Ashton-under-Lyne


Ashton-under-Lyne

infobox UK place
country = England
latitude = 53.4941
longitude = -2.1032
population= 43,236 (2001 Census)
population_density=12,374 per mi² (4,777 per km²)
official_name= Ashton-under-Lyne
metropolitan_borough= Tameside
region = North West England
metropolitan_county= Greater Manchester
constituency_westminster= Ashton-under-Lyne
post_town= ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE
postcode_district = OL6, OL7
postcode_area= OL
dial_code= 0161
os_grid_reference= SJ931997
london_distance= convert|160|mi|km|0|abbr=on SSE
static_

static_image_caption=Ashton-under-Lyne town centre

Ashton-under-Lyne (pop. 43,200) is a market town in the Metropolitan Borough of Tameside, Greater Manchester, England.cite web |url=http://www.gmcro.co.uk/guides/gazette/gazframe.htm |title=A select gazetteer of local government areas, Greater Manchester County |publisher=Greater Manchester County Record Office|date=2003-07-31 Retrieved on 20 September 2008.] It lies on the north bank of the River Tame, on undulating land at the foothills of the Pennines. Ashton (as it is often shortened to) is convert|3.8|mi|km|1 south-southeast of Oldham, convert|6.1|mi|km|1 north-northeast of Stockport, and convert|6.2|mi|km|1 east of the city of Manchester.

Historically a part of Lancashire, Ashton-under-Lyne and its surrounding area have provided evidence of Stone Age, Romano-British and Viking activity. The "Ashton" part of its name probably dates from the Anglo-Saxons, and derives from Old English meaning "settlement by ash trees", while the "under-Lyne" element is less clear, possibly deriving from the British "lemo" meaning elm or else from Ashton's proximity to the Pennines. During the Middle Ages, Ashton-under-Lyne formed a parish and township centred on Ashton Old Hall which was held by the de Asshetons, the Lords of the Manor. Granted a Royal Charter in 1414, the manor spanned a broad rural area comprising marshland, moorland and a variety of villages and hamlets.

Until the introduction of the cotton trade in 1769, Ashton was "bare, wet, and almost worthless".cite web|url=http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/LAN/Ashton-under-Lyne/ImpGaz1872.shtml|publisher=genuki.org.uk|date=2008-09-03|accessdate=2008-09-18|author=John Marius Wilson|title=Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72) - Ashton-under-Lyne] The factory system, and textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution facilitated a process of unplanned urbanisation in the area, and by the mid-19th century Ashton had emerged as an important mill town at a convergence of newly constructed canals and railways. Ashton-under-Lyne's transport network allowed for an economic boom in cotton spinning, weaving, and coal mining, so much so that it was granted borough status in 1847.

Imports of cheaper foreign goods led to the decline of Ashton's heavy industries during the mid-20th century. However, the town itself has continued to thrive as a centre of commerce, and is "considered the hub of Tameside, providing the perfect setting for the town hall, council offices and 19th-century market hall". Ashton Market is one of the largest outdoor markets in the United Kingdom. The convert|13000|m2|sqft|adj=on, two-floored Ashton Arcades shopping centre opened in 1995, and in 2006 IKEA opened the then tallest store in the country.

History

Prehistoric activity in the area centres around Ashton Moss, a peat bog covering convert|107|ha|acre. [Nevell (1992), p. 11.] A single Mesolithic flint was found in Ashton Moss, which is the only one of 22 Mesolithic sites in Tameside not located in the hilly uplands in the north east of the borough. [Nevell (1992), p. 25.] A collection of nine Neolithic flints were also unearthed from Ashton Moss. [Nevell (1992), p. 30.] There was further activity in or around the bog in the Romano-British period. In around 1911 an adult male skull was found in the moss. A precise date for the skull cannot be ascertained, however it was probably linked to the cult of the head which was responsible for the Lindow Man bog body. [Nevell (1992), p. 71.]

The eastern terminus of the early medieval linear earthwork Nico Ditch is in Ashton Moss (gbmapping|SJ909980); it was probably used as an administrative boundary and dates from the 8th or 9th centuries. Legend claims it was built in a single night in 869–870 as a defence against Viking invaders. [Nevell and Walker (1998), pp. 40–41.] [Nevell (1992), pp. 77–83.] Further evidence of Dark Age activity in the area comes from the name of the town. The "Ashton" part of its name probably derives from the Anglo-Saxon meaning "settlement by ash trees", [Nevell (1997), p. 32.] [citation
author = University of Nottingham's Institute for Name-Studies
authorlink = University of Nottingham
title = Ashton-under-Lyne
publisher = nottingham.ac.uk
url = http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/english/ins/kepn/detailpop.php?placeno=12870
accessdate = 2008-09-18
] while the "under-Lyne" element is less clear, possibly deriving from the British "lemo" meaning elm or else to Ashton's proximity to the Pennines. This means that Ashton probably became a settlement sometime after the Romans left Britain. [Nevell (1992), pp. 84–85.] An early form of the town's name, which included a "burh" element, indicates that in the 11th century, Ashton-under-Lyne and Bury were two of the most important towns in Lancashire. [Nevell (1992), p. 88.] The "under-Lyne" facet of the name was not widely used until the mid-19th century when it became useful as a means of distinguishing the town from other places named Ashton.cite web |title=Township Information — Ashton |url=http://www.tameside.gov.uk/ashton/history |publisher=Tameside.gov.uk Retrieved on 12 September 2008.] Ashton was not mentioned by name in the "Domesday Survey" of 1086, perhaps because only a partial survey of the area was taken.Nevell (1991), p. 17.] [Redhead, Norman, in: Hartwell, Hyde and Pevsner (2004), p. 18.] It is thought that St Michael's Church, mentioned in the entry for the ancient parish of Manchester in the Domesday Survey, was in Ashton. The town itself was first mentioned in the 12th century when the manor was part of the barony of Manchester. By the late 12th century, a family who adopted the name Assheton held the manor on behalf of the Barons of Manchester. [Nevell and Walker (1998), p. 47.] Ashton Old Hall was a manor house and the seat of the Assheton family, the administrative centre of the manor.Nevell and Walker (1998), p. 54.] With three wings, the hall was "one of the finest great houses in the North West" of the 14th century and antiquarian John Aikin described it as "a building of great antiquity". It has been recognised as important for being one of the few great houses in south-east Lancashire and possibly one of the few halls influenced by French design in the country. In 1414, Ashton was granted a Royal Charter allowing it to hold a fair twice a year and a market on every Monday, [Nevell (1991), p. 60.] cite web |title=Ashton-under-Lyne town centre |url=http://www.tameside.gov.uk/ashton/towncentre |publisher=Tameside.gov.uk Retrieved on 13 September 2008.] making the settlement a market town.Nevell (1993), p. 146.]

