- Li Zicheng
Li Zicheng (zh-cp|c=李自成|p=Lĭ Zìchéng) (
September 22, 1606- 1644), born Lĭ Hóngjī (鴻基), was one of the major figures in the rebellion that brought down the Ming Dynasty China. He proclaimed himself Chuǎng Wáng (闖王), or "The Roaming King".
Born in Mizhi District (米脂縣),
Yan'an Subprefecture(延安府), Li grew up as a shepherd. Li started to learn horseridingand archeryat age 20, and also worked in a wine shop and under an ironworker as an apprentice.
According to folklore, in 1630 he was put on public display in an iron collar and shackles for his failure to repay loans to an usurious magistrate, Ai. Ai struck a guard who offered shade and water to Li, whence a group of peasants tore apart Li's shackles, spirited him to a nearby hill, and proclaimed him their leader. Despite having only wooden sticks, Li and his band ambushed police sent against them and obtained their first real weapons. A terrible famine had beset Shaanxi in this time, and in three years, Li gathered more than 20,000 soldiers. The rebels then attacked and killed leading officials( Commander
Sun Chanteen) in places in Henan, Shanxi, and Shaanxi.
In April 1644, Li's rebels sacked the Ming capital of
Beijing, and the last Ming emperor committed suicide. He proclaimed himself as the Emperor of Shun Dynasty(大順皇帝), that made people called him "Shunwang" (Thunder/Great King). After his army was defeated on May 27, 1644 by the Manchus and Wu Sangui(also see Battle of Shanhai Pass), Li Zicheng fled Beijing towards his power base in Shaanxi; after a number of defeats, he ultimately died either by committing suicideoff of a Lotus tree or was killed by pro-Ming militia during his escape at the age of 40. Some folk tales hold that Li didn't die upon defeat, but instead became a monk.
Li Zicheng historiography
Although the Qing conquest of China was made possible by the Ming Dynasty being weakened by the Li Zicheng rebellion, ironically, official historiography during the Qing Dynasty regarded Li as an illegitimate usurper and bandit. This view sought to discourage and demonize notions of rebellion against the Qing government; the imperial government propagated the view that the Qing Dynasty put an end to the illegitimate rule of Li and restored honor to the empire, thus receiving the
Mandate of Heavento rule China. In 20th century Maoist China, the anti-Confucian and radical inclinations of the Communist Party of Chinaviewed Li Zicheng favorably, portraying him as an early revolutionary against feudalism.
* [http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/sheji/sj-mq.html Maoist era propaganda posters glorifying Li Zicheng]
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