Tiridates I of Armenia


Tiridates I of Armenia

Infobox Monarch | name=Tiridates I
title=King of Armenia [The Arsacid kings of Armenia did not mint coins; as a result their official titles are unknown.]


caption=Statue of Tiridates I of Armenia in the park of the Palace of Versailles.
reign= 63 [Beginning of reign without interruption.] – unknown
date1= 63
date2= unknown
coronation= 66 [In Rome by Nero.]
predecessor=Tigranes
successor=Sanatruk
royal house= Arshakuni
father= Vonones II of Parthia (51)
issue= Died without legitimate issue

Tiridates I (Lang-hy| Տրդատ Ա, EA: Trdat I, WA: Drtad I) was King of Armenia beginning in AD 53 and the founder of the Arshakuni Dynasty, the Armenian line of the Arsacid Dynasty. The dates of his birth and death are unknown. His early reign was marked by a brief interruption towards the end of the year 54 and a much longer one from 58 to 63. In an agreement to resolve the Roman-Parthian conflict in and over Armenia, Tiridates (who was the brother of Vologases I of Parthia) was crowned king of Armenia by the Roman emperor Nero in AD 66; in the future, the king of Armenia was to be a Parthian prince, but his appointment required approval from the Romans. Even though this made Armenia a client kingdom, various contemporary Roman sources thought that Nero had de facto ceded Armenia to Parthia. cite book | last = Redgate | first = Anne Elizabeth| title = The Armenians | edition = First | year = 2000 | publisher = Blackwell Publishers Inc. | location = Massachusetts | pages = p.88–91 |isbn = 0-631-22037-2]

In addition to being a king, Tiridates was also a Zoroastrian priest and was accompanied by other magi on his journey to Rome in AD 66. In the early 20th century, Franz Cumont speculated that Tiridates was instrumental in the development of Mithraism, [Cumont, "Les réligions orientales dans le paganisme romaine" (Conférences faites au Collége de France en 1905) ] which—in Cumont's view—was simply Romanized Zoroastrianism. This "continuity" theory has since been collectively refuted. [cite encyclopedia|last=Beck|first=Roger|title=Mithraism|encyclopedia=Encyclopedia Iranica|year=2002|url=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/sup/Mithraism.html] Tiridates is one of the principal characters in George Frideric Handel's opera "Radamisto" and Reinhard Keiser's opera "Octavia."

Ascension

Tiridates was the son of Vonones II of Parthia and a Greek concubine. [Assuming that the mother of Vologases, Pacorus and Tiridates was the same woman. [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9075687/Vologeses-I Britannica] ] Virtually nothing is known about his minority and youth, which he spent in Media, where his father was governor under the reign of his brother Gotarzes II. Tiridates' name meant "given by Tir", Tir was an Armeno-Parthian god of literature, science and art based on the Avestan Tishtrya and fused with the Greek Apollo. [cite book |first = Mary | last = Boyce | title = A History of Zoroastrianism | publisher = Brill Academic Publishers | pages = p. 77 | year = 1991 | id = ISBN 90-04-10474-7 ] In 51 the Roman procurator of Cappadocia, Julius Paelignus, invaded Armenia and ravaged the country, then under an Iberian usurper Rhadamistus. Rhadamistus had killed his uncle Mithridates who was the legitimate king of Armenia by luring the Roman garrison that was protecting him outside of the fortress of Gornea. cite book
last =Sherk
first =Robert K.
title =ANRW II.7, Politische Geschichte (Provinzen und Randvölker: Griechischer Balkanraum; Kleinasien), Roman Galatia: The Governors from 25 B. C. to A. D. 114
publisher =Walter de Gruyter & Co.
year =1980
location =Berlin & New York
pages =954–1052
id =ISBN 311008015X
]
[

Paul-Jacques-Aimé Baudry, c. 1848]

