List of Arizona-SW birds (Yuma County, Arizona)


List of Arizona-SW birds (Yuma County, Arizona)

This is a List of birds of South-West Arizona, and needs moderate verification by local bird enthusiasts. The list is being made in conjunction with: List of birds, Yuma, Arizona (low deserts, river, elevations). The following markings are used:

*(A) = Accidental occurrence based on fewer than 10 records, and unlikely to occur regularly.
*(E) = Extinct; a recent member of the avifauna that no longer exists.
*(Ex) = Extirpated; no longer occurs in area of interest, but other populations still exist elsewhere.
*(I) = Introduced population established solely as the result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with "non-native" and "non-indigenous." See Introduced species.
*(H) - Hypothetical: Birds that have had a credible sighting reported, but have not been documented with a specimen or with a suitable photograph.
**( SW ) = found in the "South West" of Arizona, Yuma County, Arizona.
**"sw–06" = observed in 2006.
**( * SW )—SW "breeding species."
**Bolded species: (ex: Gambel's Quail ), "hot, lower desert species." (There are exceptions.)
**( –"L"– )–16 species are found "local", in a specific "locality."
**LCRV– "Lower" Colo. R. Valley
**(C) Casual, or Occasional visit

Arizona zone definitions

The three basic zones in Arizona can be thought of as follows:

*"View No. 1"
*--
*North
**Deserts in NW to Las Vegas
**–Mojave Desert
**–(Eastern)-Colorado Desert
*Central
**Desert Mtns:
**Deserts to S, SW, and West
*South–Sonoran Desert
**SW: Extreme low deserts
***–Colorado Desert(Eastern)
***South:Yuma Desert, Lechuguilla Desert, Tule Desert (Arizona)
**Often dry winters
**minor higher elevations
*--
*("For Arizona: The Mountains can be thought"
*"of as traversing, from NW, N–Central,"
*"to Central, to East (New Mex.)"
*"and SE to the " SE Ariz Biome "" .")
**The Mogollon Rim begins in SW New Mexico, Gila N.For.
**and proceeds to NW Ariz through the Mtns.

*View No. 2
*Ariz. NE triangle:
**6000 Ft Arid Desert
**Four Corners(some Mtns)
*Central:
**" NW–to–SE–Transition–Zone "
**Divides the NE high plateau
**from Low Desert SW, and South
*SW Low desert "triangle"
**Nearly half the state
**Hottest at lower altitudes
*"SE Ariz Biome":
**Composed of Mtns in: Sky islands
**Part of "SE Arizona"
**Part of "SW New Mexico"
**Part of "Northern Mexico"
**the Sierra Madre Occidental (West)
**the Occid. Madrean Sky Islands Biome

Ducks, Geese, and Swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae
The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to "special oils." There are 131 species world wide, and 61 North American species.

*Fulvous Whistling Duck, "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*Greater White-fronted Goose, "Anser albifrons"
*Ross's Goose, "Chen rossii"
*( –"L"– ) Snow Goose, "Chen caerulescens" ("-Winters-")
*Canada Goose, "Branta canadensis" ("-Winters-")
*Brant, "Branta bernicla", (Brent Goose),
*Tundra Swan, "Cygnus columbianus"
*Wood Duck, "Aix sponsa" (?Mountains, etc.)
* ( * SW ) Gadwall, "Anas strepera" ("-Winters-")
* (Eurasian Wigeon, "Anas penelope" ) Calif visitor?
*American Wigeon, "Anas americana" ("-Winters-")
*Mallard, "Anas platyrhynchos" Perm ?
*Blue-winged Teal, "Anas discors" ("-Winters-")
* ( * SW ) "sw–06"(Feb 23) Cinnamon Teal, "Anas cyanoptera" Perm ?
*Northern Shoveler, "Anas clypeata" ("-Winters-")
*Northern Pintail, "Anas acuta" ?("-Winters-") Calif & Mex.
*Green-winged Teal, "Anas crecca" ("-Winters-")
*Canvasback, "Aythya valisineria" ("-Winters-")
* ( * SW ) Redhead, "Aythya americana" ("-Winters-")
*"sw–06" Ring-necked Duck, "Aythya collaris" ("-Winters-")
*Greater Scaup, "Aythya marila" ("-Winters-")
*Lesser Scaup, "Aythya affinis" ("-Winters-")
*Surf Scoter, "Melanitta perspicillata"
*White-winged Scoter, "Melanitta fusca"
*Black Scoter, "Melanitta nigra"
*Bufflehead, "Bucephala albeola" ("-Winters-")
*Common Goldeneye, "Bucephala clangula" ("-Winters-")
*Barrow's Goldeneye, "Bucephala islandica"
*Hooded Merganser, "Lophodytes cucullatus" ("-Winters-")
*Common Merganser, "Mergus merganser" ("-Winters-")
*Red-breasted Merganser, "Mergus serrator"
* ( * SW ) Ruddy Duck, "Oxyura jamaicensis" Perm ?


=Partridges, Grouse, Turkeys, and Old World Quail=

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae
The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump, with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds, or have been domesticated as a food source for humans. There are 180 species world wide, and 16 North American species.

*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Ring-necked Pheasant, "Phasianus colchicus", "Colorado River–(Riparian) Env." (I)
*( SW ) Wild Turkey, "Meleagris gallopavo" (Not in the "low desert")(Higher Mtn. Elevations)


=New World Quail=

Order: GalliformesFamily: Odontophoridae
The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. There are 32 species, world-wide, all found only in the Americas, and 6 North American species.

*California Quail, "Callipepla californica" (?"Colorado River environment"?)
* ( * SW ) Gambel's Quail, "Callipepla gambelii", Perm,-Non-migrating
*Montezuma Quail, "Cyrtonix montezumae" (Far Eastern and SE Ariz.)
**See New World quail

Loons

Order: GaviiformesFamily: Gaviidae /See Loon–(called Diver(UK))
Loons are aquatic birds the size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black, and they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well, and fly adequately, but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are almost hopeless on land. There are 5 species world-wide, and 5 North American species.

*( SW ) Red-throated Loon, "Gavia stellata", ("–Winter Range–")–Gulf of California
*( SW ) Pacific Loon, "Gavia pacifica", ("–Winter Range–")–Gulf of California
*( SW ) Common Loon, "Gavia immer", (occasional Wintering)

Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae /See Grebe
Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species world-wide, and 7 North American species. Of the listed species, the Horned, Eared, and Western Grebe are less commonly observed in summer.

