Military of Turkmenistan

Military of Turkmenistan
Military of Turkmenistan
Roundel of Turkmenistan.svg
Founded circa 1992
Headquarters Galkynysh str.4, Ashkabad[1]
President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
Minister of Defence Colonel General Agageldi Mametgeldiyev
Military age 18[2]
Conscription 24 months[3]
Active personnel 34,000[4][5]
Reserve personnel 108,000[6][7]
Budget $90 million (FY10)[8]
Percent of GDP 3.4% (FY10)[9]
Foreign suppliers  Russia

The armed forces of Turkmenistan consist of an Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Troops, and Internal Troops, and a National Guard. After the fall of the Soviet Union, significant elements of the Soviet Armed Forces Turkestan Military District remained on Turkmen soil. In June 1992, the new Russian government signed a bilateral defence treaty with Turkmenistan, encouraging the new Turkmen government to create its own armed forces but stipulating that they were to be placed under joint command.[10]

The Library of Congress Country Studies said that 'the Treaty on Joint Measures signed by Russia and Turkmenistan in July 1992 provided for the Russian Federation to act as guarantor of Turkmenistan's security and made former Soviet army units in the republic the basis of the new national armed forces. The treaty stipulated that, apart from border troops and air force and air defense units remaining under Russian control, the entire armed forces would be under joint command, which would gradually devolve to exclusive command by Turkmenistan over a period of ten years. For a transitional period of five years, Russia would provide logistical support and pay Turkmenistan for the right to maintain special installations, while Turkmenistan would bear the costs of housing, utilities, and administration.'

The Turkmen military inherited several motor rifle divisions from the Turkestan Military District which formed the basis of the Turkmen ground forces.

Jane's Information Group said in 2009 that "Turkmenistan's military is, even by the standards of Central Asia, poorly maintained and funded."[11]


State Security Council of Turkmenistan

The State Security Council is the most important defence decision-making body in the country.[12]

The 1995 Law on defence[13] says that the President of Turkmenistan defines the powers of the Security Council.

The Security Council is mentioned in the 2003 Constitution of Turkmenistan[14] but not in the 1992 constitution [3], and it's only mentioned that the Security Council is guided by the president.

The Council was chaired by the former President of Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov until his death, while Minister of Defence Agageldi Mämmetgeldiýew acts as its secretary.[15]

Following the death of Niyazov, the Security Council announced Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow as his interim successor.[16]

Land forces


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The Turkmen military inherited several motor rifle divisions from the Soviet Armed Forces Turkestan Military District, forming the basis of the Turkmen ground forces. Today the land forces include the 2nd, 3rd, 11th, and 22nd Motor Rifle Divisions.[17]

It was reported in January 2007 that on the Caspian Sea and the coastal zone to a depth of 350 kilometers, and on the Turkmen-Iranian border is located about 90% of the Army (22nd Motorized Division on the Caspian coast, 2nd and 3rd motorized divisions on the Turkmen-Iranian border, 11th Motorized Division on the Tajik-Afghan border).[18]

The military ranks have reverted to traditional names and structure, and are now:

Esger - warrior
Onbashi - leader of 10 (section leader)
Yuzbashi - leader of 100 (junior officer)
Munbashi - leader of 1000 (senior officer)
Goshunbashi - Army commander

The rank of a marshal has also apparently been reintroduced.[19] The real cash payment to the warrior rank in the army is about USD$1.5 - 3 (2005 rates) per month. Only some of the conscript's time in the military is occupied with military service, the rest being occupied with "labour" (half a day) and "self-improvement" (2–3 hours a day) by reciting traditional Turkoman texts, learning songs and playing music.


Turkmen land forces equipment includes 702 T-72, [20] and 10 T-90, ordered in 2009 for approximately $30 million.[21][22]

AIFV / APC include BTR-60/BTR-70/BTR-80 - 829,[20] BMP-1/BMP-2 - 930,[20] BRM-1 12, and BRDM-2 - 170.



