Thallium


Thallium

Thallium (pronEng|ˈθæliəm) is a chemical element with the symbol Tl and atomic number 81. [ [http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/81.html "thallium"] , Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved November 21, 2006.] This soft gray malleable poor metal resembles tin but discolors when exposed to air. Approximately 60-70% of thallium production is used in the electronics industry, and the rest is used in the pharmaceutical industry and in glass manufacturing. It is also used in infrared detectors.cite web
url = http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1977ApOpt..16.2942N
title = Thallium selenide infrared detector
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coauthors = Hamilton, O.
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Thallium is highly toxic and is used in rat poisons and insecticides, and its use has been cut back or eliminated in many countries. It is used in murders and has the nicknames "The Poisoner's Poison" and "Inheritance powder" (alongside arsenic).

Characteristics

Thallium is very soft and malleable and can be cut with a knife. It has a metallic luster, but when exposed to air, it quickly tarnishes with a bluish-grey tinge that resembles lead. (It is preserved by keeping it under oil). A heavy layer of oxide builds up on thallium if left in air. In the presence of water, thallium hydroxide is formed.

Occurrence and production

Thallium occurs naturally in the minerals crookesite, lorandite, hutchinsonite, and pyrite.cite web|title=Chemical fact sheet — Thallium | publisher="Spectrum Laboratories" | year=2001 | month=April | url=http://www.speclab.com/elements/thallium.htm | accessdate=2008-02-02]

Thallium metal is obtained as a by-product in the production of sulfuric acid by roasting of pyrite, and also in the smelting of lead and zinc ores.

Applications

The odorless and tasteless thallium sulfate was once widely used as rat poison and ant killer. Since 1975, this use in the United States and many other countries is prohibited due to safety concerns. Other uses:
*thallium sulfide's electrical conductivity changes with exposure to infrared light therefore making this compound useful in photocells.
*Thallium(III) salts, as thallium trinitrate or triacetate, are useful reagents in organic synthesis performing different transformations in aromatics, ketones, olefins, among others.
*thallium bromide-iodide crystals have been used as infrared optical materials, because they are harder than other common infrared optics, and because they have transmission at significantly longer wavelengths. The trade name KRS-5 refers to this material.
*thallium oxide has been used to manufacture glasses that have a high index of refraction.
*used in semiconductor materials for selenium rectifiers,
*used as a dopant for sodium iodide crystals in gamma radiation detection equipment, such as scintillation counters,
*high-density liquid used for sink-float separation of minerals,
*used in the treatment of ringworm and other skin infections. However this use has been limited due to the narrow therapeutic index.
*radioactive thallium-201 (half-life of 73 hours) is used for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, particularly in stress tests used for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease A(CAD). [ [http://www.wramc.amedd.army.mil/departments/nuclear/PatientInfo/Thallium.htm Thallium Test] from Walter Reed Army Medical Center] [ [http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4743 Thallium Stress Test] from the American Heart Association] This isotope of thallium can be generated using a transportable generator which is similar to the technetium cow. [ [http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/7169272 Abstract] ] The generator contains lead-201 (half life 9.33 hours) which decays by electron capture to the thallium-201. The lead-201 can be produced in a cyclotron by the bombardment of thallium with protons or deuterons by the (p,3n) and (d,4n) reactions. [ [http://www.med.harvard.edu/JPNM/physics/isotopes/Tl/Tl201/prod.html Thallium-201 production] from Harvard Medical School's Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine]
*combined with sulfur or selenium and arsenic, thallium has been used in the production of high-density glasses that have low melting points in the range of 125 and 150 °C. These glasses have room temperature properties that are similar to ordinary glasses and are durable, insoluble in water and have unique refractive indices.
*an 8.5% thallium amalgam is used in thermometers and switches for use in low temperatures, because it freezes at -58 °C (pure mercury freezes at -38 °C).
*thallium is used in the electrodes in dissolved oxygen analyzers.
*thallium is a constituent of the alloy in the anode plates in magnesium seawater batteries.