* ( * SW ) Least Grebe, "Tachybaptus dominicus " (S. Mexico)
* ( * SW ) Pied-billed Grebe, "Podilymbus podiceps " Permanent and ("–Winter Range–")
*( SW ) Horned Grebe, "Podiceps auritus " Winters across coastal S US, S New Mex
*Red-necked Grebe, "Podiceps grisegena " (A) Jan; Mar (from W Canada, Alaska Coast)
*( SW ) Eared Grebe, "Podiceps nigricollis " (Black-necked Grebe),"–Winters–"Permanent at: 1-S. Nev, 2-Sierra Nevada Mtns(Calif), and 3-NE Colo.
*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Western Grebe, "Aechmophorus occidentalis " Permanent (+ winters west on Calif Coast)
*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Clark's Grebe, "Aechmophorus clarkii " Permanent and ("–Winter Range–")

Albatross

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Diomedeidae

*Laysan Albatross, "Phoebastria immutabilis" (C)
**See Albatross

Storm-petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae /See Storm-petrel

*Leach's Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma leucorhoa", (A) Permanent and Summer Range of Pac. Ocean at Baja California, "( (1977)–Other pelagic species were also observed. )"
*Black Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma melania", (C) Ranges: Gulf of Calif. and Pac. Ocean of Baja California
*( SW ) Least Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma microsoma", (A) Ranges: Gulf of Calif. and Pac. Ocean of Baja California. In 1976 Tropical Storm Kathleen transported pelagic birds throughout the Southwest; 200 sightings of the Storm-petrels were made at the Salton Sea.

Tropicbirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

*Red-billed Tropicbird, "Phaethon aethereus" (C)
**See Tropicbird


=Boobies=

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae /See Booby

*Blue-footed Booby, "Sula nebousii"
*Brown Booby, "Sula leucogaster"

Pelicans

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae /See Pelican
Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes. There are 8 species world wide, and 2 North American species.

*( SW ) American White Pelican, "Pelecanus erythrorhynchos", (–Summer Range–); observed in flocks.
*( SW ) Brown Pelican, "Pelecanus occidentalis" (Common seasonal vagrant in SW Arizona), Permanent in Gulf of California, and Pac. Ocean of Baja; (Common post-breeding.)

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae /See Cormorant
Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order. There are 36 species world-wide, and 6 North American species.

*Brandt's Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax penicillatus " Permanent in Gulf of California
*Neotropic Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax brasilianus" (C)? from Coastal and Central Mexico
* ( * SW ) Double-crested Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax auritus " Permanent
* (SW )Olivaceous Cormorant (Mexican Cormorant), "Phalacrocorax olivaceous " (C) (Any month) More common in Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean–(more recently observed at Salton Sea and Lake Mead)
*Pelagic Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax pelagicus" (from Calif. coast)

Darters

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae /See Darter
Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. They often swim with only the neck above water, and are fish-eaters. There are 4 species world-wide, and 1 North American species.

*Anhinga, "Anhinga anhinga", (old sight records, 1900, 1913-etc.)

Frigatebirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae /See Frigatebird
Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black, or black–and–white, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have "inflatable coloured throat pouches". They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species world-wide, and 3 North American species.

*( SW ) Magnificent Frigatebird, "Fregata magnificens" (C) Occasional, often seen yearly, possibly on flyway to Salton Sea–sightings may also be of Great Frigatebird(in-flight)

Ciconiiformes: Bitterns, Herons, and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae
The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and Egrets are medium to large sized wadng birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secrative. Unlike other long necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their "necks retracted ." There are 61 species world wide, and 17 North American species.

* ( * SW ) American Bittern, "Botaurus lentiginosus" (Winters?)
* ( * SW ) Least Bittern, "Ixobrychus exilis"
* ( * SW ) Great Blue Heron, "Ardea herodias"
* ( * SW ) Great Egret, "Ardea alba"
* ( * SW ) Snowy Egret, "Egretta thula" ( ? )
*( SW ) Cattle Egret, "Bubulcus ibis"
* ( * SW ) Green Heron, "Butorides virescens", "( Green-backed Heron)"
* ( * SW ) Black-crowned Night Heron, "Nycticorax nycticorax"

Ciconiiformes: Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae
The family Threskiornithidae includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings. Their bodies tend to be elongated, the neck more so, with rather long legs. The bill is also long, decurved in the case of the ibises, and straight and distinctively flattened in the spoonbills. There are 36 species world wide, and 5 North American species.

*American White Ibis, "Eudocimus albus" (?) (Winters in N. Gulf of Cal.)
*White-faced Ibis, "Plegadis chihi" (?) (Winters in N. Gulf of Cal.)
*Roseate Spoonbill, "Ajaia ajaja"

Ciconiiformes: Storks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae
Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the "powder down" that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute. There are 19 species world wide, and 2 North American species.

*Wood Stork, "Mycteria americana" (only population in S. FL)

Ciconiiformes: New World vultures

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Cathartidae
The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but "dramatically" resemble them because of "convergent evolution", and the forces of "function,"("form follows function"). Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers, "and their major trait besides the bare/feather-less neck, would be their trait of, "searching by soaring"." However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they also locate carcasses. There are 7 species world wide, all found only in the Americas, and 3 North American species.

*Black Vulture, "Coragyps atratus" (far E. Ariz.?/–S. Central AZ, South on Western Continental coast of Mex., E. Gulf of California)
* ( * SW ) Turkey Vulture, "Cathartes aura", Note: "gathers and migrates in updrafts, up to hundreds of individuals, up to 4000 ft(?) heights)"
*California Condor, "Gymnogyps californianus": emplaced in far northern Ariz(NW Ariz/Grand Canyon–Lake Mead region).
**See New World vulture

Flamingos

Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae
Flamingos (genus Phoenicopterus monotypic in family Phoenicopteridae) are gregarious wading birds, usually 3–5 feet in height, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are: "uniquely used upside-down. " There are 6 species world wide, and 1 North American species.

Hawks, Kites, and Eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae
The family Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species world wide, and 28 North American species.

