- Spiritual warfare
There are various opinions and definitions for Spiritual Warfare, however it can be summed up in the following quote:
"Some speak of [Spiritual Warfare as being] the struggle between good and evil. Others talk of the battle between right and wrong, or between light and darkness. Still others refer to the conflict between the positive forces which seek to preserve life and order in the universe and the negative forces which tend to disturb and even destroy life and order. From a biblical perspective, however, this dualism is revealed to be an on-going conflict waged on two fronts: God and His angelic kingdom confront Satan and his demonic kingdom, while the children of God contend with the children of Satan." [Ed Murphy, The Handbook for Spiritual Warfare, revised ed. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996), page 13.]
The writings of the
Bibleevoke images of conflict and spiritual struggle in the life of the Christian. One of the evocative images that is associated with Spiritual Warfare is found in the New Testamentin the Epistle to the Ephesians. This letter is traditionally ascribed to the authorship of the apostle Paul. In that letter, Paul gives instruction to his readers on the spiritual life in the context of conflict. He illustrates his points by apparently alluding to the [http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Ephesians%206:10-18&version=31 armour and weapons] of a Roman centurion, though it is notable that Paul's phraseology imitates Isaiah[http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Isaiah%2059:17&version=31 59:17] . The various pieces of armour are likened by way of analogy to the shield of faith, sword of the spirit, helmet of salvation and so forth.
The Christian Church in all of its major traditions -
Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Ancient Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and Protestant- has confessed on the basis of biblical revelation the reality (or ontologicalexistence) of a fallen angel known as the Deviland Satan. This affirmation is reinforced in the writings of the Church Fathers, in the councils and creedsof the early church, and in the later confessionaldocuments of the Christian denominations.
The classic position of the Christian Church is that Satan and other fallen angels now known as demons, are spiritual entities that exist and sometimes manifest their presence in the world. These entities have as their primary focus the spiritual deception of humanity. Their primary mission is to thwart God's purposes on earth, specifically to prevent non-believers from placing faith in Christ and to prevent Christians from being effective disciples of
Jesus. Satan is referred to as "the father of lies" (John 8:44) and as "the accuser of our brothers" (Revelation 12:10).
Biblical passages that highlight the demonic are principally found in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke, and the
Acts of the Apostles. Paul's epistles focus on the victory of Christ over principalities and powers. The Book of Revelationportrays the casting down of Satan and his being bound forever due to the triumph of Christ in the resurrection. Other passages concerning demons and angels are scattered throughout both the Old and New Testament. Outside of the biblical canon, demonology is found in the pseudepigraphalwritings, such as the First Book of Enoch, and in the post-New Testament writings of the early fathers such as The Didache, The Shepherd of Hermas, Ignatius's epistle to the Ephesians, and Origen's " Contra Celsum".
The classic response of the Church in its various traditions has been to positively confess and proclaim the supremacy and victory of Christ in his resurrection from the dead over all things including the Devil, demons or fallen angels. In the early church the rite of exorcism took various forms including prayer, laying on of hands, fasting and sprinkling holy water. Church Fathers such as
Justin Martyrand Tertullianattest to the importance of invoking the name of Christ against a demon.Fact|date=January 2007
Other early rites involved demon-repelling prior to a candidate undergoing baptism. The candidate would participate in various rituals intended to cleanse demonic influences ("Clementine Recognitions"). During the rite of baptism the candidate would publicly renounce Satan, while the water was consecrated. See also
sign of the cross
In the Roman Catholic tradition the rite of exorcism was placed under strict guidelines by Pope Paul V in the
Roman Ritual(12, 13). Further definition came in the early Twentieth century from Pope Pius XI.