According to popular tradition Sir Ralph de Assheton, who was Lord of the Manor in the mid-14th century and known as the Black Knight, was an unpopular and cruel lord. After his death, his unpopularity led the locals to parade an effigy of him around the town each Easter Monday and collect money. [Griffith (1898), p. 380.] Afterwards the effigy was hung up and shot before being set on fire. It was then torn apart and thrown into the crowd. [Griffith (1898), p. 381.] On this day, shops in the town would remain closed; the tradition continued into the 1830s. [Griffith (1898), pp. 379, 382.] The first recorded occurrence of this is in 1795, although the tradition may be even older. [cite web |title=The Black Knight Pageant |url=http://www.ashton-under-lyne.com/traditions/black-knight.htm |publisher=Ashton-under-Lyne.com Retrieved on 20 September 2008.]

The manor of Ashton remained in the hands of the Ashton family until 1514 when the line ended; it was later acquired by Sir George Booth and descended with the Booth family until 1758 when the Earls of Stamford inherited it through marriage. The earls then held the manor until the 19th century. [Nevell and Walker (1998), p. 48.] The lords' consistent absence from the manor is said to have been the stimulus for Ashton's growth of a large scale domestic-based textile industry in the 17th century. [Harvnb|McNeil|Nevell|2000|p=54.] Pre-industrial Ashton-under-Lyne was centred around four roads: Town Street, Crickets Lane, Old Street, and Cowhill Lane. In the late-18th and early-19th centuries, the town was re-planned, with a grid pattern of roads. This meant that very little remains of the previous town. In 1730 a workhouse was established which consisted of a house and two cottages; it later came to be used as a hospital.Burke and Nevell (1996), p. 123.] The Ashton Canal was constructed in the 1790s to transport coal from the area to Manchester, with a branches to the coal pits at Fairbottom. [Nevell (1993), p. 99.] The weaving of fustian and woollens in the domestic system has a long history in the town, dating back to at least the Early Modern period. Accounts dated 1626 highlight that Humphrey Chetham had dealings with cloth-makers in Ashton-under-Lyne. [Harvnb|Frangopulo|1977|p=25.] However, the introduction of the factory system following the Industrial Revolution changed the town in the 19th century, from a market town to a mill town. Having previously been one of the two main towns in the Tame Valley, Ashton-under-Lyne became one of the "most famous mill towns in the North West".McNiel and Nevell (2005), p. 54.] From 1773 to 1905, 75 cotton mills were established in the town. The cotton industry in the area grew rapidly from the start of the 19th century to 1860 when the Lancashire Cotton Famine of 1861–1865 curtailed growth.Nevell (1993), p. 35.] The growth of the textile industry in the town led to the construction of estates specifically for workers. For example, workers' housing in Park Bridge, on the border between Ashton and Oldham, was created in the 1820s. [Nevell and Walker (1999), p. 49.] The iron works were founded in 1786 and were some of the earliest in the north west. [Nevell and Roberts (2003), pp. 19, 22, 31–32.] The Oxford Mills settlement was founded in 1845 by local industrialist and mill-owner Hugh MasonNevell (1993), p. 151.] who saw it as a model industrial community. He estimated that establishing the settlement cost him around £10,000 and would require a further £1,000 a year to maintain (today about £600,000 and £60,000 respectively) and that the annual death rate there was significantly lower than in the rest of the town. [Nevell (1994), pp. 44–45.] [cite web |title=Currency converter |url=http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/currency/ |publisher=NationalArchives.gov.uk Retrieved on 12 September 2008.]

In 1837 the Ashton Poor Law Union was established and covered most of what is now Tameside. A new workhouse was built in 1850 which provided housing for 500 people. It later became part of Tameside General Hospital. Construction on the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway (SA&MR) began in 1837 to provide passenger transport between Manchester and Sheffield. Although a nine-arch viaduct in Ashton collapsed in April 1845, the line was fully opened on 22 December 1845. The SA&MR was amalgamated with the Sheffield and Lincolnshire Junction Railway, the Great Grimsby & Sheffield Railway, and the Grimsby Docks Company in 1847 to form the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway (MS&LR). [Nevell (1993), p. 127.] In 1890, Ashton Old Hall was bought and demolished by the MS&LR to make way for the construction of new sidings.

