Trier


Trier

Infobox German Location
Wappen = Coat_of_arms_of_Trier.svg
lat_deg = 49 | lat_min = 45 | lat_sec = 24
lon_deg = 6 | lon_min = 38 | lon_sec = 29
Karte = Lage der kreisfreien Stadt Trier in Deutschland.pngBundesland = Rheinland-Pfalz
Landkreis = Kreisfreie Stadt
Höhe = 1543
Fläche = 117.14
Einwohner = 103518
Stand = 2006-12-31
Agglomeration = 140460
Stand = 2005
PLZ = 54290, 54292, 54293, 54294, 54295, 54296
PLZ-alt = 5500
Vorwahl = 0651
Kfz = TR
Gemeindeschlüssel = 07 2 11 000
Website = [http://www.trier.de/ www.trier.de]
Bürgermeister = Klaus Jensen
Partei = SPD
Bürgermeistertitel = Oberbürgermeister

Trier ( _fr. Trèves; Luxembourgish: "Tréier"; _la. Augusta Treverorum) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. It is the oldest city in Germany, founded in or before 16 BC. [http://redaktion.trier.de/praefectus/trier?tourist_en Website of the Municipality of Trier] ] Trier is not the only city claiming to be Germany's oldest, but it is the only one that bases this assertion on having the longest history as a "city", as opposed to a mere settlement or army camp.Fact|date=December 2007 It is also one of the few cities in Europe that have been capitals of the Roman Empire.

Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the German border with Luxembourg and within the important Mosel wine-growing region.

Trier is the oldest seat of a Christian bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop of Trier was an important ecclesiastical prince, as the Archbishopric of Trier controlled land from the French border to the Rhine. He was also one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire.

With an approximate population of 100,000, Trier was until 2005 ranked fourth alongside Kaiserslautern among the state's largest cities, after Mainz, Ludwigshafen am Rhein and Koblenz. The nearest large cities in Germany are Saarbrücken, some 80 km southeast, and Koblenz, about 100 km northeast. The closest city to Trier is the capital of Luxembourg, some 50 km to the southwest.

Trier is home to the University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD ("Aufsichts- und Dienstleistungsdirektion"), which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier. It is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg, Metz and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it also forms a central place of the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux (Saarland, Lorraine and Luxembourg), Rhineland-Palatinate and Wallonia.

Geography

Trier sits in a hollow midway along the Moselle valley, with the most significant portion of the city on the east bank of the river. Wooded and vineyard-covered slopes stretch up to the Hunsrück plateaux in the South and the Eifel in the North. The border with the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg is some 15 km distant.

Neighbouring municipalities

"Listed in clockwise order, beginning with the northernmost; all municipalities belong to the Trier-Saarburg district"

Schweich, Kenn and Longuich (all part of the "Verbandsgemeinde" Schweich an der Römischen Weinstraße), Mertesdorf, Kasel, Waldrach, Morscheid, Korlingen, Gutweiler, Sommerau and Gusterath (all in the Verbandsgemeinde Ruwer), Hockweiler, Franzenheim (both part of the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land), Konz (Verbandsgemeinde Konz), Igel, Trierweiler, Aach, Newel, Kordel (Eifel), Zemmer (all in the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land)

Organisation of city districts

The Trier urban area is divided into 19 city districts. For each district there is an "Ortsbeirat" (local council) of between 9 and 15 members, as well as an "Ortsvorsteher" (local representative). The local councils are charged with hearing the important issues that affect the district, although the final decision on any issue rests with the city council. The local councils nevertheless have the freedom to undertake limited measures within the bounds of their districts and their budgets.

The districts of Trier with area and inhabitants (July 2007):

History

According to the "Gesta Treverorum", the city was founded by Trebeta, an Assyrian prince, centuries before ancient Rome. The Roman Empire subdued the Treveri in the 1st century BC and established "Augusta Treverorum" (Lit: August (Regal, noble) [City] of the Treveri) in 30 BC. The city later became the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica, as well as the Roman prefecture of Gaul. The Porta Nigra counts among the Roman architecture of the city. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose.

The Franks occupied Trier from the Roman administration in 459 AD. In 870 it became part of Eastern Francia, which developed into the Holy Roman Empire. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages. The bishops of the city grew increasingly powerful, and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473.

In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, and the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in finally claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, and the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia. Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818.

As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century. The city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, although the rebels were forced to concede. It became part of the German Empire in 1871.

Trier was heavily bombed and bombarded in 1944 during World War II. The city became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate after the war. The university, dissolved in 1797, was restarted in the 1970s, while the Cathedral of Trier was reopened in 1974. Trier officially celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in 1984.