*( SW ) Osprey, "Pandion haliaetus". all Riverine environments: Colo. R., Gila, Lakes, etc.
*Bald Eagle, "Haliaeetus leucocephalus" ("–Winter Range–")
*( SW ) Northern Harrier, "Circus cyaneus" ("–Winter Range–")
*( SW ) Sharp-shinned Hawk, "Accipiter striatus" ("–Winter Range–")
*( * SW ) Cooper's Hawk, "Accipiter cooperii" ?? Permanent and Winters
* ( * SW ) Harris's Hawk, "Parabuteo unicinctus" (S. Ariz. & Mex)??
* ( * SW ) Red-shouldered Hawk, "Buteo lineatus" from Calif. ?
*( SW ) Swainson's Hawk, "Buteo swainsoni" (Mtns: East & North Ariz.) ?
*( –"L"– ) Zone-tailed Hawk, "Buteo albonotatus"
*( * SW ) Red-tailed Hawk, "Buteo jamaicensis"
*( SW ) Ferruginous Hawk, "Buteo regalis" ("–Winter Range–")
*Golden Eagle, "Aquila chrysaetos" ("–Winter Range–") and Perm ?

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae /See Caracara, Falcon, Kestrel (bird)
Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species world wide, and 10 North American species.

*Crested Caracara, "Polyborus plancus (Caracara cheriway)" (C) in Dec,Jan
* ( * SW ) American Kestrel, "Falco sparverius" Permanent
**( SW ) formerly Eurasian Sparrowhawk, "Accipiter nisus"
*Merlin, "Falco columbarius" ("–Winter Range–")
* ( * SW ) Peregrine Falcon, "Falco peregrinus" Permanent
* ( * SW ) Prairie Falcon, "Falco mexicanus" Permanent and ("–Winter Range–") "Less common in summer: Apr-Aug


=Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots=

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae /See Rails(Rallidae)
Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and tend to be weak fliers. There are 143 species world wide, and 13 North American species. Of the 6 listed birds, the Black Rail is rare, and "local"; only the Clapper Rail is more common in Summer. All are breeding species except the Sora, which departs from May-Jul(Aug), and which has an extensive Summer Range across North America.

*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Black Rail, "Laterallus jamaicensis" found in restricted oceanic coastal areas, Permanent in "Lower" Colo. R. Valley–LCRV
* ( * SW ) Clapper Rail, "Rallus longirostris" same Note, (more common in Summer: (Mar)Apr-Aug(Sep)
* ( * SW ) Virginia Rail, "Rallus limicola" Permanent
*( SW ) Sora, "Porzana carolina" See Sora (crake), ("–Winter Range–"), Least common in Summer: May-(Aug)
* ( * SW ) Common Moorhen, "Gallinula chloropus" Permanent (East: Atlantic coast bird)
* ( * SW ) American Coot, "Fulica americana" Permanent


=Cranes=

Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae /See Crane (bird)
Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking, but unrelated herons– cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide, and 3 North American species.

*( –"L"– ) ( SW ) Sandhill Crane, "Grus canadensis" ("–Winter Range–")–Southern Ariz

Lapwings and Plovers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae /See Lapwing, Plover
The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are "some exceptions." There are 66 species world-wide, and 17 North American species. Of the 6 listed species, most are Winter Ranging. The Killdeer is permanent, but less common in late May through early Aug.

*( SW ) Black-bellied Plover, (Grey Plover), "Pluvialis squatarola " ("–Winter Range–"), Gulf of California and Pacific coast
* Lesser Golden-Plover, (American Golden Plover), "Pluvialis dominica " (C) (Arctic Ranging:Summer)
**See American Golden Plover and discussion of Christopher Columbus.
*( SW ) Snowy Plover, "Charadrius alexandrinus " ("Charadrius nivosus") ("–Winter Range–"), Gulf of California coast, Permanent on Pacific coast–also fairly common at Salton Sea
*( SW ) Semipalmated Plover, "Charadrius semipalmatus " ("–Winter Range–"), Baja Calif and W Mexico coast
* ( * SW ) Killdeer, "Charadrius vociferus " Permanent–Less common in Summer: Jun-Jul
*( SW ) Mountain Plover, "Charadrius montanus " ("–Winter Range–"), S Ariz Border, and SE Ariz Biome

tilts and Avocets

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae
Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species world wide, and 3 North American species.

andpipers, Curlews, Stints, Godwits, Snipes, and Phalaropes

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae
The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the Sandpipers, Curlews, Godwits, Shanks, Tattlers, Woodcocks, Snipes, Dowitchers and Phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 86 species world wide, and 65 North American species.

*( SW ) Long-billed Curlew, "Numenius americanus" (Winter migrator, upon grassy expanses, etc.)(The "distinguished visitors!")

kuas, Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae
Laridae is a family of medium to large seabirds and includes jaegers, skuas, gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 108 species world wide, and 54 North American species.

*(?)California Gull, "Larus californicus"

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae
Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species world wide, and 18 North American species.

* ( * SW ) Rock Pigeon, "Columba livia" (I)
*Band-tailed Pigeon, "Columba fasciata"
*Spotted Dove, "Streptopelia chinensis"
* ( * SW ) White-winged Dove, "Zenaida asiatica"
* ( * SW ) Mourning Dove, "Zenaida macroura"
*Passenger Pigeon, "Ectopistes migratorius" (E)
*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Inca Dove, "Columbina inca"
* ( * SW ) Common Ground-Dove, "Columbina passerina"
*Ruddy Ground-Dove, "Columbina talpacoti"

Lories, Parakeets, Macaws, and Parrots

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: |Psittacidae
Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and they have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species world wide, and 8 North American species.

*Thick-billed Parrot Extirpated from SE Ariz Biome, only in Mexico, (Ex)
*Pet trade: released or escaped individuals, etc are commonly observed.

Cuckoos, Roadrunners, and Anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae
The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not "brood parasites" (see Common Grackle). There are 138 species world wide, and 8 North American species.

* ( * SW ) Yellow-billed Cuckoo, "Coccyus americanus"
*( SW ) Greater Roadrunner, "Geococcyx californianus"

Barn Owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae /See Barn owls(Tytonidae)
Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species world wide, and 1 North American species.

* ( * SW ) Barn Owl, "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae /See Owl, Typical owl(Strigidae)
Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a nearly 360-plus degree swivel-neck, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a "facial disk" (?for low night-light focus-reflection). There are 195 species world wide, and 21 North American species.