In addition, research activity with thallium is ongoing to develop high-temperature superconducting materials for such applications as magnetic resonance imaging, storage of magnetic energy, magnetic propulsion, and electric power generation and transmission.

History

Thallium (Greek "θαλλός", "thallos", meaning "a green shoot or twig") [Liddell & Scott, " [http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/resolveform?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057;layout=;query=toc;loc=qallo%2Fs A Greek-English Lexicon] ", "sub" " [http://perseus.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/cgi-bin/resolveform?lookup=qallos&type=begin&lang=greek&searchText=&options=Sort+Results+Alphabetically&.submit=Submit&formentry=1&lang=greek θαλλος] "] was discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 in England while he was making spectroscopic determinations for tellurium on residues from a sulfuric acid plant. The name comes from Thallium's bright green spectral emission lines. In 1862 Crookes and Claude-Auguste Lamy isolated the metal independently of each other.

Occurrence

Although the metal is reasonably abundant in the Earth's crust at a concentration estimated to be about 0.7 mg/kg, mostly in association with potassium minerals in clays, soils, and granites, it is not generally considered to be commercially recoverable from those forms. The major source of commercial thallium is the trace amounts found in copper, lead, zinc, and other sulfide ores.

Thallium is found in the minerals crookesite TlCu7Se4, hutchinsonite TlPbAs5S9, and lorandite TlAsS2. It also occurs as trace in pyrite and extracted as a by-product of roasting this ore for sulfuric acid production. The metal can be obtained from the smelting of lead and zinc rich ores. Manganese nodules found on the ocean floor also contain thallium, but nodule extraction is prohibitively expensive and potentially environmentally destructive. In addition, several other thallium minerals, containing 16% to 60% thallium, occur in nature as sulfide or selenide complexes with antimony, arsenic, copper, lead, and silver, but are rare, and have no commercial importance as sources of this element. See also: "."

Isotopes

Thallium has 25 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 184 to 210. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes, and 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 3.78 years.

202Tl (half life 12.23 days) can be made in a cyclotron, [ [http://www.eh.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/histories/0472/0472d.html Thallium Research] from Department of Energy] while 204Tl (half life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor. [ [http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1340_web.pdf Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes] from the International Atomic Energy Agency]

Compounds

Fluorides: TlF, TlF3
Chlorides: TlCl, TlCl2, TlCl3
Bromides: TlBr, Tl2Br4
Iodides: TlI, TlI3
Hydrides: none listed
Oxides: Tl2O, Tl2O3
Sulfides: Tl2S
Selenides: Tl2Se
Tellurides: none listed
Nitrides: none listed

Toxicity

Thallium and its compounds are very toxic, and should be handled with great care [http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Tl/biol.html] . Contact with skin is dangerous, and adequate ventilation should be provided when melting this metal [http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Tl/biol.htm] .Thallium(I) compounds have a high aqueous solubility and are readily absorbed through the skin. Exposure to them should not exceed 0.1 mg per of skin in an 8-hour time-weighted average (40-hour work week). Thallium is a suspected human carcinogen.

Part of the reason for thallium's high toxicity is that, when present in aqueous solution as the univalent thallium(I) ion (Tl+), it exhibits some similarities with essential alkali metal cations, particularly potassium (as the atomic radius is almost identical). It can thus enter the body via potassium uptake pathways. However, other aspects of thallium's chemistry are very different from that of the alkali metals ("e.g.", its high affinity for sulfur ligands due to the presence of empty d-orbitals), and so this substitution disrupts many cellular processes (for instance, thallium may attack sulfur-containing proteins such as cysteine residues and ferredoxins).

Thallium's toxicity has led to its use (now discontinued in many countries) as a rat and ant poison.

Among the distinctive effects of thallium poisoning are loss of hair (which led it to its initial use as a depilatory before its toxicity was properly appreciated) and damage to peripheral nerves (victims may experience a sensation of walking on hot coals). Thallium was once an effective murder weapon before its effects became understood, and an antidote (prussian blue) discovered.