In the late 19th century, public buildings such as the market hall, the town hall, the public library, and public baths were built. The baths built in 1870–1871 were funded by donation from Hugh Mason. [Nevell (1993), p 23.] The Ashton-under-Lyne Improvement Act was passed in 1886 which gave the borough influence over housing and allowed the imposition of minimum standards such as having drainage. [Nevell (1993), pp. 149–151.] Coal mining was a secondary industry in the town compared to the textile industry, but in 1882 the Ashton Moss Colliery had the deepest mine shaft in the world at convert|870|m|ft. Ashton's textile industry remained constant between 1865 and the 1920s. Although some mills closed or merged, the number of spindles in use increased. [Nevell (1993), p. 37.] With the collapse of the overseas market in the 1920s, the town's cotton industry went into decline, and by the 1930s most of the firms and mills in the area had closed.

Ashton became a part of the newly formed metropolitan borough of Tameside in 1974. [Nevell (1993), p. iii.] In May 2004, the Victorian market hall was ravaged by a massive fire and a temporary building called "The Phoenix Market Hall" was built on Old Cross Street on the opposite side of the old market hall. [cite web |title=Ashton celebrates as new market opens its doors |work=Tameside Advertiser |url=http://www.tamesideadvertiser.co.uk/news/s/385215_ashton_celebrates_as_new_market_opens_its_doors |author=Sue Carr |date=21 October 2004 Retrieved on 18 September 2008.] Plans are now under way to rebuild the market hall and outdoor market with the work scheduled for completion by November 2008. [cite web |title=Rebirth of a market |work=Tameside Advertiser |url=http://www.tamesideadvertiser.co.uk/news/s/385339_rebirth_of_a_market |author=Sue Carr |date=14 December 2004 Retrieved on 3 September 2008.]

Governance

Lying within the historic county boundaries of Lancashire since the early 12th century, Ashton-under-Lyne anciently constituted a "single parish-township", but was divided into four divisions (sometimes each styled townships): Ashton Town, Audenshaw, Knott Lanes and Hartshead. [cite web|url=http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41438 |title=The parish of Ashton-under-Lyne - Introduction, manor & boroughs British History Online |publisher=British-history.ac.uk |date= |accessdate=2008-09-21] [cite web|url=http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/unit_page.jsp?u_id=10332140|title=A vision of Ashton under Lyne AP/CP|date=|accessdate=2008-09-19|publisher=visionofbritain.org.uk] Ashton Town had been granted a Royal Charter in 1414, making it a market town. All four divisions lay within the hundred of Salford.

In 1827 police commissioners were established for Ashton Town, with the intention of bringing about the social and economic improvement of the area. In 1847 this area was incorporated under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, as a municipal borough with the name "Ashton-under-Lyne", giving it borough status in the United Kingdom. [cite web |url=http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/unit_page.jsp?u_id=10136910 |author=A vision of Britain through time |title=A vision of Ashton under Lyne MB Retrieved on 3 June 2007.] When the administrative county of Lancashire was created by the Local Government Act 1888, the borough fell under the newly created Lancashire County Council. The borough's boundaries changed during the late 19th century, by small exchanges of land with the neighbouring districts of Oldham, Mossley, Dukinfield and Stalybridge. In the early 19th century, the Borough of Ashton-under-Lyne grew; Hurst Urban District was added in 1927, parts of Hartshead and Alt civil parishes in 1935, and parts of Limehurst Rural District in 1954. Since 1956, Ashton has been twinned with Chaumont, France. [cite web|title=Town twinning |url=http://www.tameside.gov.uk/towntwinning |author=Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council |publisher=Tameside.gov.uk |date=27 September 2006 Retrieved on 4 September 2008.]

Under the Local Government Act 1972, the town's borough status was abolished, and Ashton has, since 1 April 1974, formed part of the Metropolitan Borough of Tameside, within the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. Ashton-under-Lyne is divided into four wards, being Ashton Hurst, Ashton St. Michaels, Ashton St Peters and Ashton Waterloo. Since the May 2008 local elections Ashton has had ten Labour and two Conservative councillors. [cite web|title=Know you councillor |url=http://public.tameside.gov.uk/forms/know_your_councillor.asp |author=Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council |publisher=Tameside.gov.uk Retrieved on 15 September 2008.]

In terms of parliamentary representation, since the Reform Act of 1832 the town has been represented as part of the Ashton-under-Lyne parliamentary constituency. During its early years, the constituency was represented in the House of Commons by members of the Liberal Party, until the late-19th century, when it was broadly held by the Conservative Party. Since 1935, it has been held by the Labour Party; the current member of parliament is David Heyes.

Geography

At coor dms|53|29|38|N|2|6|11|W|city (53.4941°, -2.1032°), and convert|160|mi|km|0 north-northwest of London, Ashton-under-Lyne stands on the north bank of the River Tame, above which it is elevated by around convert|35|ft|m|0.Harvnb|Lewis|1848|p=90-96.] Described in Samuel Lewis's "A Topographical Dictionary of England" (1848) as situated on "a on a gentle declivity", Ashton-under-Lyne lies on undulating ground by the Pennines, reaching a maximum elevation of around convert|1000|ft|m|0 above sea level. It is convert|6.2|mi|km|1 east of Manchester City Centre, and is bound on all sides by other towns: Audenshaw, Droylsden, Dukinfield, Mossley, Oldham and Stalybridge, with little or no green space between them. Ashton experiences a temperate maritime climate, like much of the British Isles, with relatively cool summers and mild winters.

Generally the bedrock of the west of the town consists of coal measures, which were exploited by the coal mining industry, while the east is mainly millstone grit. Overlying the bedrock are deposits of glacial sand and gravel, clay, and some alluvial deposits. Ashton Moss, a peat bog, lies to the west of the town and was originally much larger. [Nevell (1992), pp.10–11.] The River Tame forms part of the southern boundary, dividing the town from Stalybridge and Dukinfield, and the River Medlock runs to the west. Both the Ashton and Peak Forest Canals pass through the town.