*Flammulated Owl, "Otus flammeolus" (C) (non-desert owl: Mtns of Ariz, SE Ariz Biome)
* ( * SW ) Western Screech-Owl, "Megascops kennicottii"
* ( * SW ) Great Horned Owl, "Bubo virginianus"
*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Elf Owl, "Micrathene whitneyi"
* ( * SW ) Burrowing Owl, "Athene cunicularia", Conspicuous in Urban setting, "also" observed in daytime, early morning or evening.
*( SW ) Ferruginous Pygmy Owl, "Glaucidium brasilianum" SE Ariz Biome, Mtns of Mex: S. Madre Occid.
* ( * SW ) Long-eared Owl, "Asio otus"
*( SW ) Short-eared Owl, "Asio flammeus", ("–Winter Range–")
*Northern Saw-whet Owl, "Aegolius acadicus" (C) Permanent in Four Corners, SE Ariz Biome, winters in E Ariz

Goatsuckers, Nighthawks

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is cryptically coloured to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species world wide, and 9 North American species. (It is noted under the Nightjar article, that specific species can perch "non-perpendicular", or "transverse", on a branch, as a higher point of camouflage! See "Evolution" article.)

* ( * SW ) Lesser Nighthawk, "Chordeiles acutipennis"
*Common Nighthawk, "Chordeiles minor", (C)
* ( * SW ) Common Poorwill, "Phalaenoptilus nuttallii"
*Buff-collared Nightjar, "Caprimulgus ridgwayi"
*Whip-poor-will, "Caprimulgus vociferus"
**(See Nightjar).

wifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae
The swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have very long swept–back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species world wide, and 9 North American species.

*White-throated Swift, "Aeronautes saxatalis", ("–Winter Range–") and (~)Permanent

Hummingbirds

Order: TrochiliformesFamily: Trochilidae /See Hummingbird
Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. There are 337 species world wide, and 23 North American species. Hummingbirds in Arizona, range from the mountains to the desert, as well as have wintering–, and summering–ranges–(from S Mexico to the North American Northwest).

* (SW ) Broad-billed Hummingbird, "Cynanthis latirostris" (Occasional, extended stays)-from SE Ariz Biome/ Mexico(West)
* ( * SW ) "sw–06"(?) Black-chinned Hummingbird, "Archilochus alexandri"
* ( * SW ) Anna's Hummingbird, "Calypte anna"
* ( * SW ) Costa's Hummingbird, "Calypte costae"
*Rufous Hummingbird, "Selasphorus rufus"

*The following are (C) or (A)
**Broad-billed Hummingbird, "Cynanthis latirostris"
**Calliope Hummingbird, "Stellula calliope" (C) Summers in Calif Mtns–Winters in S Mexico-(Apr, +Sep)
**Broad-tailed Hummingbird, "Selasphorus platycercus" (C)–"Breeds in Mountains of Ariz"
**Allen's Hummingbird, "Selasphorus sasin" (C) (Feb and Jul-Sep)–from Pac Calif coast

*Seen, or breeding in Arizona, and sightings possible:
**White-eared Hummingbird, "Hylocharis leucotis"
**"sw–06"(?) Xantus's Hummingbird, "Hylocharis xantusii" (can Summer S Calif deserts)
**Violet-crowned Hummingbird, "Amazilia violiceps"
**Blue-throated Hummingbird, "Lampornis clemenciae"
**Magnificent Hummingbird, "Eugenes fulgens"
**Plain-capped Starthroat, "Heliomaster constantii"
**Lucifer Hummingbird, "Calothorax lucifer"
*See List of hummingbirds in taxonomic order

Trogons, (Quetzals)

Order: "Trogoniformes"Family: "Trogonidae"

*Elegant Trogon, "Trogon elegans" SE Ariz Biome: "Permanent, (and–Summer Range–)"
*Eared Quetzal. "Euptilotis neoxenus", Permanent: SE Ariz Biome
**See Trogon

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae /See Kingfisher, Water Kingfisher
Kingfishers are medium sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 94 species world wide, and 3 North American species.

*( SW ) Belted Kingfisher, "Ceryle alcyon"—(Fairly common except in May-Jul)
*Green Kingfisher, "Chloroceryle americana" (C) —Casual along the S Arizona/Mexico border–(1988 sightings in the LCRV at same time as first-time breeding in "SE Ariz Biome")

Woodpeckers, Sapsuckers, and Flickers

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae /See Woodpecker, Sapsucker, and "Flicker", the Northern Flicker
Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks, (or state a pronounced, declared territorial call, while searching in their feeding range: it is obvious that they have arrived, or are passing by in their territory. There are 218 species world wide, and 26 North American species. The 3 permanent breeding species are the Gila, and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers, and the Gilded Flicker.

* Lewis's Woodpecker, "Melanerpes lewis", ("–Winter Range–")
* Acorn Woodpecker, "Melanerpes formicivorus" (C) (Jun and Oct,Nov–also observed in Calif deserts/ Salton Sea)
* ( * SW ) Gila Woodpecker, "Melanerpes uropygialis", Permanent
* Williamson's Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus thyroideus", (C) from higher elevations(winter)-Dec, and Mar
* Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus varius", ("–Winter Range–")
* Red-naped Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus nuchalis", ("–Winter Range–")
* Red-breasted Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus ruber", ("–Winter Range–")
* ( * SW ) Ladder-backed Woodpecker, "Picoides scalaris", Permanent
*Yellow-shafted Flicker, Northern Flicker, ("–Winter Range–")
*Red-shafted Flicker, Northern Flicker, ("–Winter Range–")
*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Gilded Flicker, (Northern Flicker), "Colaptes chrysoides", Permanent

Tyrant flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Tyrannidae
Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. There are 429 species world wide, all found only in the Americas, and 45 North American species.