Acting without instruction, Paelignus recognized Rhadamistus as the new king of Armenia. Syrian governor Ummidius Quadratus sent Helvidius Priscus with a legion to repair these outrages; he was recalled so as not to provoke a war with Parthia. cite book
last =Sherk
first =Robert K.
title =ANRW II.7, Politische Geschichte (Provinzen und Randvölker: Griechischer Balkanraum; Kleinasien), Roman Galatia: The Governors from 25 B. C. to A. D. 114
publisher =Walter de Gruyter & Co.
year =1980
location =Berlin & New York
pages =954–1052
id =ISBN 311008015X
] In 52, King Vologases I (Vagharshak in Armenian) of Parthia took the opportunity and invaded Armenia, conquering Artaxata ("Artashat" in Armenia) and proclaiming his younger brother Tiridates as king. [Tacitus, "Annals" 12.50.1–2] This action violated the treaty that had been signed by the Roman emperor Augustus and Parthian king Phraates IV which gave the Romans the explicit right to appoint and crown the kings of Armenia. [Augustus had also recovered the Roman standards held by the Parthians as a prize after the Battle of Carrhae during the signing of the treaty, thereby wiping a long standing stain on Roman honor. cite book |first = John | last = Boardman | title = The Cambridge ancient history | publisher = Cambridge University Press | pages = p. 158–159 | year = 1925 | id = ISBN 0521264308] Vologases considered the throne of Armenia to have been once the property of his ancestors, now usurped by a foreign monarch in virtue of a crime. [ Vologases is referring to Vonones I of Parthia, and the sons of Artabanus II of Parthia, Arsaces and Orodes as the earlier Arsacids who sat on the Armenian throne. Tacitus, "Annals", 12.5] A winter epidemic as well as an insurrection initiated by his son Vardanes forced him to withdraw his troops from Armenia, allowing Rhadamistus to come back and punish locals as traitors; they eventually revolted and replaced him with the Parthian prince Tiridates in early 55. [Tacitus, "Annals", 13.7] Rhadamistus escaped along with his wife Zenobia who was pregnant. Unable to continue fleeing, she asked her husband to end her life rather than be captured. Rhadamistus stabbed her with a Median dagger and flung her body into the river Araxes. Zenobia was not fatally injured and was recovered by shepherds who sent her to Tiridates. Tiridates received her kindly and treated her as a member of the monarchy. cite book | last = Yarshater | first = Ehsan| title = The Cambridge History of Iran | year = 1983 | publisher = Cambridge UniversityPress | location = Massachusetts | pages = p.80–83 |id = ISBN 052120092X] Rhadamistus himself returned to Iberia and was soon put to death by his father Parasmanes I of Iberia for having plotted against the royal power. cite book
last =Sherk
first =Robert K.
title =ANRW II.7, Politische Geschichte (Provinzen und Randvölker: Griechischer Balkanraum; Kleinasien), Roman Galatia: The Governors from 25 B. C. to A. D. 114
publisher =Walter de Gruyter & Co.
year =1980
location =Berlin & New York
pages =954–1052
id =ISBN 311008015X
]

War with Rome

Unhappy with the growing Parthian influence at their doorstep, cite book | last = Yarshater | first = Ehsan| title = The Cambridge History of Iran | year = 1983 | publisher = Cambridge UniversityPress | location = Massachusetts | pages = p.81–83 |isbn = 052120092X] Roman Emperor Nero sent General Corbulo with a large army to the east in order to restore Roman client kings. cite book | last = Yarshater | first = Ehsan| title = The Cambridge History of Iran | year = 1983 | publisher = Cambridge UniversityPress | location = Massachusetts | pages = p.81–83 |isbn = 052120092X] [Tacitus, "Annals", 13.9] A Hasmonean named Aristobulus was given Lesser Armenia (Nicopolis and Satala), Gaius Julius Sohaemus of the house of Emessa received Armenia Sophene. In the spring of 58, Corbulo entered Greater Armenia from Cappadocia and advanced towards Artaxata, while Parasmanes I of Iberia attacked from the north, and Antiochus IV of Commagene attacked from the southwest. Supported by his brother, Tiridates sent flying columns to raid the Romans far and wide. Corbulo retaliated using the same tactics and the use of the Moschoi tribes who raided outlying regions of Armenia. cite book | last = Yarshater | first = Ehsan| title = The Cambridge History of Iran | year = 1983 | publisher = Cambridge UniversityPress | location = Massachusetts | pages = p.81–83 |isbn = 052120092X] Tiridates fled from the capital, and Corbulo burned Artaxata to the ground. In the summer, Corbulo began moving towards Tigranocerta through rough terrain and passing through the Taronitida (Taron), where several of his commanders died in an ambush by the Armenian resistance; however, the city opened its doors, with the exception of one of the citadels, which was destroyed in the ensuing assault.cite book |first = John | last = Lindsay | title = A View of the History and Coinage of the Parthians |publisher= Adamant Media Corporation | pages = p. 83–84 | isbn = 1402160801 ] By this time the majority of Armenians had abandoned resistance and accepted the prince favored by Rome. [Tacitus, "Annals", 13.55]

