- Julia von Hauke
Julia von Hauke, Princess of Battenberg (
November 12, 1825(O.S.)/ November 24 1825(N.S.)– September 19, 1895) was the wife of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine(1823–1888), the mother of Alexander of Bulgaria, and ancestressto the current generations of the British and the Spanish royal families.
Julia was born in
Warsaw, in Congress Poland, then ruled in personal unionby the Tsarof Imperial Russia. She was the daughter of Hans Moritz von Hauke ( _en. John Maurice von Hauke) (1775–1830) and his wife Sophie (née la Fontaine). Her father was German and a professional military man and fought in Napoleon's army in Austria, Italy, Germanyand the Peninsular War. He then switched sides to fight for the Russians. Recognising his abilities, Tsar Nicholas I appointed him Deputy Minister of War of Congress Poland and elevated him to Count.
In the November Uprising of 1830 led by revolted army cadets,
Grand DukeConstantine, Poland's " de facto" Viceroy, managed to escape, but Count von Hauke was shot by the cadets on the street of Warsaw. His wife died of shock shortly afterwards, and their children were made wards of the Tsar.
Julia served as
Lady-in-Waitingto Empress Marie Alexandrovna, wife of Tsar Alexander II and sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine, and met her future husband in St. Petersburg. The Tsar did not approve of any liaison between his brother-in-law, Prince Alexander, and a mere lady-in-waiting, and so the young lovers arranged to leave the Moscow Court. They were married on 28 October 1851in Breslau in Prussian Silesia(now Wrocławin Poland).
Julia was considered to be of insufficient rank to have any of her children qualify for the succession on the throne of
Hesse and by Rhine(Hesse-Darmstadt), hence the marriage was considered morganatic. Her husband's brother, Grand Duke Ludwig III of Hesse-Darmstadt, created her Countess of Battenbergin 1851, with the style of ' Illustrious Highness', and in 1858 elevated her to Hereditary Princess of Battenberg with the style of ' Serene Highness' (a non-royal title). As a result, the children of Julia and Alexander were also elevated to Prince or Princess and addressed as 'Serene Highness.' Thus, Battenberg became the name of a cadet branch of the Grand Ducal Family of Hesse.
Julia converted from
Roman Catholicismto Lutheranism on 12 May 1875. She died at Heiligenberg Castle, near Jugenheim in southern Hesse.
There were five children of the marriage, all princes and princesses of Battenberg:
*Marie (1852–1923), married in 1872 Gustav, Count of
Erbach-Schönberg(d. 1908), with issue.
*Ludwig (1854–1921), created first
Marquess of Milford Havenin 1917, married in 1884 Princess Victoria of Hesse and the Rhine(1863–1950), with issue (including Princess Andrew of Greece, Queen Louise of Sweden, and the 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma).
*Alexander (1857–1893), created Reigning Prince of
Bulgariain 1879, abdicated in Bulgaria and created Count of Hartenau, married morganatically in 1889 Johanna Loisinger(1865–1951), with issue.
*Heinrich (1858–1896), married Beatrice, Princess of
Great Britain and Ireland(1857–1944), with issue (including Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberglater Queen of Spain). His children resided in the United Kingdom and became Lords and Ladies with the surname Mountbatten in 1917. His eldest son was created the first Marquess of Carisbrookein 1917.
*Franz Joseph (1861–1924), married in 1897 Anna Princess Petrovich-Niegosh of
Montenegro(1874–1971), with no issue.
Alexander and Julia's eldest son, Ludwig (Louis) of Battenberg, became a
British subject, and during World War I, due to anti-German feelingsprevalent at the time, anglicisedhis name to Mountbatten(a literal translation of the German Battenberg), as did his nephews, the sons of Prince Henry and Princess Beatrice. The members of this branch of the family also renounced all German titles and were granted peerages by their cousin King George V of the United Kingdom: Prince Louis became the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven, while Prince Alexander, Prince Henry's eldest son, became the 1st Marquess of Carisbrooke.
Titles from birth to death
* Countess Julia von Hauke (
November 12, 1825(O.S.)/ November 24 1825(N.S.)–1851)
* "Her Illustrious Highness" Countess Julia of Battenberg (1851–1858)
* "Her Serene Highness" Princess Julia of Battenberg (1858–
September 19, 1895)
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