* ( * SW ) Willow Flycatcher, "Empidonax traillii"
*Gray Flycatcher, "Empidonax wrightii"
*Dusky Flycatcher, "Empidonax oberholseri"
*Cordilleran Flycatcher, "Empidonax occidentalis"
* ( * SW ) "Black Phoebe", "Sayornis nigricans"
* ( * SW ) "Say's Phoebe", "Sayornis saya"
*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Vermilion Flycatcher, "Pyrocephalus rubinus"
*Dusky-capped Flycatcher
* ( * SW ) Ash-throated Flycatcher, "Myiarchus cinerascens"
*Nutting's Flycatcher
* ( * SW ) Brown-crested Flycatcher, "Myiarchus tyrannulus"
* ( * SW ) Cassin's Kingbird, "Tyrannus vociferans"
* ( * SW ) Western Kingbird, "Tyrannus verticalis"
**See Tyrant flycatcher

Shrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae /See Shrike(Laniidae); Chapparal
Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and "impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns", (creating a Larder to attract a female). A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species world wide, and 3 North American species. . The Loggerhead Shrike is extremely abundant in the "low desert"/ chapparal environment.

* ( * SW ) Loggerhead Shrike, "Lanius ludovicianus", Permanent
*Northern Shrike, Great Grey Shrike(Northern Shrike in N America) "Lanius excubitor", (C) (Winter Range: to S Nev, S Utah, S Colo–Nov,Dec,Jan [adults and immatures] )

Vireos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Vireonidae
The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. There are 52 species world wide, and 16 North American species.

*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Bell's Vireo, "Vireo bellii"
*Gray Vireo, "Vireo vicinior"

Jays, Crows, Magpies, and Ravens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae
The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show levels of learned behavior of a high degree. There are 120 species world wide, and 21 North American species.

*(?)Western Scrub Jay, "Aphelocoma californica"
*(?)Mexican Jay, "Aphelocoma ultramarina" (A)
*( –"L"– ) American Crow, "Corvus brachyrhynchos" (more northerly range)
* ( * SW ) Common Raven, "Corvus corax"

Larks

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae
Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights, "zigzagging flocks ! ? 14-40 individuals"). Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species world wide, and 2 North American species.

* ( * SW ) Horned Lark, "Eremophila alpestris" (winter, migrating SE-ward)
*Skylark, "Alauda arvensis"

wallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae
The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species world wide, and 14 North American species.

*Tree Swallow, "Tachycineta bicolor"
* ( * SW ) Violet-green Swallow, "Tachycineta thalassina"
* ( * SW ) Northern Rough-winged Swallow, "Stelgidopteryx serripennis"
*Bank Swallow, "Riparia riparia"
* ( * SW ) Cliff Swallow, "Petrochelidon pyrrhonota"
*Barn Swallow, "Hirundo rustica"

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae /See Chickadee(Titmouse)
The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are 59 species world wide, and 12 North American species.

*Mountain Chickadee, "Poecile gambeli", Permanent: Mtns in N, E, and Central Ariz
*Mexican Chickadee, -"Poecile sclateri", Permanent: "SE Ariz Biome"
*Bridled Titmouse, "Baeolophus wollweberi", Permanent: "SE Ariz Biome"–and Central Ariz Mtns
*Oak Titmouse, ----"Baeolophus inornatus", N Baja Calif., the Peninsular Ranges Mtns
*Juniper Titmouse, "Baeolophus ridgwayi", Permanent: N, E, and SE Mtns
* ( * SW ) Verdin, "Auriparus flaviceps", Only in Low Desert: "Perm,-Non–migrating"

Bushtits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Aegithalidae
Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet that includes insects. There are 9 species world wide, and 1 North American species.

*Bushtit, "Psaltriparus minimus"
**See Long-tailed tits and Titmouse.

Nuthatches

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sittidae
Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability "to climb down trees head–first," unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. There are 24 species world wide, and 4 North American species.

*Red-breasted Nuthatch, --"Sitta canadensis"
*White-breasted Nuthatch, "Sitta carolinensis"
*Pygmy Nuthatch, "Sitta pygmaea"
**See Nuthatch

Treecreepers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Certhiidae /See Treecreeper
Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species world wide, and 1 North American species.

*( –"L"– ) ( SW ) Brown Creeper, "Certhia americana", Permanent in 1–NE, E Ariz Mtns, 2–"SE Ariz Biome", Winter: not seen (Apr)May-Sep

Wrens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Troglodytidae /See Wren(Troglodytidae)
Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their "(almost)"loud songs, (? the size of the bird limits their loudness). They have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. (The Cactus Wren is a larger bird of the group.) There are 79 species world wide, and 9 North American species.

* ( * SW ) Cactus Wren, "Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus"
* ( * SW ) Rock Wren, "Salpinctes obsoletus" (An avid ground searcher, amidst ground tumble(rocks, etc).)
*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Canyon Wren, "Catherpes mexicanus"
* ( * SW ) Bewick's Wren, "Thryomanes bewickii"
* ( * SW ) Marsh Wren, "Cistothorus palustris"

Dippers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cinclidae /See Dipper
The American Dipper ranges from Alaska to Mexico in mountain streams. It is permanent at the Colorado River, in the Grand Canyon and has been observed in the N "Lower" Colorado River Valley.

*American Dipper, "Cinclus mexicanus", (called "Water Ouzel")
**See Indicator species

Kinglets

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Regulidae /See Kinglet
The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus Regulus. The "adults" have "coloured crowns, " giving rise to their name. There are 5 species world wide, and 2 North American species. Both North American species reside permanently in the mountains of E Arizona.

*Golden-crowned Kinglet, "Regulus satrapa", Permanent and (–Summer Range–)–Mtns of E Ariz, Rare, but consistent visits: Oct-Dec(Feb)(Mar)
*( SW ) Ruby-crowned Kinglet, "Regulus calendula", Permanent and (–Summer Range–)–Mtns of E Ariz, (Sep)Oct-Apr(May)

Old World warblers and Gnatcatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae
The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as a singing species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are about 300 species world wide, and 12 North American Species.

*Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila caerulea"
* ( * SW ) Black-tailed Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila melanura"

Thrushes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae
The Thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species world wide, and 28 North American species.

*( SW ) Mountain Bluebird, "Sialia currucoides" (winter)
* ( * SW ) American Robin, "Turdus migratorius" (migrating)

Mockingbirds and Thrashers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Mimidae
The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays, blacks, and browns in their appearance. There are 35 species world wide, and 13 North American species, and ?4 permanent SW-Arizona resident species.