Ashton's built environment is similar to the urban structure of most towns in England, consisting of residential dwellings centred around a Market Square and High Street in the town centre, which is the local centre of commerce. There is a mixture of low-density urban areas, suburbs, semi-rural and rural locations in Ashton-under-Lyne, but overwhelmingly the land use in the town is residential; industrial areas and terraced houses give way to suburbs and rural greenery as the land rises out of the town in the east. The older streets are narrow and irregular, but those more recently formed are spacious, and consist of "substantial and handsome houses". Areas and suburbs of Ashton-under-Lyne include Ashton Moss, Cockbrook, Hartshead, Hazelhurst, Heys, Hurst, Limehurst, Luzley, Ryecroft, Taunton, and Waterloo.

Demography

In the medieval period, farming was important in Ashton, particularly arable farming. [Nevell (1991), p. 52.] By the 18th century, textiles had become more important to the economy of the town; in the 1700s, 33.2% of those with jobs worked in textiles and 36% in agriculture. [Nevell (1993), pp. 35, 83.] With the advent of the Industrial Revolution in the second half of the 18th century, the textile industry in the town boomed. It expanded steadily until the cotton famine of 1861–1865. After that the industry was steady until it collapsed when the overseas markets shut down in the 1920s. [Nevell (1993), pp. 35–39]

Ashton has seen coal mining since at least the 17th century. [Nevell (1993), p. 101.] In the late-18th and early-19th centuries, demand for coal increased, which led to an expansion of the coal industry in the town. Coal from the collieries was transported by canal to Manchester.Nevell (1993), p. 102.] The industry entered decline in the late-19th century, and by 1904 only the Ashton Moss Colliery was still in use; it was also the last colliery to be opened in the area.

Ashton town centre, which is the largest in Tameside, developed in the Victorian period. Many of the original buildings have survived, and as a result, the town centre is protected by Tameside Council as a conservation area. [cite web|title=Appendix 6: Conservation Areas and Scheduled Ancient Monuments (Policies C11 and C30) |url=http://www.tameside.gov.uk/udp/udp1996/appendix6 |author=Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council |publisher=Tameside.gov.uk |date=November 1992 Retrieved on 4 September 2008.] As well as being populated by leading high-street names, Ashton has an outdoor market, established in the medieval period. It is made up of about 180 stalls, and is open six days a week. The farmers' market, with over 70 stalls, is the largest in the region, as is the weekday flea market. [cite web |title=Ashton market |url=http://www.tameside.gov.uk/ashton/market |publisher=Tameside.gov.uk |date=3 November 2007 Retrieved on 20 September 2008.] Ashton Market Hall is undergoing a £15M restoration after it was damaged by fire. The Ashton Renewal Area project has attracted investment in the town centre, encouraging conservation and economic development.

The convert|13000|m2|sqft|adj=on, two-floored Ashton Arcades shopping centre opened in 1995. Permission has been granted for a £40 million extension and is expected to open in autumn 2009. [cite web |title=Ashton's mall on the up |work=Manchester Evening News |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/business/s/215/215554_ashtons_mall_on_the_up.html |author=David Thame |date=13 June 2006 Retrieved on 3 September 2008.] In 2006, after failing twice to gain permission, IKEA announced plans to build its first town centre-store in Ashton-under-Lyne. The store is expected to create 500 new jobs as well as attract other businesses to the area. [cite web |title=Ikea's superstore plans approved |publisher=BBC Online |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/manchester/4604024.stm |date=11 January 2006 Retrieved on 3 September 2008.] The store opened on 19 October 2006 and covers convert|27500|m2|sqft At the time of its creation, the store was the tallest in Britain. [cite web |title=IKEA's finally here |work=Manchester Evening News |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/lifestyle/health_and_beauty/style/s/225/225588_ikeas_finally_here.html |author=Emma Unsworth |date=16 October 2006 Retrieved on 3 September 2008.]

Amongst the facilities provided by Ashton Leisure Park are a 15-screen cinema, a bowling alley, and several restaurants. [cite web |title=Completed development |publisher=Ashton-Moss.com |url=http://www.ashton-moss.com/index.asp?PageID=54 Retrieved on 15 September 2008.] The St Petersfield area of Ashton has undergone a £42M redevelopment and provides 2,000 jobs. The aim of the investment was to create a business district in the town and bring life to a neglected area of Ashton. The development provides convert|280000|sqft|m2 of office space and convert|400000|sqft|m2 of retail and leisure space. [cite web |title=The big spenders are in town! |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/business/s/213/213820_the_big_spenders_are_in_town.html |author=David Thame |work=Manchester Evening News |date=23 Mayy 2005 Retrieved on 15 September 2008.] Pennine Care NHS Trust relocated its headquarters to the St Petersfield area in 2006. [cite web |title=Ashton's eastern promise |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/business/s/164/164830_ashtons_eastern_promise.html |author=David Thame |work=Manchester Evening News |date=5 July 2005 Retrieved on 15 September 2008.] In 2002, several night clubs were brought to the brink of closure after a downturn in trade. Although Ashton was previously a popular nightspot, this was brought about after four murders in the space of three months. [cite web |url=http://www.tamesideadvertiser.co.uk/news/s/381590_street_killings_hit_towns_night_spots |title=Street killings hit town's night spots |work=Tameside Advertiser |publisher=MEN Media | date=23 May 2002 Retrieved on 20 August 2008.]