Reformation and Post-Reformation
The practice of exorcism was also known among the first generation of teachers and pastors in the
Lutheran Reformation. Johannes Bugenhagen Pomeranus was the pastor of the Wittenbergtown church and officiated at Martin Luther's wedding. In a letter addressed to Luther and Melanchthondated November 1530, Pomeranus recounted his experience of dealing with a young girl who showed signs of demon possession. Pomeranus' method involved counseling the girl concerning her previous baptismal vows, he invoked the name of Christ and prayed with her. (Letter reproduced in Montgomery, "Principalities and Powers").
Anglican- Puritanwriter William Gurnall wrote a lengthy three-volume work "The Christian in Complete Armour" that was published between 1662 and 1665. In this work Gurnall stressed the place of reading Scripture, prayer and the name of Christ.
Contemporary Roman Catholic
In modern times the views of individual Roman Catholics have tended to divide into traditional and "new-shape Catholic" understandings of the subject. An example of the new-shape perspective, which offers a theologically liberal and unsupernatural view of the demonic is found in the work of the Dominican scholar Richard Woods' "The Devil".
The traditional outlook is represented by Father
Gabriele Amorthwho has written two instructive books on his personal experiences as an exorcist for the Vatican: "An Exorcist Tells His Story", and "An Exorcist: More Stories". Francis MacNutt, who was a priest within the Roman Catholic Charismatic movement, has also addressed the problem of the demonic in his writings about healing.
In the American revival tradition among
evangelicals, prominent preachers such as D. L. Moody, Billy Sunday, R. A. Torrey and Billy Grahamhave all affirmed their belief in the existence of the demonic and had occasions to recount some of their own spiritual warfare encounters. In the nineteenth century, one of the major evangelical authorities on demon possession was the missionary to China, John Livingston Nevius.
During the late twentieth century, evangelical writers such as Mark Bubeck and Merrill Unger presented their theological and pastoral response to demonic phenomena. The problem of demon possession and spiritual warfare became the subject of a Christian Medical Association symposium that was held in 1975. This symposium brought together a range of evangelical scholars in biblical studies, theology, psychology, anthropology, and missiology (see Montgomery, "Demon Possession").
One of the very significant German writers is the Lutheran Kurt Koch whose work has influenced much of both evangelical and charismatic thought in the late twentieth century. The impact of his ideas has been recently examined by the folklore specialist Bill Ellis.
Interest in spiritual warfare increased markedly after the release of the film The Exorcist in
Pentecostal and charismatic perspectives
Spiritual warfare has become a prominent feature in some
pentecostaland charismatic churches. The concept is well embedded in Pentecostal history, particularly through Jessie Penn-Lewis's book "War on the Saints" arising from the Welsh Revival in the early twentieth century. However, Jessie Penn-Lewis preaches a very different kind of spiritual warfare to that preached by the third-wave Charismaticmovement of today - notably C. Peter Wagnerand Cindi Jacobs. Other Pentecostal and charismatic pastors include Don Bashamand Derek Prince, who have emphasized claiming the power of the blood of Christ.
The concept of spiritual warfare has been applied by Pentecostals to the Christian's spiritual growth in holiness or what is technically called sanctification. A preacher may discern that parishioners are experiencing obstacles in their faith, prayer life and general spiritual well-being. That process of discernment may yield an awareness of spiritual oppression caused by a combination of personal sin and demonic influence. The obstacles are then removed through prayer, delivering a parishioner from demonic possession, and breaking down false beliefs about God. Dr. Ed Murphy is the author of a modern 600-page tome on the subject from the point of view of deliverance ministry entitled "The Handbook of Spiritual Warfare".
Pentecostals and charismatics have also applied the concept in the task of
evangelismand worldwide missions. Former missionaries such as Charles Kraftand C. Peter Wagnerhave emphasized the problem of demonology on the world mission fields and the need to drive demons out.
A popular fictional portrayal of spiritual warfare is found in the novels by
Frank E. Peretti, " This Present Darkness" and " Piercing the Darkness", and Darrin J Mason, "Ominous".