:The "Northern Mockingbird" has been extending its range, "low desert, mountain foothills," North, and East of Yuma, as the cities to the East of Yuma have been developing, (?)since 1995. They sing in the same distinctive manner, and have the same arboreal displays, "but their plumage is more pronounced, with darker Blacks, and darker Grays (? to contrast with Brite White)." The arboreal display is energetic(? and territorial), and consists of vertical climbs and "falls", above a (choice, selected)tree perch. "(In the last 2 years, some of 2004, 2005, the huge influx N into the foothills, and desert grasslands, are much greyer birds, much like the city birds.)"

*Gray Catbird, "Dumetella carolinensis", --(Only local in Northern White Mtns and north-east-ward.)
* ( * SW ) Northern Mockingbird, "Mimus polyglottos", --Permanent (now in desert locales)
*( SW ) Sage Thrasher, "Oreoscoptes montanus", "–Winter Range/Resident–"
*Bendire's Thrasher, "Toxostoma bendirei", -- [Permanet: "SE Ariz Biome"] (–Summer Ranging–N. of Yuma County, etc in Az.)
*Curve-billed Thrasher, "Toxostoma curvirostre", --Permanent E. and NE of Yuma County
*California Thrasher, "Toxostoma redivivum," --a vagrant from Southern Calif.(?)
* ( * SW ) Crissal Thrasher, "Toxostoma crissale", ---(Permanent from Colo R./Calif. border, the deserts, and S into Mex (W. and Central), from S. New Mexico(USA) Southward. Permanent like the Quail, no seasonal–Ranging.)
*( SW ) Le Conte's Thrasher, "Toxostoma lecontei", ---Permanent, and local, in "hot, lower, deserts: " (very S. Colorado Des.(S. Calif.), Pacific locales in Baja Calif Sur, and SW Ariz (and very N. Mexico); "no seasonal–Ranging.")(3rd locale: the Carrizo Plain and valley, N of Los Angeles, in the Coastal Ranges)

tarlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae
Starlings are small to medium-sized passerines with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, (occasionally seen in open desert, semi-grassland), and they eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species world wide, and 3 North American species.

* ( * SW ) European Starling, "Sturnus vulgaris" (I) (also: solitary, or paired low desert(grassland) travellers)

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae
The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species world wide, and 11 North American species.

*( SW ) American Pipit, "Anthus rubescens", (the Buff-bellied Pipit), –Winter Range/"Resident"–; Breeds in Ariz; Leaves the "Lower" Colo. R. Valley from mid-May–(Sep)Oct
*Sprague's Pipit, "Anthus spragueii", "SE Ariz Biome"–Winter Range–

Waxwings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Bombycillidae /See Waxwing
The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are "arboreal " birds of "northern forests." They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species world wide, and 2 North American species.

*Bohemian Waxwing, "Bombycilla garrulus " (C) or (A) Winter ranges into N Nev, N Utah, N Colo; observed in "Lower" Colo. R. Valley–Jan,Feb,Mar
*( SW ) Cedar Waxwing, "Bombycilla cedrorum " ("–Winter Range/"Resident"–")

Silky-flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ptilogonatidae /See Silky-flycatcher
The silky-flycatchers are a small family of passerine birds which occur mainly in Central America, although the range of one species extends to Central California(San Joaquin Valley), and much of the SW deserts and mountains. They are related to waxwings, and like that group have a soft silky plumage, usually grey or pale yellow in colour. They have "small crests." There are 4 New World (Americas) species, and 3 North American species.

* ( * SW ) Phainopepla, "Phainopepla nitens" (found in secluded mtn "canyons & locales," etc., (also Colo. R.)–Riparian environment-(near Mistletoe berries--)


=Wood-warblers=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Parulidae /See: Warbler, New World warbler"(Wood-warblers)"; also Old World warblers.)
The Wood Warblers are a group of small often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some like ? are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. There are 119 species world wide, and 57 North American species. Half of the listed warblers are Accidental, or Casual visitants.

*Orange-crowned Warbler, "Vermivora celata", year-round, except Jun-Jul
*Nashville Warbler, "Vermivora ruficapilla"
*Virginia's Warbler, "Vermivora virginiae"
* ( * SW ) Lucy's Warbler, "Vermivora luciae"
* ( * SW ) Northern Parula, "Parula americana"
* ( * SW ) Yellow Warbler, "Dendroica petechia"
*Yellow-rumped Warbler, "Dendroica coronata"
**Audubon's Warbler, "Dendroica coronata auduboni"
**Myrtle Warbler, "Dendroica coronata coronata"
*Black-throated Gray Warbler, "Dendroica nigrescens"
*Townsend's Warbler, "Dendroica townsendi"
*Hermit Warbler, "Dendroica occidentalis"
*Black-and-white Warbler, "Mniotilta varia"
*American Redstart, "Setophaga ruticilla"
*Northern Waterthrush, "Seiurus noveboracensis"
* ( SW ) MacGillivray's Warbler
* ( * SW ) Common Yellowthroat, "Geothlypis trichas", Permanent and "(–Summer Range–)"
*Hooded Warbler, "Wilsonia ciltrina" (A)
* ( SW ) Wilson's Warbler, "Wilsonia pusilla" (A) from E US(Summer Range)
*Painted Redstart, "Myioborus pictus", Intermittent yearlong visitor
* ( * SW ) Yellow-breasted Chat, "Icteria virens", Summer, {Apr)May-Sep
**Only three species are mainly "–Summer Residents–:" Lucy's Warbler, the Common Yellowtail, and Yellow-breasted Chat.

*(A) or (C) visiting "warblers, etc:"
**Blue-winged Warbler, "Vermivora pinus" (A)
**Golden-winged Warbler, "Vermivora chrysoptera" (A)
**Tennessee Warbler, "Vermivora peregrina" (A)
**Chestnut-sided Warbler, "Dendroica pensylvanica"
**Magnolia Warbler, "Dendroica magnolia" (not observed in Summer)
**Cape May Warbler, "Dendroica tigrina" (A)
**Black-throated Blue Warbler, "Dendroica caerulescens"
**Black-throated Green Warbler, "Dendroica virens" (–observed in Oct(Nov)–)
**Yellow-throated Warbler, "Dendroica dominica"
**Grace's Warbler, "Dendroica graciae" (breeds in Ariz)
**Prairie Warbler, "Dendroica discolor" (A)
**Palm Warbler, "Dendroica palmarum"
**Bay-breasted Warbler, "Dendroica castanea"
**Blackpoll Warbler, "Dendroica striata"
**Prothonotary Warbler, "Prothonotaria citrea" (C)
**Worm-eating Warbler, "Helmitheros vermivorus"
**Ovenbird, "Seiurus aurocapillus" (C)
**Northern Waterthrush, "Seiurus noveboracensis"
**Louisiana Waterthrush, "Seiurus motacilla"
**Kentucky Warbler, "Oporornis formosus"
**Hooded Warbler, "Wilsonia citrina"
**Painted Redstart, "Myioborus pictus", breeds in E and SE Ariz

Bananaquit

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Coerebidae
The Bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers and is the only member of the genus Coereba (Vieillot, 1809) and the family Coerebidae. The Bananaquit can be found in southern Mexico and is only occasional in the USA.