Infobox World Heritage Site
Name = Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier


Imagecaption=Roman bath ruins in Trier.
State Party = GER
Type = Cultural
Criteria = i, iii, iv, vi
ID = 367
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1986
Session = 10th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/367

Main sights

Trier is well known for its well-preserved Roman and medieval buildings, which include:

*the "Porta Nigra", the best preserved Roman city gate north of the Alps;
*ruins of three Roman baths, among them the largest Roman baths north of the Alps;
*the huge Constantine Basilica, a basilica in the original Roman sense, being the 67 m long throne hall of Roman Emperor Constantine; it is today used as a Protestant church.
* the Trier Cathedral ( _de. Trierer Dom or "Dom St. Peter"), a Roman Catholic church which dates back to Roman times and is home to the Holy Tunic, a garment with a recorded history back to the 12th century, in Catholic tradition said to be the robe Jesus was wearing when he died. It is only exhibited every few decades, at irregular intervals.
* The "Liebfrauenkirche" (German for "Church of Our Lady"), which is one of the most important early Gothic cathedrals in Germany and falls into the architectural tradition of the cathedrals;
*the Roman amphitheatre;
*the Roman bridge ("Römerbrücke") across the Moselle River, which is the oldest bridge north of the Alps still crossed by traffic;
*St. Matthias Abbey ("Abtei St. Matthias"), a still-in-use monastery in whose medieval church the only apostle north of the Alps is held to be buried
*St. Gangolf Church was the city's market church that rivalled the Archbishop's Trier Cathedral.
* the church of "St. Paulin", which is one of the most important Baroque churches in Rhineland-Palatinate and may have been in parts designed by the famous architect Balthasar Neumann
* the two old treadwheel cranes, the so called "Old Crane" ("der Alte Krahnen") or the "Trierian Moselle Crane" ("der Trierer Moselkrahn"), a Gothic time building from 1413, and the Baroque crane from 1774 called the (old) "Customs Crane" ("der (alte) Zollkran"), also called the "Younger Moselle Crane" (German: "der Jüngere Moselkran").
* the old Jewish cemetery (Weidegasse)

Museums

*" Rheinisches Landesmuseum" (one of the two most important German archaeological museums for the Roman period, along with the "Römisch-Germanisches Museum" in Cologne)
* "Städtisches Museum Simeonstift" (history of Trier, displaying among other exhibits a model of the medieval city)
* Toy Museum of Trier
* Ethnological and open air museum Roscheider Hof, a museum in the neighboring town of Konz, right at the city limits of Trier, which shows the history of rural culture in the northwest Rhineland Palatinate and in the area where Germany, Luxembourg and Lorraine meet.
* Fell Exhibition Slate Mine; site in the municipality of Fell, 20 kilometers from Trier, containing an underground mine, a mine museum, and a slate mining trail

Education

Trier is home to the University of Trier, founded in 1483, closed in 1796 and restarted in 1970. The city also has the Trier University of Applied Sciences.There are various "Kindergärten", primary schools and secondary schools in Trier, such as the "Hindenburg Gymnasium Trier", "Max Plank Gymnasium" and the "Pestalozzi-Hauptschule".

Miscellaneous

*Every summer Trier hosts Germany's biggest Roman festival, Brot und Spiele (German for Bread and Games).
*Trier has been the base for the German round of the World Rally Championship since 2000, with the rally's presentation held next to the Porta Nigra.
*New Trier Township, Cook County, Illinois, was originally settled by people from Trier.
*Trier holds a lavish Christmas street festival every year called the Trier Christmas Market near the Cathedral of Trier. The next one will be held from 26 November to 22 December 2008.

Infrastructure

Trier has direct railway connections to many cities. Nearest cities by train are Cologne, Saarbrücken and Luxemburg. Via the motorways A1, A48 and A64 Trier is linked with Koblenz, Saarbrücken and Luxemburg. Nearest international airports are in Luxemburg (0:40 h by car), Frankfurt-Hahn (1:00 h), Saarbrücken (1:00 h), Frankfurt (2:00 h) and Cologne/Bonn (2:00 h). The Moselle River is an important waterway and is also used for river cruises.

