Pioneer species


Pioneer species

A pioneer species are species which colonizes previously uncolonized land, usually leading to ecological succession. [cite web
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] Since uncolonized land usually has thin, poor quality soils with few nutrients, pioneer species are typically very hardy plants, with adaptations such as long roots, root nodes containing nitrogen fixing bacteria, and leaves that reduce transpiration.

Pioneer species are often grasses such as marram grass, which grows on sand dunes.

The plants, or anything that has the system of a plant, will be specially adapted to the extremes that may be experienced, and once they have modified the environment may be out-competed by less specific plants, eventually leading to a climax community. Examples of the plants and organisms that colonise such areas are:

:Barren rock - blue-green bacteria,:Barren sand - lyme grass, sea couch grass, marram grass:Salt water - green algae, eel grass, "Salicornia townsendii" and "Spartina townsendii":Clear water - Algae, mosses

Pioneer species in secondary succession

Pioneer species can also be found in secondary succession (an established ecosystem being reduced by an event such as a forest fire of a clearing), colonizing newly created open spaces quickly. Common examples from a coniferous include:

*Birch
*Fireweed
*Raspberry
*Heaths

Pioneering fauna

Pioneering fauna are not responsible for initial colonisation of an area, but can be seen to be colonising an area only flora and fungi previously inhabited, leading the way for others. A good example of this is the Roe Deer.

ee also

*Ruderal

References


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