*Bananaquit, "Coereba flaveola" (C)

Tanagers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thraupidae /See Tanager
The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seedeaters, but their preference tends towards "fruit and nectar." Most have short, rounded wings. There are 256 species world wide, and 6 North American species.

*Hepatic Tanager, "Piranga flava", ("–Summer Range–" and Permanent), E of Yuma County
* ( * SW ) Summer Tanager, -"Piranga rubra", "–Summer Range–"
*Scarlet Tanager, "Piranga olivacea" (C) (observed in Oct)
*Western Tanager, "Piranga ludoviciana", "–Summer Range–". N and E Az

American sparrows, Towhees, Juncos, and Longspurs

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae
The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as "Buntings." In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are 275 species world wide, and 60 North American species. Note: 29 species are listed for SW Arizona; about 1/3 to 1/2 range into the SW, about 1/3 are common to the "SE Ariz Biome", and the other 1/3, are mountainous, or Mexican–ranging, or range north, or west to California, but all have SW Arizona in, or adjacent, in the "Range Maps."

*Green-tailed Towhee, "Pipilo chlorurus" ---("–Winter Range–")
*Spotted Towhee, "Pipilo maculatus" ---("–Winter Range–")
*( SW ) –Canyon Towhee, "Pipilo fuscus", ---Central Ariz to "SE Ariz Biome")
*( * SW ) –Abert's Towhee, "Pipilo aberti" ---(Arizona's SW&S-Lower Desert-"exclusive")
*Rufous-winged Sparrow, "Aimophila carpalis", ---(( "SE Ariz Biome" ))
*Cassin's Sparrow, "Aimophila cassinii", (C)
*Botteri's Sparrow, "Aimophila botterii", ---"SE Ariz Biome", and "–Summer Range–" ( "locales" )
*( SW ) –Rufous-crowned Sparrow, "Aimophila ruficeps", ---"Permanent:" towards Central AZ
*Five-striped Sparrow, "Aimophila quinquestriata", ---"SE Ariz Biome", and "–Summer Range–" ( "locales" )
**See American sparrow, Towhee, Junco, and Longspur

*Chipping Sparrow, "Spizella passerina", ---("–Winter Range–") (see: "Range Maps")
*Brewer's Sparrow, "Spizella breweri", ---("–Winter Range–")
*( SW ) Black-chinned Sparrow, "Spizella atrogularis" (C)
*Vesper Sparrow, "Pooecetes gramineus", ---("–Winter Range–")
*( * SW ) Lark Sparrow, "Chondestes grammacus", -- 1-("–Winter Range–"), and 2-Permanent
*( * SW ) Black-throated Sparrow, "Amphispiza bilineata" ---(Summer: an intense ground searcher, in small highly energized groups–also seeking water.)
**Only Abert's Towhee, Lark Sparrow, and Song Sparrow, and the Black-throated Sparrow are summer residents.
*Sage Sparrow, "Amphispiza belli", ---("–Winter Range–")
*Lark Bunting, "Calamospiza melanocorys", ---"SE Ariz Biome", ("–Winter Range–")
*Savannah Sparrow, "Passerculus sandwichensis", ---("–Winter Range–")
*( SW ) Grasshopper Sparrow, "Ammodramus savannarum", ---("–Winter Range–"): Ariz-Mex Border, N Mexico and Baja Calif. Norte

*Baird's Sparrow, "Ammodramus bairdii", ---"SE Ariz Biome", ("–Winter Range–") ((Extreme: localized))
*Fox Sparrow, "Passerella iliaca", ---("–Winter Range–")
* ( * SW ) Song Sparrow, "Melospiza melodia", ---Permanent, and: ("–Winter Range–")
*Lincoln's Sparrow, "Melospiza lincolnii", ---("–Winter Range–")
*Swamp Sparrow, "Melospiza georgiana", ---((Extreme "SE Ariz-Biome"))
*White-throated Sparrow, "Zonotrichia albicollis", ---"SE Ariz Biome", ("–Winter Range–")
*"sw–06" White-crowned Sparrow, "Zonotrichia leucophrys", ---("–Winter Range–")
*Dark-eyed Junco, "Junco hyemalis", ---("–Winter Range–")
*( SW ) Yellow-eyed Junco, "Junco phaeonotus", ---Permanent: "SE Ariz Biome"
*McCown's Longspur, "Calcarius mccownii", (C) "SE Ariz Biome"
*Lapland Longspur, "Calcarius lapponicus", (Occasional-Winter)
*Chestnut-collared Longspur, "Calcarius ornatus", ---("–Winter Range–")


=Cardinals, Saltators, and Grosbeaks=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cardinalidae
The Cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 43 species world wide, and 13 North American species.

*( –"L"– ) ( * SW ) Northern Cardinal, "Cardinalis cardinalis", [Permanent in SE Ariz Biome]
*Pyrrhuloxia, "Cardinalis sinuatus", [Permanent in SE Ariz Biome]
*Yellow Grosbeak, "Pheucticus chrysopeplus", ( –"L"– )"Occasional in locales", ((from SE Ariz Biome))
*Black-headed Grosbeak, "Pheucticus melanocephalus", Summers: N Az, E Az, and SE Az Biome
* ( * SW ) Blue Grosbeak, "Passerina caerulea", ("–Summer Range–")
*Lazuli Bunting, "Passerina amoena", ("–Summer Range–" in N Mex, E coast of Gulf of Cal, and West range in SE Ariz Biome)
* ( * SW ) Indigo Bunting, "Passerina cyanea", ("–Summer Range–"),
*Varied Bunting, "Passerina versicolor", "SE Ariz Biome", ("–Summer Range–")
**See Cardinal (bird), Saltator, Grosbeak, Bunting (bird)

Icterids

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Icteridae
The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colorful passerine birds restricted to the New World, and include: the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as a predominant plumage color, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species world wide, and 25 North American species. The 11 listed "Icterids", are mostly common, and breeding species in the "Lower" Colo. Riv. Valley(LCRV).