Treatment and internal decontamination

One of the main methods of removing thallium (both radioactive and normal) from humans is to use Prussian blue, which is a solid ion exchange material which absorbs thallium and releases potassium. The prussian blue is fed by mouth to the person, and it passes through their digestive system and comes out in the stool. [ [http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/prussianblue.asp Prussian blue fact sheet] from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]

Famous uses as a poison

* In 1953, Australian Caroline Grills was sentenced to life in prison after three family members and a close family friend died. Authorities found thallium in tea that she had given to two additional family members. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6163520.stm "What is thallium?"] , BBC, November 19, 2006. Retrieved November 21, 2006.]
* In 1957, Nikolai Khokhlov, a former KGB assassin, was poisoned with thallium.cite book | author=Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin | title=The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West | publisher=Gardners Books | year=2000 | isbn=0-14-028487-7] Khokhlov fell ill with stomach cramps and nausea and within days his hair had fallen out and he was covered with marks on his skin. He fled the Soviet Union to Germany where doctors suspected thallium poisoning and tried every known antidote without success. Khokhlov was then taken to the US hospital and treated with hydrocortisone, steroids, and blood and plasma transfusions and he eventually recovered.
* In 1971, thallium was the main poison that Graham Frederick Young used to poison around 70 people in the English village of Bovingdon, Hertfordshire, of which 2 died.Fact|date=February 2008
*Zhu Ling (1973) the victim of an unsolved 1995 thallium poisoning case in Beijing, China. In 1994, Zhu Ling was a sophomore in Class Wuhua2 (Physical Chemistry) at Tsinghua University in Beijing. She began to show strange and debilitating symptoms at the end of 1994, when she reported experiencing acute stomach pain, along with extensive hair loss. Ultimately she was diagnosed on Usenet with poisoning by thallium. To this date speculation of the true poisoner is still discussed by many Chinese expatriates overseas
* In 1988, members of the Carr family from Alturas, Polk County, Florida fell ill from what appeared to be thallium poisoning. Peggy Carr, the mother, died slowly and painfully from the poison. Her son and stepson were critically ill but eventually recovered. The Carr's neighbor, George J. Trepal, a chemist and member of Mensa, was convicted of murdering Mrs. Carr and attempting to murder her family and sentenced to death. The thallium was slipped into bottles of Coca-Cola at the Carr's home and Trepal's. [cite web|url=http://www.floridacapitalcases.state.fl.us/case_updates/121965.doc|title=The Case of TREPAL, George (W/M)|publisher=The Commission on Capital Cases|accessdate=2007-11-29]
* In June 2004, 25 Russian soldiers earned Honorable Mention Darwin Awards after becoming ill from thallium exposure when they found a can of mysterious white powder in a rubbish dump on their base at Khabarovsk in the Russian Far East. Oblivious to the danger of misusing an unidentified white powder from a military dump site, the conscripts added it to tobacco, and used it as a substitute for talcum powder on their feet. [ [http://darwinawards.com/stupid/stupid2004-16.html White Russians] at DarwinAwards.com]
* In 2005, a 17 year old girl in Numazu, Shizuoka, Japan, admitted to attempting to murder her mother by lacing her tea with thallium, causing a national scandal. [ [http://www.gaijinpot.com/read_news.php?id=6623 "Girl admits trying to kill mom by lacing her tea"] , "GaijinPot", April 28, 2005. News Source from Mainichi Shimbun. Retrieved November 21, 2006.]
* In February 2007, two Americans, Marina and Yana Kovalevsky, a mother and daughter, visiting Russia were hospitalized due to thallium poisoning. Both had emigrated from the Soviet Union to the United States in 1989 and had made several trips to Russia since then. [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,257278,00.html "Embassy Confirms Hospitalization of Two Americans for Thallium Poisoning"] , Foxnews.com, March 7, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.]
* In February 2008, members of Iraqi air force club and some of their children were poisoned by cake laced with thallium. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7237086.stm "Poison cake kills Iraqi children"] , news.bbc.co.uk, February 9, 2008. Retrieved February 9, 2008.] Two of the children died.