According to the 2001 UK census, the industry of employment of residents aged 16–74 was 22.7% manufacturing, 18.6% retail and wholesale, 11.3% health and social work, 9.8% property and business services, 6.7% construction, 6.5% transport and communications, 5.8% education, 5.6% public administration, 4.3% hotels and restaurants, 3.8% finance, 0.4% agriculture, 0.7% energy and water supply, and 3.9% other. Compared with national figures, the town had a relatively low percentage working in agriculture, public administration, and property which was also below the national average, and high rates of employment in construction at more than triple the national rate (6.8%). [cite web |title=KS11a Industry of employment - all people: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas |publisher=Statistics.gov.uk |url=http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=8306&More=Y |date=3 February 2005 Retrieved on 15 September 2008.] The census recorded the economic activity of residents aged 16–74, 2.0% students were with jobs, 3.8% students without jobs, 6.4% looking after home or family, 9.5% permanently sick or disabled, and 3.9% economically inactive for other reasons. The 4.1% unemployment rate of Sale area wards was low compared with the national rate of 3.3%.

Landmarks

After the Ashton Canal closed in the 1960s, it was decided to turn the Portland Basin warehouse into a museum. In 1985, the first part of the Heritage Centre and Museum opened on the first floor of the warehouse. [Nevell and Walker (2001), pp. 59, 61.] The complete restoration of building was complete in 1999; the museum details Tameside's social, industrial, and political history. [Nevell and Walker (2001), pp. 63–64.] The basin next to the warehouse is the point at which the Ashton Canal, the Huddersfield Narrow Canal and the Peak Forest Canal join together. The canal at the Portland Basin has been used several times as a shooting location for Coronation Street, including a scene where the character Richard Hillman drove into the canal. [cite web |title=From far-flung Canada to Corrie |work=Manchester Evening News |url=http://www.tamesideadvertiser.co.uk/news/s/1067079_from_farflung_canada_to_corrie |date=17 September 2008 Retrieved on 19 September 2008.]

The earliest parts of Ashton town hall, which was the first purpose-built town hall in what is now Tameside, date to 1840 when it was opened. It has classical features such as the Corinthian columns on the entrance facade. Enlarged in 1878, the hall provides areas for administrative purposes and public functions. [Burke and Nevell (1996), pp. 118–119.] The hall is a Grade II listed building. [cite web|title=Ashton-under-Lyne Town Hall |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=212666 |publisher=Images of England Retrieved on 18 September 2008.] After the Ashton-under-Lyne municipal borough was abolished in 1974, the town hall was no longer required and became the home of the Museum of the Manchester Regiment. The museum exhibits relics related to the Manchester Regiment including five Victoria Crosses awarded to members of the regiment. [cite web|title=Museum of the Manchester Regiment |url=http://www.24hourmuseum.org.uk/manchester/museum/AM10929.html |publisher=24hourmuseum.org.uk Retrieved on 4 September 2008.]

Hartshead Pike is a stone tower on top of Hartshead Hill overlooking Ashton and Oldham. [Wyke (2005), p. 357.] The current building was constructed in 1863 although there has been a building on the site since at least the mid-18th century, although the original purpose is obscure. The pike may have been the site of a beacon in the late-16th century. [Burke and Nevell (1996), pp.144&ndash145.] It has a visitor centre and from the top of the hill it is possible to see the Jodrell Bank Observatory in Cheshire, the Welsh hills, and the Holme Moss transmitter in West Yorkshire. [cite web |title=Hartshead Pike |url=http://www.tameside.gov.uk/countryside/access/hartshead |publisher=Tameside.gov.uk |date=13 October 2006 Retrieved on 20 September 2008.]

The Witchwood, in the St Petersfield area of the town, is a public house and has been a music venue since the 1960s, providing a stage for acts such as Muse, The Coral, and Lost Prophets.cite web |title=Save The Witchwood |url=http://www.tamesideadvertiser.co.uk/news/s/519981_save_the_witchwood_ |author=Sue Carr |publisher=TamesideAdvertiser.co.uk |date=15 November 2006 Retrieved on 26 April 2008.] It came under threat in 2004 when the area went under redevelopment but was saved from demolition after a campaign by locals, and led by Tom Hingley, that drew support from musicians such as Bert Jansch, The Fall, and The Chameleons. [cite web |title=Party as stars' pub is saved |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/s/143/143670_party_as_stars_pub_is_saved.html |author=Don Frame |work=Manchester Evening News |date=24 January 2005 Retrieved on 29 January 2008.]

The main Ashton-under-Lyne War Memorial, located in Memorial Gardens, consists of a central cenotaph on plinth, surmounted by sculpted wounded soldier and the figure of "Peace who is taking the sword of honour" from his hand.citation |url=http://pmsa.cch.kcl.ac.uk/MR/MR-TAM11.htm |title=Ashton-under-Lyne War Memorial |author=Public Monuments and Sculpture Association |date=16 June 2003 |publisher=pmsa.cch.kcl.ac.uk Retrieved on 19 September 2008.] The cenotaph is flanked on both sides by two bronze lions. The plinth is decorated with military equipment representing the services, as well as bronze tablets listing the Roll of Honour from World War I. Commissioned by the Ashton War Memorial Committee, the statue was sculpted between 1919-1922 by J. Ashton Floyd, and unveiled on 16 September 1922 by General Sir Ian Hamilton.

The tablet on the front of the memorial reads:


"Erected in honour of the men of Ashton-under-Lune and district who fought for King and Empire in The Great War, especially those who sacrificed their lives, and whose names are recorded hereon
1914-1919"

Transport

The M60 motorway, cuts through the west end of Ashton (Junction 23). Regular rail services on the Huddersfield Line between Manchester (Victoria) and Huddersfield stop at Ashton-under-Lyne railway station in the town centre. An extension of the Manchester Metrolink was intended to go as far as Ashton, however due to a cutback in funding, plans have been scaled back and the line will only go as far as Droylsden. [cite web |title=Metrolink wins a 'Little Bang' |work=Manchester Evening News |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/s/217/217405_metrolink_wins_a_little_bang.html |date=6 July 2006 Retrieved on 13 September 2008.] Ashton also has one of the busiest bus stations in Greater Manchester. It is planned to be developed and extended in the coming years.