* ( * SW ) Red-winged Blackbird, "Agelaius phoeniceus"
*Eastern Meadowlark, "Sturnella magna"; two westward range–extensions, the Northerly into the SE Ariz Biome.
* ( * SW ) Western Meadowlark, "Sturnella neglecta"
* ( * SW ) Yellow-headed Blackbird, "Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus"
* ( SW ) Rusty Blackbird, "Euphagus carolinus"
* ( SW ) Brewer's Blackbird, "Euphagus cyanocephalus"
* ( * SW ) Great-tailed Grackle, "Quiscalus mexicanus", Perm,-Non-migrating
*Common Grackle, "Quiscalus quiscula", (C) (minor vagrant from SE US)
* ( * SW ) Bronzed Cowbird, "Molothrus aeneus"
* ( * SW ) Brown-headed Cowbird, "Molothrus ater"
**See Blackbird, Cowbird, Grackle, Icterid
**See Brood parasite

Fringilline Finches, Cardueline Finches, and Allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae/ See Finch(Fringillidae), Carduelis
Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species world wide, and ?20 North American species. The 9 listed "Finches and allies", are mostly Winter Residents, or Permanent.

* ( SW ) Purple Finch, "Carpodacus purpureus", ("–Winters–"), Oct–Jan
*Cassin's Finch, "Carpodacus cassinii", ("–Intermittent Winter Range–"), Nov–Dec
*( * SW ) House Finch, "Carpodacus mexicanus", Permanent
*Red Crossbill, "Loxia curvirostra", (C) Permanent: Mtns: Northern and E. Ariz. (Observed in "Lower" Colo. R. Valley from Aug–Dec)
* ( SW ) Pine Siskin, "Carduelis pinus", ("–Winter Range–")
*( * SW ) Lesser Goldfinch, "Carduelis psaltria", Permanent
* ( * SW ) Lawrence's Goldfinch, "Carduelis lawrencei", ("–Winter Range–")- (–locales–)
* ( SW ) American Goldfinch, "Carduelis tristis", ("–Winter Range–")
* ( SW ) Evening Grosbeak, "Coccothraustes vespertinus", Permanent: Mtns: NE(Four Corners), E Mtns, and "SE Ariz Biome", (Observed in "Lower" Colo. R. Valley from Oct–Nov)

Old World sparrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: PasseridaeOld World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, but they also climb, and chase and consume small insects. There are 35 species world wide, and 2 North American species. The House Sparrow is overly common in SW Arizona.

* ( * SW ) House Sparrow, "Passer domesticus"– (I)
*Tree Sparrow, "Passer montanus", ("Eurasian Tree Sparrow"), (Illinois and Missouri)– (I)
**See Old World sparrows–(Passeridae}

Legend


*Bill Williams River and & "Lake", i.e. Alamo Lake: next parallel drainage E-West, N of the Gila River.
*Colorado River–{Riparian) Env. See:Riparian
*Deserts:W&NW: Mojave Desert; S&SE: Sonoran Desert; local: E&SE, Tule Desert (Arizona)
*Ephemeral stream (desert): needs definition for: minor mtn streams, and larger, lower elevation "rivers".
*Gila River, major E-W drainage, extending E to Phoenix, and on to New Mex. border.
*Gulf of California
*Madrean sky islands, of SE Ariz, -Tucson, Arizona, Nogales, Arizona
**for Mtn range: Sierra Madre Occidental-(W. Mexico)

*Painted Rock Reservoir, Arizona: major "Lake" of Gila River, N of Tule Des., "E. Yuma County".
*Peninsular Ranges-(Baja California)
*"Permanent–Non-migrational"
*Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar, the Pinacate Volcanic Field, Mexico
*SE Ariz Biome, with Sky islands
*Sierra Juárez and San Pedro Mártir pine-oak forests; Ecoregion definition of high mtns, Baja California
*Skylarking (birds)
*Terrestrial ecoregions; i.e. Sonoran Desert
*Tule Desert (Arizona)
*( Winter Range/"Resident" )
*( Summer Range/"Resident" )
*Yuma-San Luis, Mex.: the "SW-corner", also co-positional with "SE Calif. border/Colorado R."

Legend/2

*Bosque
**W, in Calif: Imperial Valley, Salton Sea
**N: the Colo. R. "Wildlife Refuges-Lakes".
*Colorado River
**(Dams going N to Las Vegas, Nevada): Parker Dam, Davis Dam, Lake Mead-(Boulder Dam)
*Deserts:
**Local: the SW Sonoran: Yuma Desert, Sonoran Desert.
**E:Sonora Desert, Tule Desert (Arizona), and Lechuguilla Desert.
**W: Mojave Desert(North), W&S: Colorado Desert/Low Desert(South).
**W and SW: Yuha Desert, at N Baja California.
*Lakes, Dams:
**Imperial Dam; (~)at Yuma
**Martinez Lake
**Mittry Lake
*Also: NW: Salton Sea; far NW-Lake Mead
**SW and S: Gulf of California
**"Also called:" Sea of Cortez

*Mtns: ( "low desert" ):
**Chocolate Mountains (Arizona)
**Kofa Mountains
**W: Peninsular Ranges
**NE: Bradshaw Mountains, Ariz–Prescott National Forest
*Rivers: (only flow to West)
**Bill Williams River/ & "Lake"-Alamo Lake
**Gila River, from Painted Rock Res.
*Riparian
*Riparian forest
**Bosque
*Riparian strips

ee

*List of North American birds
*List of birds
**List of Kansas birds
**List of Arizona birds
**List of Sonoran Desert birds (Arizona)

ee also

*Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, and DNA-DNA hybridisation.
*Christmas Bird Count
*Tucson Bird Count
*Baja California Peninsula
*List of North American deserts
*For 1976, "Tropical Storm Kathleen"(Accidental Arrivals):
List of Arizona hurricanes

For categories of Southeastern Arizona, and Northern and Western Mexico species–
*See also:
*See also:

References

*The Sibley Guide to Birds

Baja pic/Colorado outflow


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