In fiction

* Agatha Christie, who worked as a pharmacist, used thallium as the agent of murder in her detective fiction novel "The Pale Horse" — the first clue to the murder method coming from the hair loss of the victims. This novel is notable as being credited with having saved at least two lives after readers recognised the symptoms of thallium poisoning that Christie described. [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/334/7586/205?rss=1]

* In Nigel Williams' 1990 novel "The Wimbledon Poisoner", Henry Far uses thallium to baste a roast chicken in a failed attempt to murder his wife.

* Thallium figures prominently in the 1995 film "The Young Poisoner's Handbook", a dark comedy loosely based on the life of Graham Frederick Young.

* "Concentrated thallium" is used as the poison of choice of the Wyoming Widow in the 2006 dark comedy "Big Nothing"

* In an episode of the TV show House, a doctor poisons a patient with Thallium to make it appear that she had polio.

* In Larry Niven's Known Space cycle of science fiction stories, Thallium is a soil component essential for the proper growth of Tree of life which, when ingested by hominid species, triggers the change from the Breeder lifestage to the "Protector" lifestage.

* In the "Page Turner" episode of , Thallium 201 is used to poison several individuals.

ee also

*

References

External links

* [http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Tl/index.html WebElements.com — Thallium]
* [http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic926.htm Toxicity, Thallium]
* [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,251-2461655,00.html Slow-acting killer that was Saddam's favourite instrument of vengeance]
* [http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@na+@rel+thallium,+elemental NLM Hazardous Substances Databank – Thallium, Elemental]
* [http://www.floridacapitalcases.state.fl.us/case_updates/121965.doc]
* [http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/cyril_wecht/7.html Cyril Wecht, Thallium, Robert Curley]
* [http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts54.html ATSDR - ToxFAQs]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,,2254956,00.html The Guardian reports: Two Iraqi children die from Thallium poisoning: 9 February 2008]
* [http://www.pse-mendelejew.de/bilder/tl.jpgpure Thallium >=99,99% picture in the element collection from Heinrich Pniok]
* [http://www.smart-elements.com/?arg=zoom&element=Tl&art=1967&newitems=&ref=Tl&seite=0&total=1&suche=#magnify pure Thallium casted in acrylic for safe handling]


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  • thallium — Symbol: Tl Atomic number: 81 Atomic weight: 204.3833 Pure, unreacted thallium appears silvery white and exhibits a metallic lustre. Upon reacting with air, it begins to turn bluish grey and looks like lead. It is very malleable, and can be cut… …   Elements of periodic system

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  • Thallium — Thal li*um, n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? young or green shoot or branch, twig. So called from a characteristic bright green line in its spectrum.] (Chem.) A rare metallic element of the aluminium group found in some minerals, as certain pyrites, and also… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Thallĭum — Thallĭum, ein von Crookes 1861 u. Lamy 1862 entdecktes Metall; es gleicht am meisten dem Blei, ist etwas weniger weiß als Silber, mit einem Stich ins Bläulichgraue, auf frischem Schnitte von lebhaftem Glanze; es ist sehr weich u. dehnbar, läßt… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

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  • Thallium — Thallĭum (chem. Zeichen Tl), durch Spektralanalyse von Crookes und Lamy entdecktes Metall, zinnweiß, kristallinisch, fast so weich wie Natrium, vom spez. Gewicht 11,8, Atomgewicht 204,1 und dem Schmelzpunkt 290°, findet sich in geringen Mengen in …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • thallium — rare metallic element, 1861, Modern Latin, from Gk. thallos young shoot, green branch (see THALLUS (Cf. thallus)) + element name ending ium. So called by its discoverer, Sir William Crookes (1832 1919), from the green line in its spectrum by… …   Etymology dictionary


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