonstrate the ability to use techniques with both power and control; sparring and self-defense, to demonstrate the practical application and control of techniques; and answering questions on terminology, concepts, history, and so on, to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the art. For higher dan tests, students are sometimes required to take a written test or to submit a research paper in addition to taking the practical test.

Promotion from one "gup" to the next can proceed fairly rapidly in some schools, since schools often allow "gup" promotions every two, three, or four months. Students of "gup" rank learn the most basic techniques first, then move on to more advanced techniques as they approach first "dan". Many of the older and more traditional schools will often take longer to earn rank in than newer, more contemporary schools as they may not have standard testing intervals.

In contrast, promotion from one "dan" to the next can take years. The general rule is that a black belt may advance from one rank to the next only after the number of years equivalent to the rank pursued. For example, a newly-promoted third-degree black belt may not be allowed to promote to fourth-degree until four years have passed. Some organizations also have age requirements related to "dan" promotions, and may grant younger students "pum" 품 (junior black belt) ranks rather than "dan" ranks until they reach a certain age. Black belt ranks usually have titles associated with them, such as "master" and "instructor". "Taekwondo" organizations have their own rules and standards when it comes to ranks and the titles that go with them.

Stripes are placed on the last belt the student earned, until the student tests for his/her next belt. As the student earnes higher belts, it takes longer time to test. Once at black belt, students must wait years instead of months to test for their next degree. If a student is not ready to test, the instructor waits until he or a she is ready to test in many schools.

Philosophy

Since "taekwondo" developed in several different "kwan"s, there are several different expressions of "taekwondo" philosophy. For example, the tenets of the ITF is said to be summed up by the last two phrases in the ITF Student Oath: "I shall be a champion of justice and freedom," "I shall build a better and peaceful world". [cite web
title = ITF Philosophy
author = TKD ITF
url = http://www.tkd-itf.org/pub_web/ver_eng/TKD_philosophy.html
publisher = TKD ITF
] Alternatively, the WTF philosophy is based on Eastern principles of "Sam Jae" [Three Elements] , "Eum" [the Negative or Darkness] and "Yang" [the Positive or the Brightness] with "Sam Jae" referring to "Cheon" [the Heaven] , "Ji" [the Earth] , and "In" [the Man] . The origins of these concepts originate from the Chinese classic "Book of Changes" which is considered to be one of the main canons of East Asian Philosophy. [cite web
title = WTF Philosophy
author = WTF
url = http://www.wtf.org/site/about_taekwondo/philosophy.htm
publisher = WTF
]

Competition

"Taekwondo" competition typically involves sparring, breaking, patterns, and self-defense ("hosinsul"). However, in Olympic "taekwondo" competition, only sparring is contested; and in Olympic sparring WTF competition rules are used.cite web
last = World Taekwondo Federation
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Kyorugi rules
work = Rules
publisher = www.wtf.org
date = 2004
url = http://www.wtf.org/site/rules/competition.htm
accessdate = 2007-08-11
]

WTF

Under WTF (World Taekwondo Federation) and Olympic rules, sparring is a full-contact event and takes place between two competitors in an area measuring 10 meters square. Each match or bout consists of three non-stop rounds of contact with rest between rounds. 14-17 black belt fighters fight in 2-minute rounds with a 30-second break. Points are awarded for permitted, accurate, and powerful techniques to the legal scoring areas; light contact to a scoring area does not score any points. A kick or punch that makes contact with the opponent's "hogu" (The body guard that functions as a scoring target) scores one point; a kick to the head scores two points. Punches to the head are not allowed. If a competitor is knocked down by a scoring technique and the referee counts down, then an additional point is awarded to the opponent.

At the end of three rounds, the competitor with the most points wins the match. If, during the match, one competitor gains a 7-point lead over the other, or if one competitor reaches a total of 12 points, then that competitor is immediately declared the winner and the match ends. In the event of a tie at the end of three rounds, a fourth "sudden death" overtime round will be held to determine the winner, after a 30-second rest period.