Education

The town included a specialist Sports College, the secondary school Hartshead Sports College, however in September 2008 this was merged with another local school, Stamford High School, to form the New Charter Academy. [ [http://www.newcharteracademy.org.uk/index.asp|New Charter Academy Home Page] Details of the merger.] The academy was so named due to sponsorship by the New Charter Housing Trust.

Ashton Sixth Form College is a centre for further education. [cite web|url=http://www.asfc.ac.uk/ |title=Ashton Sixth Form College |publisher=Asfc.ac.uk |date= |accessdate=2008-09-21]

ports

The most prominent football teams are Ashton United F.C. and Curzon Ashton F.C.. Ashton United play at Hurst Cross stadium and Curzon Ashton at the Tameside stadium on Richmond Street. The Richmond Park Athletics Stadium, also on Ricmond Street, is a synthetic running track with a grass infield [ [http://www.runtrackdir.com/details.asp?track=ashton-under-lyne Richmond Park Athletics Stadium] Retrieved on 22 September 2008] and is home to the East Cheshire Harriers & Tameside AC and the Ashton Cricket Club. This team has won the Central Lancashire Cricket League's first and second division twice each, and the Wood Cup, four times. [cite web |title=Oldham Cricket Club: Wood Cup |publisher=OldhamCC.co.uk |url=http://www.oldhamcc.co.uk/competitions/wood_cup_detail.php Retrieved on 1 September 2008.]

Public services

Home Office policing in Ashton-under-Lyne is provided by the Greater Manchester Police. The force's "(G) Division" have their divisional headquarters for policing Tameside in the town.cite web|url=http://www.gmp.police.uk/division05/pages/ashton.htm|publisher=gmp.police.uk|author=Greater Manchester Police|accessdate=2008-09-19|date=2006-1-25|title=Ashton] [cite web|url=http://www.gmp.police.uk/division05/pages/yourarea.htm|publisher=gmp.police.uk|author=Greater Manchester Police|date=2006-01-25|accessdate=2008-09-19|title=Your Area — Tameside] Public transport is co-ordinated by the Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive. Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service, which has one station on Slate Lane. [citation|url=http://www.manchesterfire.gov.uk/my-area/tameside/ashton-under-lyne-fire-station.aspx|publisher=manchesterfire.gov.uk|author=Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service|accessdate=2007-10-31|title=Ashton-Under-Lyne Fire Station]

The Tameside General Hospital is a large NHS hospital on the outskirts of the town, [cite web|url=http://www.tamesidehospital.nhs.uk/pages/Profile.asp#locality|title=Profile|accessdate=2008-09-19|publisher=tamesidehospital.nhs.uk] administrated by Tameside Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. [cite web|url=http://www.tamesidehospital.nhs.uk/pages/aboutthetrust.asp|title=About the Trust|accessdate=2008-09-19|publisher=tamesidehospital.nhs.uk] The North West Ambulance Service provides emergency patient transport. Other forms of health care are provided for locally by several small clinics and surgeries.

Waste management is co-ordinated by the local authority via the Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority. [citation|url=http://www.gmwda.gov.uk/|title=Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority (GMWDA)|publisher=gmwda.gov.uk|author=Greater Manchester Waste Disposal Authority|date=2008|accessdate=2008-02-08] Ashton's Distribution Network Operator for electricity is United Utilities;citation|url=http://www.unitedutilities.com/?OBH=4188&ID=1419|title=Tameside|publisher=unitedutilities.com|author=United Utilities|date=2007-04-17|accessdate=2008-09-19] there are no power stations in the town. United Utilities also manages the drinking and waste water.

Notable people

Sir Geoff Hurst and Simone Perrotta were both born and raised in Ashton-under-Lyne. They share winning the FIFA World Cup in common. Geoff Hurst was part of the England side that won the 1966 World Cup and is the only person to have scored a hat-trick in a World Cup final, and Perrotta won with Italy in 2006. [cite web |title=Ashton-under-Lyne cheers Perrotta |author=Stuart James |work=The Guardian |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2006/jul/06/worldcup2006.sport7 |date=6 July 2006 Retrieved on 12 September 2008.] England international mid-fielder Henry Cockburn was also born in the town. [cite web |title=Henry Cockburn |work=The Independant |url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/henry-cockburn-549463.html |date=17 February 2004 Retrieved on 12 September 2008.] Other footballers who were born in Ashton-under-Lyne include Mark Robins, who manages Rotherham United F.C., [cite web |title=Mark Robins |publisher=MUFCinfo.com |url=http://www.mufcinfo.com/manupag/a-z_player_archive/a-z_player_archive_pages/robins_mark.html Retrieved on 12 September 2008.] Trevor Ross, [cite web |title=Everton Player Stats Trevor Ross |publisher=EvertonFC.com |url=http://www.evertonfc.com/stats/?mode=player_details&player_id=628 Retrieved on 12 September 2008.] Alan Wright, [cite web |title=Alan Wright |work=The Guardian |url=http://football.guardian.co.uk/Player_Profile/0,,-185,00.html Retrieved on 12 September 2008.] Gordon Taylor, [cite web |title=Gordon Taylor: The players' champion |author=James Lawton |work=The Independant |url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/gordon-taylor-the-players-champion-617943.html |date=24 November 2001 Retrieved on 12 September 2008.] and Bert Whalley, who died in the 1958 Munich air disaster. [cite web |title=Portland Basin Museum: Football Fever |author=Laura Breen |work=Manchester Evening News |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/entertainment/days_out/s/167/167753_portland_basin_museum_football_fever.html |date=29 July 2005 Retrieved on 12 September 2008.]