Notable residents

*Ambrose (ca. 340–397), saint
*Martin Bambauer (born 1970), church musician
*Helena (ca. 250-330), saint, mother of Constantine the Great
*Kaspar Olevianus (1536–1587), theologian
*Karl Marx (1818–1883), social philosopher
*Frederick A. Schroeder (1833-1899), American politician, mayor of Brooklyn
*Oswald von Nell-Breuning (1890–1991), theologian
*Guildo Horn (born 1963), singer
*Eric Jelen (born 1965), tennis player
*Xavier Bout de Marnhac French general, current commander of KFOR

ister cities

Trier is twinned with:
*flagicon|France Metz, France since 1957
*flagicon|Italy Ascoli Piceno, Italy, since 1958
*flagicon|United Kingdom Gloucester, United Kingdom, since 1959
*flagicon|Netherlands 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands, since 1968
*flagicon|Croatia Pula, Croatia, since 1971
*flagicon|USA Fort Worth, USA, since 1987
*flagicon|Germany Weimar, Germany since 1990
*flagicon|Japan Nagaoka, Japan, since 2006

References

External links

* [http://www.santatelevision.com/world/en0246/en0246.html Video about Trier Christmas Market]
* [http://www.trier.eu/ Official website]
* [http://www.stadtpanoramen.de/en/trier/trier.html Trier City Panoramas] - Panoramic Views and virtual Tours
* [http://usnp.de/trierdailyphoto/ Trier Daily Photo] - A new photograph of Trier every day.
* [http://anothertrierdailyphoto.blogspot.com/ Another Trier Daily Photo]
* [http://www.pbase.com/cincyimages/trier_germany Trier Photographs]
* [http://www.uni-trier.de/trier/trier-e.html City Guide Trier] - from the University of Trier website
* [http://www.RoscheiderHof.de/ Open Air Museum Roscheider Hof] - the Open Air Museum of the Euregio SaarLorLux
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/journals/CJ/29/1/Roman_Trier*.html LacusCurtius: Roman Trier]
* [http://www.livius.org/a/germany/trier/trier.html Livius.org: Roman Trier] - pictures


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • trier — [ trije ] v. tr. <conjug. : 7> • 1170; probablt bas lat. tritare « broyer », du class. terere 1 ♦ Choisir parmi d autres; extraire d un plus grand nombre, après examen. ⇒ sélectionner. Trier des semences une à une. Trier sur le volet. 2 ♦… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Trier — Trier: Stadt an der Mosel. * * * I Trier,   1) kreisfreie Stadt, Hauptstadt des Regierungsbezirks Trier und Verwaltungssitz des Landkreises Trier Saarburg, Rheinland Pfalz, 130 150 m über dem …   Universal-Lexikon

  • TRIER — (Treves), city in Germany and formerly also a bishopric. Archaeological evidence seems to point to the presence of Jews in Trier as early as the end of the third century C.E., although the existence of a Jewish community there at the time is… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Trier [2] — Trier (lat. Augusta Trevirorum, franz. Trèves), Hauptstadt des vormaligen Erzbistums sowie des jetzigen gleichnamigen Regierungsbezirks, Stadtkreis, in der preuß. Rheinprovinz, an der Mosel, über die hier eine alte, auf acht Schwibbogen ruhende… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Trier [1] — Trier, vormaliges Erzstift u. geistliches Kurfürstenthum, zum kurrheinischen Kreise gerechnet; grenzte an Nassau, Niederkatzenellnbogen, Simmern, Sponheim, die Besitzungen der Rheingrafen, an Lothringen, Luxemburg, Schleiden, Gerolstein u. an das …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Trier [2] — Trier (franz. Trèves), 1) Regierungsbezirk der preußischen Provinz od. des Großherzogthums Niederrhein, besteht aus dem größten Theile des Erzstiftes T., Theilen von Luxemburg, des Fürstenthums Veldenz, der Grafschaft Saarbrück, Blankenheim u.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Trier [1] — Trier, vormaliges deutsches Erzstift und geistliches Kurfürstentum im kurrheinischen Kreis, umfaßte ein Areal von 8314 qkm (151 QM.) mit 280,000 meist kath. Einwohnern und teilte sich in das obere und niedere Stift, deren ersteres Trier, das… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • trier — TRIER. v. a. Choisir entre plusieurs choses, entre plusieurs personnes. Trier du bled. trier des raisins. trier des pois, des lentilles. les Libraires ont trié les meilleurs livres de cette Bibliotheque. il a trié les Medailles les plus curieuses …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • trier — tri·er / trī ər/ n: trier of fact Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996. trier …   Law dictionary

  • trier — (Sic enim vulgo proferunt) vrbs est ad Rhenum, Augusta Treuerorum, nunc Treueris. Le pays circonvoisin de Trier, Treueri, vel Treuiri. Trier et eslire, ou separer l un d avec {{o=davec}} l autre, Legere, Eligere, Seligere, Deligere, Segregare …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • Trier — Tri er, n. [From {Try}.] 1. One who tries; one who makes experiments; one who examines anything by a test or standard. Boyle. [1913 Webster] 2. One who tries judicially. [1913 Webster] 3. (Law) A person appointed according to law to try… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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