Nero gave the crown to the last royal descendant of the Kings of Cappadocia, the grandson of Glaphyra (daughter of Archelaus of Cappadocia) and Alexander of Judea (the brother of Herod Archelaus and the son of Herod the Great), [cite web
last =Tabor
first =James D.
title =The Jewish Roman World of Jesus
publisher =Department of Religious Studies • The University of North Carolina at Charlotte
url =http://www.religiousstudies.uncc.edu/jdtabor/john.html
accessdate = 2006-11-30
] who assumed the Armenian name Tigranes (his uncle was Tigranes V). [Strabo, 12.3.35] His son, named Alexander, married Iotapa, the daughter of Antiochus IV of Commagene and was made King of Cilicia. Nero was hailed vigorously in public for this initial victory [Tacitus, "Annals", 13.56] and Corbulo was appointed governor of Syria as a reward. [Tacitus, "Annals", 14.36 This was a very prestigious appointment. Not only was Syria a wealthy province, it was also one of the largest.] A guard of 1000 legionary soldiers, three auxiliary cohorts and two wings of horses were allotted to Tigranes in order to defend the country.cite book |first = John | last = Lindsay | title = A View of the History and Coinage of the Parthians |publisher= Adamant Media Corporation | pages = p. 83–84 | isbn = 1402160801 ] Border districts were bestowed to Roman allies that assisted Corbulo including Polemon, Parasmanes, Aristobolus and Antiochus.cite book |first = John | last = Lindsay | title = A View of the History and Coinage of the Parthians |publisher = Adamant Media Corporation | pages = p. 83–84 | isbn = 1402160801 ]

Vologases was infuriated by the fact that an alien now sat on the Armenian throne but hesitated to reinstate his brother as he was engaged in a conflict with the Hyrcanians who were revolting.cite book |first = John | last = Lindsay | title = A View of the History and Coinage of the Parthians |publisher= Adamant Media Corporation | pages = p. 83–84 | isbn = 1402160801 ] Tigranes invaded the Kingdom of Adiabene and deposed its King Monobazes in 61, who was a vassal of Parthians. [Tacitus, "Annals", 15.1]

Vologases considered this an act of aggression from Rome and started a campaign to restore Tiridates to the Armenian throne. He placed under the command of spahbod Moneses a well-disciplined force of cataphracts along with Adiabenian auxiliaries and ordered him to expel Tigranes from Armenia. Having quelled the Hyrcanian revolt, Vologases gathered the strength of his dominions and embarked toward Armenia.cite book |first = John | last = Lindsay | title = A View of the History and Coinage of the Parthians |publisher = Adamant Media Corporation | pages = p. 83–84 | isbn = 1402160801 ] Corbulo, having been informed of the impending attack, sent two legions under the commands of Verulanus Severus and Vettius Bolanus to the assistance of Tigranes with secret directions that they should act with caution rather than vigour. He also dispatched a message to Nero, urging him to send a second commander with the explicit purpose of defending Armenia as Syria was now also in peril. Corbulo placed the remainder of the legions on the banks of the Euphrates and armed irregular troops of the nearby provinces. Since the region was deficient in water, he erected forts over the fountains and concealed the rivulets by heaping sand over them.cite book |first = John | last = Lindsay | title = A View of the History and Coinage of the Parthians |publisher = Adamant Media Corporation | pages = p. 83–84 | isbn = 1402160801 ]