Blows are full force and if one player is knocked out by a kick to the head, the attacker is declared the winner as the WTF allows knockouts in sparring competition.But there are certain rules that they must follow. Some of the rules are such as no name calling, no punches to the head, no grabbing and there are many more.

ITF

The ITF sparring rules are similar, but differ from the WTF rules in several respects. Hand attacks to the head are allowed; flying techniques score more points than grounded techniques; the competition area is slightly smaller (9 meters square instead of 10 meters); and competitors do not wear the "hogu" used in Olympic-style sparring (although they are required to wear approved foot and hand protection equipment). A continuous point system is utilized in ITF competition, where the fighters are allowed to continue after scoring a technique. At the end of 2 minutes (or specified time) the competitor with the most scoring techniques wins. The ITF competition rules and regulations are available at the ITF information website.cite web
last = International Taekwondo Federation
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Competition Rules and Regulations
work = Rules
publisher = www.itf-information.com
date = 2000
url = http://www.itf-information.com/information10.htm
accessdate = 2007-09-06
]

ITF competitions also feature performances of patterns, breaking and "special techniques", a category where competitors perform prescribed board breaks at great heights.

AAU competitions are very similar, except that different styles of pads and gear are allowed. Any gear that has the Olympic symbol and not the WTF logo on it is approved.
* Olympic Games
* Asian Games
* South East Asian Games
* South Asian Games

Korean commands

In "taekwondo", Korean language commands are often used. For words used in counting, see Korean numerals. Often, students count in Korean during their class, and during tests they are usually asked what certain Korean words used in class mean.

References

External links

* [http://www.wtf.org/ Official site of the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF)]
* [http://www.tkd-itf.org/ International Taekwon-Do Federation]
* [http://www.itaonline.com/ Official Site of the International TaeKwonDo Alliance]


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Taekwondo — Koreanische Schreibweise koreanisches Alphabet: 태권도 chinesische Schriftzeichen: 跆拳道 Revidierte Romanisierung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Taekwondo — Khaoula Ben Hamza vs María del Rosario Espinoza …   Wikipedia Español

  • Taekwondo — / Taekwon Do / Tae Kwon Do 태권도 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • taekwondo — [ tekwɔ̃do ] n. m. • v. 1980; mot coréen ♦ Didact. Sport de combat d origine coréenne. ● taekwondo nom masculin (mot coréen) Art martial d origine coréenne. taekwondo [tekwɔ̃do] n. m. ÉTYM. V. 1980; mot coréen signifiant « la voie (do) des pieds… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • taekwondo — (del coreano; pronunciamos taecuondo ) sustantivo masculino 1. Deporte coreano de lucha, parecido al kárate, que desarrolla sobre todo las técnicas de salto: Las clases de taekwondo en los gimnasios están teniendo mucho éxito …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • taekwondo — → taekuondo …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • taekwondo — |taiquõdô| s. m. [Esporte] Arte marcial coreana, síntese contemporânea de diversos estilos tradicionais.   ‣ Etimologia: palavra coreana …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • taekwondo — (Del coreano tae kwon do, arte de lucha con manos y pies). m. Arte marcial de origen coreano, que desarrolla especialmente las técnicas del salto …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Taekwondo — Tae|kwọn|do auch: Taek|wọn|do 〈[tɛ ] n.; ; unz.〉 korean. Form der waffenlosen Selbstverteidigung [zu jap. korean. tae „springen, schlagen, stoßen“ + kwon „Faust“ + do „Weg“] * * * Tae|k|wọn|do [tɛ… ], das; [s] [korean. taekwondo, aus: tae =… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Taekwondo — (Voz japonesa.) ► sustantivo masculino DEPORTES Deporte de lucha de origen coreano basado en golpes secos con las manos o con los pies. * * * taekwondo (de or. coreano; pronunc. [taecuóndo]) m. Deporte de lucha de origen coreano, parecido al… …   Enciclopedia Universal


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