Multiple launch Rocket Systems

Towed Guns

  • D-30 122mm Gun - 180
  • D-1 152mm Gun - 17
  • 2A65 152mm Gun - 72


Air Defence Guns

Surface to Air Missiles

  • SA-8 - 40
  • SA-13 - 13

Light equipment

Air Force


File:Turkmenistan airforces SU-24.JPG
Turkmenistan airforces Su-24
  • 67th Mixed Aviation Regiment (Mary-2 airbase) with МiG-29 and Su-25.[24]
  • 47th Separate Mixed Aviation Squadron (Аk-Tepe/Ashkabad) with Аn-26/24, Мi-24 and Мi-8.
  • 107th Fighter Aviation Regiment (Ak-Tepe) with 38 МiG-23 and 20 МiG-25 (not operational).
  • 31st Separate Aviation Squadron (Chardzhou/Turkmenabad) with МiG-21, Su-7, L-39, Yak-28 and Аn-12 (not operational). Former 366th Independent Helicopter Squadron.
  • 55th Fighter Aviation Regiment (Balkanabat) with МiG-23М (not operational). Former 179th Fighter Aviation Regiment.
  • 56th Storage Base (Kyzyl-Arvat) with МiG-23. Former 217th Fighter/Bomber Aviation Regiment.
  • 1st Anti-Aircraft Missile Regiment 'Turkmenbashi' (Bikrova/Ashkabad) with 2K11 Krug.
  • 2nd Radio-Technical Brigade.

Aircraft Inventory

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[25] Notes
Trainer Aircraft
Aero L-39 Albatros  Czechoslovakia training/light attack L-39 2
Fighter Aircraft
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29 Fulcrum  Soviet Union fighter MiG-29
Attack Aircraft
Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot  Soviet Union close support Su-25 43
Transport Aircraft
Antonov An-24 Coke  Soviet Union tactical transport An-24 1
Attack Helicopter
Mil Mi-24 Hind  Soviet Union attack Mi-24 10
Transport Helicopter
Mil Mi-8 Hip  Soviet Union transport/attack Mi-8 8

Border Guard

Turkmen naval forces are currently directed by the Border Guard Service and consist of around 700 servicemen and sixteen patrol boats.[26]

The International Institute for Strategic Studies reported in 2007 that Turkmenistan intended to form a navy and had a minor base at Turkmenbashy with 1 USCG Point class cutter and 5 Kalkan-class patrol vessels.[20] Jane's Fighting Ships 2001-2002 reported that the Point-class cutter was the Merjin, PB-129, (ex Point Jackson, 82378), which was transferred on 30 May 2000.

References and links

  1. ^ Military Technology, World Defence Almanac 2008, p.255
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ Stephen Foye, 'Russian-Turkmen Defense Accord,' RFE/RL Daily Report, no. 109, (June 10, 1992), p.1, via Janne E. Nolan (ed.), Global Engagement, Brookings, WAshington DC, 1994, p.369
  11. ^ Josh Kucera, 'Centre of Attention: Central Asia,' Jane's Defence Weekly, 14 October 2009
  12. ^, Turkmenistan Project
  13. ^
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ CIA Chiefs of State data of Turkmenistan
  16. ^ Facts and figures on Turkmenistan - Pravda.Ru
  17. ^
  18. ^, translated from Russian by Google Translate, July 2009
  19. ^ Игорь Елков, Вся постсоветская рать: Какая из бывших советских республик всех сильнее, Российская газета - Неделя №3893 от 7 октября 2005 г.[2]
  20. ^ a b c d IISS (2007). The Military Balance 2007. London: Routledge for the IISS. pp. 326–327. ISBN 978-1-85743-437-8. 
  21. ^ "EurasiaNet News Briefs - Turkmenistan: Berdymukhamedov Mulls Russian Hi-Tech Deals". 2009-12-09. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  22. ^ "Procurement (Turkmenistan) - Sentinel Security Assessment - Russia And The CIS". 2009-10-21. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  23. ^
  24. ^ Vad777, Turkmenistan
  25. ^ Turkmenistan Air Frce at
  26. ^, accessed July 2009
  • CIA World Factbook, 2003 edition.

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