Moneses marched towards Tigranocerta but failed to break the defense of the city walls as his troops were unfit for a long siege. Corbulo, although eminently successful thought it prudent to use his good fortune with moderation. He sent a Roman centurion by the name of Casperius to the camp of Vologases in Nisibis located convert|37|mi|km from Tigranocerta with the demand to raise the siege. Because of a recent locust storm and the scarcity of fodder for his horses Vologases agreed to raise the siege of Tigranocerta and petitioned to be granted Armenia in order to achieve a firm peace.cite book |first = John | last = Lindsay | title = A View of the History and Coinage of the Parthians |publisher = Adamant Media Corporation | pages = p. 83–84 | isbn = 1402160801 ] Vologases demanded that both the Roman and Parthian troops should evacuate Armenia, that Tigranes should be dethroned, and that the position of Tiridates be recognized. The Roman government declined to accede to these arrangements and sent Lucius Caesennius Paetus, governor of Cappadocia, to settle the question by bringing Armenia under direct Roman administration. cite encyclopedia
last = Smith
first = William
authorlink =William Smith (lexicographer)
title=Corbulo
encyclopedia =Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
year =1867
location =Boston
pages =p. 851
url =http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/0860.html
] [Tacitus, Annals, 15.1–6,Dio Cassius, 62.20]

Paetus was an incapable commander and suffered a humiliating defeat at the Battle of Rhandeia in 62, losing the legions of XII "Fulminata" commanded by Calvisius Sabinus and IIII "Scythica" commanded by Funisulanus Vettonianus. The command of the troops was returned to Corbulo, who the following year led a strong army into Melitene and beyond into Armenia, eliminating all of the regional governors he suspected were pro-Parthian. Finally in Rhandeia, Corbulo and Tiridates met to make a peace agreement. The location of Rhandeia suited both Tiridates and Corbulo. It appealed to Tiridates because that is where his army had beaten the Romans and sent them away under a capitulation; on the other hand, it appealed to Corbulo because he was about to wipe out the ill repute earned before in the same location. When Tiridates arrived at the Roman camp he took off his royal diadem and placed it on the ground near a statue of Nero, agreeing to receive it back only from Nero in Rome. [cite book| title = The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge |publisher = Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge | pages = p. 496| year = 1842 |location = Great Britain] Tiridates was recognized as the vassal king of Armenia; a Roman garrison would remain in the country permanently, in Sophene while Artaxata would be reconstructed. Corbulo left his son-in-law Annius Vinicianus to accompany Tiridates to Rome in order to attest his own fidelity to Nero.

Visiting Rome

Prior to embarking for Rome, Tiridates visited his mother and two brothers in Media Atropatene and Parthia. On his long trek he was accompanied by his family and an imposing retinue, comprised of many feudal lords and 3,000 horsemen. His route lay across Thrace, through Illyria, on the eastern shores of the Adriatic and Picenum, in northeastern Italy. The journey took nine months, and Tiridates rode on horseback, with his children and queen at his side. [Dio Cassius, 63.1.2] The children of Vologases, Monobazes and Pacorus also accompanied Tiridates.cite book |first = Dio | last = Cassius | title = Dio's Rome Vol. 5 | publisher = Kessinger Publishing | pages = p. 34 | year = 2004 | id = ISBN 1-4191-1613-4 ]

Dio Cassius, a second-century Roman historian, described Tiridates favorably at the time of his arrival: "Tiridates himself was in the prime of his life, a notable figure by reason of his youth, beauty, family, and intelligence."cite book |first = Dio | last = Cassius | title = Dio's Rome Vol. 5 | publisher = Kessinger Publishing | pages = p. 34 | year = 2004 | id = ISBN 1-4191-1613-4 ] Nero greeted Tiridates at Neapolis (Naples) in October, sending a state chariot to carry the visitor over the last few miles. No one was allowed to approach the emperor armed, but Tiridates maintained his dignity by refusing to remove his sword as he approached the ruler of the Roman Empire (though as a compromise, he agreed to have his sword firmly fastened in the sheath, so that it could not be drawn). At Puteolis (modern Pozzuoli, near Naples) Nero ordered athletic games to be staged in honor of his guest. The Armenian king himself had an opportunity to display his ability as a marksman by shooting an arrow through the bodies of two buffaloes. The event at Puteolis also marked the first attested appearance of female gladiators:

The climax of the ceremonies was reserved for the capital. Rome was profusely decorated with flags, torches, garlands and bunting, and was gorgeously illuminated at night with great crowds of people seen everywhere.cite book |first = Naphtali | last = Lewis | title = Roman Civilization: Selected Readings : The Empire | publisher = Columbia University Press | pages = p. 33 | year = 1990 | id = ISBN 0231071337 ]

[
thumb|150px|Marble_statue_of_Tiridates_erected_in_Rome_in_honor_of_his_visit._Louvre Museum.]

On the day after Tiridates' arrival, Nero came to the Forum clothed in triumphal vestments and surrounded by dignitaries and soldiers, all resplendent in expensive attire and glittering armor. While Nero sat on the imperial throne, Tiridates and his retinue advanced between two lines of soldiers. Arriving in front of the dais, Tiridates knelt, with hands clasped on his breast. After the thundering shouts and acclamations excited by this spectacle had subsided, Tiridates addressed the emperor:

cquote|My Lord, I am a descendant of Arsakes and the brother of the Kings [Vologases] and Pacorus. I have come to you who are my god; I have worshipped you as the [sun] ; [

Edward Champlin notes: "When Nero entered with the senators and the guard, he ascended the Rostra and sat in his chair of state, looking back down the Forum in an east-southeasterly direction. That is, as Tiridates approached him through the ranks of soldiers, the rising sun would have hit Nero full on the face, in all his triumphal splendor. The prince then addressed the emperor from the ground, looking up to him on the Rostra: "I have come to you, my god, worshipping you as I do Mithra." The important point—something Nero would know as an initiate, whether others did or not—is that for Zoroastrians the sun was the eye of Mithra, and Mithra was often so closely associated with the sun as to be identified with it: "the Sun whom they call Mithres," as Strabo puts it. Moreover, when Zoroastrians prayed in the open air, they turned toward the sun, since their religion bound them to pray facing fire. Thus, when Tiridates stood in the open Roman Forum facing the sunlit emperor, and worshipping him as he did Mithra, he was in essence worshipping the sun. An ex-praetor translated his words and proclaimed them to the crowd. At this stage in Rome's history, very few of those present would have known who Mithra was, but there is a good likelihood that the interpreter relayed Tiridates' words as "I have come to you, my god, worshipping you as I do the Sun." For Nero, the marriage of Roman triumph and Parthian ceremony culminated in a splendid theatrical affirmation of his role as the new god of the Sun."
cite book
last = Champlin
first = Edward
title = Nero
publisher = Belknap Press
year = 2003
id = ISBN 0-674-01192-9
] I shall be whatever you would order me to be, because you are my destiny and fortune.

To which Nero replied:

Tiridates then mounted the steps of the platform and knelt, while Nero placed the royal diadem on his head. As the young king was about to kneel a second time, Nero lifted him by his right hand and after kissing him, made him sit at his side on a chair a little lower than his own. Meanwhile, the populace gave tumultuous ovations to both rulers. A Praetor, speaking to the audience, interpreted and explained the words of Tiridates, who spoke in Greek. [cite book |first = Gaius | last = Suetonius Tranquillus |coauthors =Robert Graves, Michael Grant| title = The Twelve Caesars | publisher = Penguin Classics | pages = p. 220 | year = 2003 | id = ISBN 0140449213 ] According to Pliny the Elder, Tiridates then introduced Nero to magian feasts ("magicis cenis"). [Pliny, "Natural History" 30.6.17] Tacitus claimed that Tiridates was also interested in all things Roman.