Cricketers Andrew Harris, Harry Pilling and Gary Yates were all born in Ashton-under-Lyne. Harris played for Derbyshire and currently plays for Nottinghamshire. [cite web |url=http://content-uk.cricinfo.com/ci/content/player/14067.html |title=Andrew Harris player profile |publisher=Cricinfo.com Retrieved on 28 August 2007.] Pilling played for Lancashire between 1962 and 1980. [cite web |url=http://content-www.cricinfo.com/england/content/player/18962.html |title=Harry Pilling player profile |publisher=Cricinfo.com Retrieved on 28 August 2007.] Yates played for Lancashire between 1990 and 2002 and coaches the Lancashire second XI. [cite web |url=http://content-www.cricinfo.com/england/content/player/23525.html |title=Gary Yates player profile |publisher=Cricinfo.com Retrieved on 28 August 2007.]

George Formby, Sr., the music hall entertainer and father of the music hall and cinema star George Formby was born "James Lawler Booth" in the town in 1875. [cite web |title=That lad will go far!|work=The Guardian|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2002/dec/06/artsfeatures.popandrock |author=Simon Louvish |date=6 December 2002 Retrieved on 22 September 2008.] Brian Wilde, best known for his roles in "Last of the Summer Wine" and "Porridge", was born in Ashton before he moved with his family at a young age. [cite web |title=Brian Wilde |work=The Daily Telegraph |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1582228/Brian-Wilde.html |date=21 March 2008 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] Several Coronation Street actors are also associated with the town; Amanda Barrie, [cite web |title=Amanda's Bad and loving it! |author=Natalie Anglesey |work=Manchester Evening News |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/entertainment/film_and_tv/s/217/217948_amandas_bad_and_loving_it.html |date=13 July 2006 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] Dawn Acton, [cite web |title=Famous people from North West England |publisher=LocalHistories.org |url=http://www.localhistories.org/northwestfam.html |author=Tim Lambert Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] and Sean Wilson was born in Ashton [cite web |title=Sean frozen out of Ice show |author=Ian Wylie |work=Manchester Evening News |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/entertainment/film_and_tv/s/204/204245_sean_frozen_out_of_ice_show.html |date=13 February 2006 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] while Bill Tarmey, [cite web |title=Friends of Young Carers Charity Launch |publisher=Tameside.gov.uk |url=http://public.tameside.gov.uk/pressreleases/f1030pressreleasestory107.asp?story=4070&keyword= |date=11 September 2007 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] Roy Barraclough, [cite web |title=Flintoff and Street star honoured |publisher=BBC Online |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/4570268.stm |date=31 December 2005 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] Sue Devaney all live in the town. [cite web |title=Girls behind |publisher=TheLowry.com |url=http://www.thelowry.com/News/article.aspx?Id=461 |date=9 August 2007 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.]

John Louis Petit, who was born in Ashton, was a 19th-century antiquarian who drew examples of the architecture and landscape of Lancashire. [cite web |title=Historic exhibition for Lytham |work=Lytham St Annes Express |url=http://www.lythamstannesexpress.co.uk/lytham-news/Historic-exhibition-for-Lytham.4215279.jp |date=24 June 2008 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] Mary Ann Britland who was from Ashton was the first woman hanged at Strangeways Prison. [cite web |title=Tameside bibliography |author=Tameside Local Studies & Archives Centre staff |publisher=Tameside.gov.uk |url=http://www.tameside.gov.uk/archives/bibliography.pdf |format=PDF |date=2006 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] Thomas Earnshaw was a late 18th-century watchmaker. [Nevell (1994), p. 75.] Albert E. Richardson, who designed the Teasmade [cite web |title=An automatic tea-making machine, c 1902. |publisher=ScienceMuseum.org.uk |url=http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/images/I001/10186640.aspx?keywords=tea Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] Arthur Brooke who was a founder of the Brooke Bond Tea Company. [Nevell (1994), p. 68.] And Evan Leigh was a 19th-century author, inventor, and engineer from the town. ['The parish of Ashton-under-Lyne: Introduction, manor & boroughs', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4 (1911), pp. 338-347. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41438. Date accessed: 16 September 2008.]

Other people born in the town include Margaret Beckett, who became Britain's first female Foreign Secretary in 2006; [cite web |title=Margaret Beckett |publisher=BBC Online |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/womanshour/timeline/margaret_beckett.shtml Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] journalist Simon Hoggart; [cite web |title=The Hands of History: Parliamentary Sketches 1997–2007 |publisher=Kingston.ac.uk |url=http://www.kingston.ac.uk/krf/events/2008/02-the-hands-of-history-parliamentary-sketches-1997-2007-simon-hoggart/ Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] and pianist and actress Sunny Rogers. [cite web |title=Sunny Rogers |work=The Independant |url=http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/sunny-rogers-524808.html |date=28 January 2006 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] Lisa Huo, a "Big Brother" contestant in 2006, [cite web |title='I'm wild, crazy and sexy' ... meet Big Brother Lisa |work=Manchester Evening News |url=http://www.tamesideadvertiser.co.uk/news/s/513355_im_wild_crazy_and_sexy__meet_big_brother_lisa |author=Adam Derbyshire |date=24 May 2006 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] and John Kilbride, a Moors Murders victim, are also from the town. [cite web |title=Court cleared for Moors murder charges hearing |work=The Guardian |url=http://century.guardian.co.uk/1960-1969/Story/0,,106436,00.html |date=7 December 1965 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.] David Vaughan attended art school in Ashton and lives in Tameside. [cite web |title=To hell and back |work=Manchester Evening News |url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/entertainment/arts/s/51/51253_to_hell_and_back.html |date=7 February 2003 Retrieved on 16 September 2008.]