Controversy and Assessments
From inside the evangelical tradition a number of concerns have been raised about the current emphasis on spiritual warfare. Robert Guelich of
Fuller Theological Seminaryhas questioned the extent to which spiritual warfare has shifted from its basic moorings as a metaphor for the Christian life. He is disturbed to find spiritual warfare metamorphosing into "spiritual combat" techniques where Christians seek power over demons. Guelich argues that Paul's writings in the Epistle to the Ephesians is focused on proclaiming the peace of God and nowhere specifies any techniques for battling demons. He also finds that the novels of Frank Peretti are seriously at odds with both the gospel narratives on demons and Pauline teaching.
Missions specialists such A. Scott Moreau and
Paul Hieberthave detected traces of animistthought encroaching on both evangelical and charismatic discourses about the demonic and spiritual warfare. Hiebert indicates that a dualistcosmology now appears in some spiritual warfare texts and it is based on the Greco-Roman mystery religionsand Zoroastrianmyths. However, Hiebert also chastises other evangelicals who have absorbed the modern secular outlook and have tended to downplay or even ignore the demonic. Hiebert speaks of the flaw of the excluded middle in the thinking of some evangelicals who have a cosmology of God in heaven and humans on earth, but have ignored the "middle" realm of the angelic and demonic.
The excesses of unsubstantiated allegations made in the
Satanic Ritual Abusephenomenon of the 1980s and 1990s has also prompted critical reviews. Some apologists in the Christian countercult movementhave expressed concerns that spiritual warfare techniques seem at times to have been based on spurious stories and anecdotes without careful discernment and reflection. Some of these general concerns have been expressed by apologists like Elliot Miller ( Christian Research Institute), and Bob and Gretchen Passantino in various articles published in the "Christian Research Journal". Others, such as Mike Hertenstein and Jon Trott, have called into question the claims of alleged ex-Satanists like Mike Warnkeand Lauren Stratfordwhose stories have subsequently influenced many popular books about spiritual warfare and the occult. Bill Ellis's work, "Raising the Devil", has detected the presence of folkloric stories about the occult and demons circulating in evangelical and charismatic circles, which later become accepted as unquestioned facts.
In 2000 an international collaborative attempt was made by evangelicals and charismatics in the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization to reach some common agreement about spiritual warfare. The conference gathered in Nairobi, Kenya, and yielded a consultation document as well as many technical papers published as the book "Deliver Us from Evil".
Other perspectives that move in a therapeutic line include Christian author William Bandlwin, PhD in his popular book "Spirit Releasement Therapy", and healer and author
Ken Pageuses a similar approach. There is also M. Scott Peck's acceptance of the reality of demons with remedial help framed in a healing psychotherapeutic framework in his book "People of the Lie".Fact|date=February 2007
Islamic concept of Jihadis also often used to refer to a spiritual struggle against sin.
*Gabriele Amorth, "An Exorcist tells his story", translated by Nicoletta V. MacKenzie (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1999).
*Gabriele Amorth, "An Exorcist - More Stories", translated by Nicoletta V. MacKenzie (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2002).
Donald Grey Barnhouse, "The Invisible War" (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1965).
*William Gurnall, "The Christian in Complete Armour" (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1974 [reprint of edition published 1864] ) or (Diggory Press, 2007, ISBN 978-1846857959)
*Frank Hammond and Ida Mae Hammond, "Pigs in the Parlor: A Practical Guide To Deliverance" (Kirkwood: Impact Books, 1973).
*Thomas Ice and Robert Dean, "Overrun By Demons" (Eugene: Harvest House, 1990).
*Kurt Koch, "Occult ABC" (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 1978).
*D. M. Lloyd-Jones, "The Christian Warfare: An Exposition of Ephesians 6:10-13" (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1976).
*D. M. Lloyd-Jones, "The Christian Soldier: An Exposition of Ephesians 6:10-20" (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth, 1977).
*Francis MacNutt, "The Power to Heal" (Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 1977).
