Patella


Patella

Infobox Bone
Name = Patella tendonismness
Latin =
GraySubject = 60
GrayPage = 255


Caption = Knee diagram


Caption2 =
Origins =
Insertions =
Articulations =
MeshName = Patella
MeshNumber = A02.835.232.043.650.624 |
The patella or kneecap is a thick, triangular bone which articulates with the femur and covers and protects the knee joint. It is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. It is attached to the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle, which contracts to extend/straighten the knee. The vastus intermedialis muscle is attached to the base of patella. The vastus lateralis and vastus medialis are attached to lateral and medial borders of patella respectively.

The patella is stabilized by the insertion of vastus medialis and the prominence of the anterior femoral condyles, which prevent lateral dislocation during flexion. The retinacular fibres of the patella also stabilize it during exercise.

The primary functional role of the patella is knee extension. The patella increases the leverage that the tendon can exert on the femur by increasing the angle at which it acts.

The patella ossifies between the ages 2-6 years. In some people it may be absent congenitally or hypoplastic. In 2% of the population there is a bipartite patella, which is usually asymptomatic. Direct trauma, however, may produce symptoms that mimic those of a fracture.

Regarding non-human animals, the patella is fully developed only in placental mammals; marsupials have only rudimentary, non-ossified patellae. [cite journal|author=Herzmark MH|title=The Evolution of the Knee Joint| url=http://www.ejbjs.org/cgi/reprint/20/1/77.pdf| accessdate=2007-11-17| journal=J Bone Joint Surg Am| year=1938| volume=20| pages=77–84]

ee also

* Patellar reflex
* Lateral retinaculum


=Additional

References

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External links

* [http://www.kneeguru.co.uk/KNEEnotes/node/900 The KNEEguru - educational site packed with knee content with sections on the patella]
*


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Patella — bezeichnet: eine Gattung der Napfschnecken, siehe Patella darin die Gemeine Napfschnecke (Patella vulgata) die Kniescheibe bei Wirbeltieren ein Beinglied der Spinnentiere zwischen Femur und Tibia ein antikes Gefäß, siehe Patella (Gefäß) Patella,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Patella — Pa*tel la, n.; pl. {Patell[ae]}. [L., a small pan, the kneepan, dim. of patina, patena, a pan, dish.] 1. A small dish, pan, or vase. [1913 Webster] 2. (Anat.) The kneepan; the cap of the knee. [1913 Webster] 3. (Zo[ o]l.) A genus of marine… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • patella — /pa tɛl:a/ s.f. [dal lat. patella padella, piatto ]. (anat.) [osso del ginocchio] ▶◀ rotula …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • patella — (n.) knee cap, 1690s, from L. patella pan, kneecap, dim. of patina pan (see PAN (Cf. pan) (n.)). So called from its shape …   Etymology dictionary

  • Patella [1] — Patella (lat.), 1) Schüsselchen; 2) (Bot.), so v.w. Näpfchen (s.d. 2) u. 3); 3) die Kniescheibe …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Patella [2] — Patella, 1) (P. Lin.), Napfschnecke, Schneckengattung aus der Familie der Heterobranchia Cyclobranchia od. Kreiskiemer, mit napfförmigem, am Wirbel nicht durchbohrtem Gehäuse; es gibt über 60 an Felsen in allen Meeren umherkriechende u. mehre… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Patella [1] — Patella (lat., »Schüsselchen«), die Kniescheibe (s. Knie); auch eine Meeresschnecke …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Patella [2] — Patella, s. Ackerkulte …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Patella — (lat.), Tellerchen, Opferschale; Kniescheibe …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Patella — PATELLA, æ, eine Göttinn der Römer, welche über die Dinge gesetzet war, die eröffnet werden sollten. Arnob. ap. Coqueum ad Augustin. l. IV. c. 8 …   Gründliches mythologisches Lexikon

  • patella — ► NOUN (pl. patellae) Anatomy ▪ the kneecap. DERIVATIVES patellar adjective. ORIGIN Latin, small dish …   English terms dictionary


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