References

Bibliography

*cite book |first=Tom |last=Burke |coauthors=Nevell, Mike |year=1996 |title=Buildings of Tameside |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough and University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |isbn=1-871324-14-9
*cite book |last=Frangopulo |first=N. J. |year=1977 |title=Tradition in Action: The Historical Evolution of the Greater Manchester County |publisher=EP|location= Wakefield |isbn=0-7158-1203-3
*cite journal |last=Griffith |first=Kate |title=The Black Lad of Ashton-under-Lyne |journal=Folklore |volume=8 |issue=4 |publisher=Taylor & Francis, Ltd |date=1898 |url=http://www.jstor.org/pss/1253739
*cite book |author=Hartwell, Clare |coauthors=Matthew Hyde and Nikolaus Pevsner |title=Lancashire : Manchester and the South-East |series=The buildings of England |year=2004 |publisher=Yale University Press |location=New Haven, Conn.; London |isbn=0-300-10583-5
*citation |last=Lewis|first=Samuel|title=A Topographical Dictionary of England|publisher=Institute of Historical Research|date=1848|isbn=978-0806315089|authorlink=Samuel Lewis (publisher)
*citation |author=McNeil, R & Nevell, M |title=A Guide to the Industrial Archaeology of Greater Manchester |publisher=Association for Industrial Archaeology |year=2000 |isbn=0-9528930-3-7
*cite book |first=Mike |last=Nevell |year=1991 |title=Tameside 1066-1700 |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough and University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |isbn=1-871324-02-5
*cite book |first=Mike |last=Nevell |date=1992 |title=Tameside Before 1066 |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough and Greater Manchester Archaeological Unit |isbn=1-871324-07-6
*cite book |first=Mike |last=Nevell |year=1993 |title=Tameside 1700-1930 |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough and University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |isbn=1-871324-08-4
*cite book |first=Mike |last=Nevell |date=1994 |title=The People Who Made Tameside |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council |isbn=1-871324-12-2
*cite book |first=Mike |last=Nevell |date=1997 |title=The Archaeology of Trafford |publisher=Trafford Metropolitan Borough Council with the University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |isbn=1-870695-25-9
*cite book |first=Mike |last=Nevell |coauthors=John Roberts |date=2003 |title=The Park Bridge Ironworks and the archaeology of the Wrought Iron Industry in North West England, 1600 to 1900 |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough with University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |isbn=1-871324-27-0
*cite book |first=Mike |last=Nevell |coauthors=Walker, John |year=1998 |title=Lands and Lordships in Tameside |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council with the University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |isbn=1-871324-18-1
*cite book |first=Mike |last=Nevell |coauthors=Walker, John |date=2001 |title=Portland Basin and the archaeology of the Canal Warehouse |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough with University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |isbn=1-871324-25-4
*cite book |first=Terry |last=Wyke |date=2005 |title=Public Sculpture of Greater Manchester |publisher=Liverpool University Press |isbn=0853235678 |url=http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_h5hIINSn3cC&pg=PA357&lpg=PA357&dq=Hartshead+hill&source=web&ots=FfHGhSq1QM&sig=HgqijSQupLE5wF95tXnP5IjRmKU&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#PPA357,M1

External links

* [http://www.ashton-under-Lyne.com/ Ashton-under-Lyne.com]


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  • Ashton-Under-Lyne — Ashton under Lyne …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ashton-under-Lyne — Ashton under Lyne …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ashton under Lyne — (spr. äscht n önder lain), eine der ältesten Städte Lancashires, 8 km von Manchester, mit (1901) 43,890 Einw., die mit den nahe dabei gelegenen Städten Stalybridge und Dukinfield einen der am dichtesten bevölkerten Bezirke der Grafschaft einnimmt …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Ashton-under-Lyne — (spr. äscht n önnder lein), Stadt in der engl. Grafsch. Lancaster, am Tame, (1901) 43.800 E.; Textilindustrie, Kohlengruben …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Ashton-under-Lyne —   [ æʃtn ʌndə laɪn], Industriestadt in der Metropolitan County Greater Manchester, England, 43 900 Einwohner;   Wirtschaft:   die Baumwollindustrie ist fast völlig verschwunden, heute dominieren Maschinenbau und Konsumgüterindustrie.   …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Ashton-under-Lyne — Original name in latin Ashton under Lyne Name in other language Ashton, Ashton under Lyne, Ehshton ander Lajn, Эштон андер Лайн State code GB Continent/City Europe/London longitude 53.48876 latitude 2.0989 altitude 108 Population 43675 Date 2010… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Ashton-under-Lyne — Ash•ton under Lyne [[t]ˈæʃ tənˌʌn dərˈlaɪn[/t]] n. geg a borough in Greater Manchester metropolitan county, in W England. 48,865 …   From formal English to slang

  • Ashton-under-Lyne — /ash teuhn un deuhr luyn /, n. a borough in Greater Manchester metropolitan county, in W England. 48,865. * * * …   Universalium

  • Ashton-under-Lyne — ► Mun. de Gran Bretaña, condado metropolitano del Gran Manchester; 48 900 h …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ashton-under-Lyne — /ash teuhn un deuhr luyn /, n. a borough in Greater Manchester metropolitan county, in W England. 48,865 …   Useful english dictionary


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