Public festivities continued for some time after the coronation ceremony. The interior of the Theatre of Pompey and every piece of its furniture was entirely gilded for the occasion; for this reason, Rome thenceforth recalled that date as "the Golden Day." Daytime festivities were on a scale no less lavish than those of the night: Royal purple awnings stretched as protection against the heat of the sun. Nero, clad in green and wearing a chariot driver's headdress, took part in a chariot race. At the evening banquets, Nero, in gold-embroidered vestments, sang and played the lyre with zither accompaniment. Tiridates was amazed and disgusted by Nero's extravagance, but he had only praise for Corbulo and expressed to Corbulo his surprise at his serving such a master.cite book |first = Dio | last = Cassius | title = Dio's Rome Vol. 5 | publisher = Kessinger Publishing | pages = p. 36 | year = 2004 | id = ISBN 1-4191-1613-4 ] He made no concealment of his views to Nero's face and said to him sarcastically: "Sire, you have a wonderful servant in the person of Corbulo."cite book |first = Dio | last = Cassius | title = Dio's Rome Vol. 5 | publisher = Kessinger Publishing | pages = p. 36 | year = 2004 | id = ISBN 1-4191-1613-4 ]

In memory of these events, the Senate honored Nero with the laurel wreath and the title of Imperator, or commander-in-chief of the armies. No reception comparable to this in magnitude and splendor is recorded in the history of Rome. Besides the enormous sum spent in festivities, the Roman Government bore the entire cost of the journey of Tiridates and his retinue, both from and to their homeland. Nero also made a gift to Tiridates of fifty million sesterces. [cite book
last =Kurkjian
first =Vahan
authorlink =Vahan Kurkjian
title =A History of Armenia
publisher =Armenian General Benevolent Fund
year =1958
location =New York
url =http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Asia/Armenia/_Texts/KURARM/15*.html
id =ISBN: B000BQMKSI
]

On his journey back to Armenia, Tiridates viewed an exhibition of pancratium. When seeing that one of the contestants fell on his back and was being beaten by his opponents, Tiridates saw exclaimed: "That's an unfair contest. It isn't fair that a man who has fallen should be beaten."cite book |first = Dio | last = Cassius | title = Dio's Rome Vol. 5 | publisher = Kessinger Publishing | pages = p. 36 | year = 2004 | id = ISBN 1-4191-1613-4 ]

Later, Nero summoned the Parthian King Vologases to Rome several times, but when the invitations became burdensome to Vologases, he sent back a dispatch to this effect: "It is far easier for you than for me to traverse so great a body of water. Therefore, if you will come to Asia, we can then arrange to meet each other."cite book |first = Dio | last = Cassius | title = Dio's Rome Vol. 5 | publisher = Kessinger Publishing | pages = p. 36 | year = 2004 | id = ISBN 1-4191-1613-4 ]

Fragile peace

Peace prevailed at this time throughout the Roman Empire. Nero therefore closed the gates of the Temple of Janus, which were never shut save in times of universal peace. When Tiridates returned to Armenia, he took with him a great number of skilled artisans for the reconstruction of Artaxata. He renamed the capital Neronia in honor of the emperor;cite book |first = George | last = Bournoutian |authorlink=George Bournoutian | title = A Concise History of the Armenian People | publisher = Mazda Publishers | pages = p. 42 | year = 2002 | id = ISBN 1-56859-141-1 ] he embellished the royal residence at Garni, [The Greek inscription found in Garni in 1945 refers to Tiridates as Helios and supreme ruler of Greater Armenia. On the basis of building techniques and paleography, scholars generally continue identifying Tiridates I with the inscription. However, R. D. Wilkinson believes that the Tiridates mentioned in the inscription was not Tiridates I. cite journal
last =Joyce
first =Reynolds
title =Roman Inscriptions 1966–1970
journal =The Journal of Roman Studies
volume =61
pages =152
publisher =Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies
year =1971
doi =10.2307/300013
] nearby, with colonnades and monuments of dazzling richness and also the addition of a new temple. Trade between the two continents also grew, allowing Armenia to secure its independence from Rome.cite book |first = George | last = Bournoutian | title = A Concise History of the Armenian People | publisher = Mazda Publishers | pages = p. 42 | year = 2002 | id = ISBN 1-56859-141-1 ] Rome now counted upon Armenia as a loyal ally, even after Nero's death and through the entire duration of Vespasian's rule in the East. Peace was a considerable victory for Nero politically. [Dio Cassius, "Roman History", 62.23] invaded Armenia in 114. [Dio Cassius 68.17.2–3]