*Francis MacNutt, "Deliverance From Evil Spirits" (Grand Rapids: Chosen, 1995).
*"A Reformation-Era Letter on Demon Possession" translated and reproduced in John Warwick Montgomery, "Principalities and Powers", revised edition (Minneapolis: Bethany Fellowship, 1975), pp. 196-205.
*John Warwick Montgomery, ed., "Demon Possession" (Minneapolis: Bethany, 1976).
*A. Scott Moreau, Tokunboh Adeyemo, David G. Burnett, Bryant L. Myers & Hwa Yung, eds., "Deliver Us From Evil: An Uneasy Frontier in Christian Mission" (Monrovia: MARC, 2002).
*Ed Murphy, "The Handbook for Spiritual Warfare", revised ed. (Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1996).
*John Livingston Nevius, "Demon Possession and Allied Themes" (Old Tappan: Revell, 1894).
*B. J. Oropeza, "99 Answers to Questions about Angels, Demons and Spiritual Warfare" (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1997).
*Jessie Penn-Lewis, "War On The Saints", 9th ed., (New York: Thomas Lowe, 1973) or the (Unabridged Edition from Diggory Press, 2005, ISBN 978-1905363018)
*Ray C. Stedman, "Spiritual Warfare" (Waco: Word, 1975).
*Merrill F. Unger, "What Demons Can Do To Saints" (Chicago: Moody, 1991).
*C. Peter Wagner, ed., "Territorial Spirits" (Chichester: Sovereign World, 1991).
Joe Beam, "Seeing the Unseen: Your Guide to Spiritual Warfare" (West Monroe: Howard Books, 1994).
*Malachi Martin, "Hostage to the Devil" (San Francisco: Harper Reissue edition (October 1992) ISBN 0-06-065337-X)
*Clinton E. Arnold, "3 Questions About Spiritual Warfare" (Grand rapids: Baker, 1997).
*Michael Cuneo, "American Exorcism: Expelling Demons in the Land of Plenty" (London/New York: Bantam, 2002).
*Bill Ellis, "Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religious Movements, and the Media" (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2000).
*Robert A. Guelich, "Spiritual Warfare: Jesus, Paul and Peretti," "Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies", 13/1 (1991), pp. 33-64.
*Paul G. Hiebert, "Biblical Perspectives on Spiritual Warfare," in "Anthropological Reflections on Missiological Issues" (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994), pp. 203-215.
*A. Scott Moreau, "Religious Borrowing as a Two-Way Street: An introduction to animistic tendencies in the Euro-North American context," in "Christianity and the Religions", Edward Rommen and Harold Netland, eds. (Pasadena:
William Carey Library, 1995), pp. 166-183.
*Robert J. Priest, Thomas Campbell and Bradford A. Mullen, "Missiological Syncretism: The New Animistic Paradigm," in "Spiritual Power and Missions", Edward Rommem, ed., (Pasadena:
William Carey Library, 1995), pp. 143-168.
*Derek Prince, "Spiritual Warfare, Headquarters: The Heavenlies, The Battlefield: Our Minds!" 1987
* [http://www.catholicwarfare.com Spiritual Warfare - a Catholic perspective.]
* [http://tcrnews2.com/Sacramentals.html Catholic Sacramentals and Spiritual Warfare]
* [http://www.spirithome.com/spirwarf.html a moderate-evangelical view of spiritual warfare]
* [http://www.battlefocused.org/ Spiritual Warfare - discipleship model]
* [http://www.exorcism101.com Exorcism from the Messianic Jewish viewpoint]
* [http://www.apostasynow.com/wots/Contents.html "War on the Saints"] Jessie Penn-Lewis & Evan Roberts (The Original and Completely Unabridged Edition Less Graphics)
* [http://www.gtm.org/pvp/bookdetails.php?id=17 "The Perfect Weapon: The Sword of the Spirit"] Dr. Joseph Kostelnik, Ph.D.
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