War with Alans and aftermath

In 72 the Alans, a warlike nomadic Sarmatian tribe, made an incursion into Media Atropatene as well as various districts of northern Armenia. Tiridates and his brother Pacorus, King of Media Atropatene, faced them at a number of battles, during one of which Tiridates was briefly captured, narrowly escaping being taken alive. He was lassoed from a distance and caught, but he quickly managed to whip out his sword and slash the rope in time. The Alans withdrew with a lot of booty after plundering Armenia and Media Atropatene. [Josephus, "Jewish Wars" 7.8.4] The king of Iberia asked for protection against the Alans from Vespasian, who helped reconstruct the fortress of Harmozica around the Iberian capital Mtskheta, near modern Tbilisi. An Aramaic inscription found near Tbilisi indicates that Tiridates also warred with Iberia during his final years. The exact date of the end of Tiridates' reign is unknown; various sources name Sanatruces as his successor. [Both Classical Greco-Roman and Armenian sources from the Late Antiquity mention Sanatruces (Sanatruk in Armenian), in Armenian sources he is identified with the martyrdom of Thaddeus. Professor Nina Garsoian, Emerita of Columbia University, states that there is no explicit evidence naming Sanatruces as Tiridates' successor. cite book
last =Hovannisian
first =Richard G.
title =The Armenian people from ancient to modern times: from antiquity to the fourteenth century
publisher =Palgrave Macmillan
year =1997
pages =69
id =ISBN 0-312-10168-6
] It is known that Tiridates' nephew, Axidares, the son of Pacorus II of Parthia, was King of Armenia by 110. [ [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v2f4/v2f4a071a.html ARMENIA AND IRAN:b. The Arsacid dynasty: Tiridates I and his successors] Encyclopædia Iranica, Columbia University]

Footnotes

References

*cite book
last =Chahin
first =Mark
title =The Kingdom of Armenia
publisher =Routledge
year =2001
location =London
id =ISBN 0-7007-1452-9

*cite book
last =Grant
first =Michael
title =The Annals of Imperial Rome
publisher =Penguin Classics
year =1956
pages =354–360
id =ISBN 0-14-044060-7

*cite journal
last =Henderson
first =Bernard W.
title =The Chronology of the Wars in Armenia, A. D. 51–63
journal =Classical Review
volume =15
issue =3
pages =159–165
publisher =Cambridge University Press
year =1901
id =ISSN: 0009840X

*cite book
last =Hovannisian
first =Richard G.
title =The Armenian people from ancient to modern times: from antiquity to the fourteenth century
publisher =Palgrave Macmillan
year =1997
pages =64–66
id =ISBN 0-312-10168-6

*cite book
last =Khachatrian
first =Hayk
title =All the 141 Armenian Kings
publisher =Amaras
year =1998
location=Yerevan

*cite book
last =Lynam
first =Robert
title =The History of the Roman Emperors: From Augustus to the Death of Marcus Antoninus
publisher =Simpkin, Marshall & Co.
year =1850
location =London
pages =422–428, 468–470

External links

* [http://www.unrv.com/early-empire/corbulo-armenia-parthia.php Corbulo, Armenia and Parthia]
*sp icon [http://www.satrapa1.com/articulos/antiguedad/corbulon/corbulon.htm Domicio Corbulon: Y la Guerra de Armenia] (analysis of the conflict with Corbulo, includes detailed maps.)
* [http://www.barkhuis.nl/pdf/ancientnarrative2001.pdf History into fiction: the metamorphosis of the Mithras myths]
* [http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-1109103-213211/unrestricted/Poirot_III_thesis.pdf PERCEPTIONS OF CLASSICAL ARMENIA:. ROMANO-PARTHIAN RELATIONS, 70 BC-220 AD.]

Persondata
NAME = Tiridates I of Armenia
ALTERNATIVE NAMES = Տրդատ Ա (Armenian); Trdat I (Eastern Armenian); Drtad I (Western Armenian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION = King of Armenia
DATE OF BIRTH = c. 1st century AD
PLACE OF BIRTH = unknown
DATE OF DEATH = c. 1st century AD
PLACE OF DEATH = unknown


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