Ninoy Aquino International Airport


Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Ninoy Aquino International Airport
Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino
MIAA Logo.png
NAIA Terminal 3 2009 MC.jpg
Facade of NAIA Terminal 3
IATA: MNLICAO: RPLL
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator Manila International Airport Authority
Serves Manila, Philippines
Location Parañaque and Pasay, Metro Manila
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 23 m / 75 ft
Coordinates 14°30′31″N 121°01′10″E / 14.50861°N 121.01944°E / 14.50861; 121.01944
Website www.miaa.gov.ph
Map
MNL is located in Philippines
MNL
Location in the Philippines
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
06/24 3,737 12,261 Asphalt
13/31 2,258 7,408 Asphalt
Statistics (2010)
Passengers 27,119,899
Aircraft movements 205,246(2,009)
Metric tonnes of cargo 355,149(2,009)
Statistics from the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines.[1]

The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA (play /ˈn.ə/), also known as Manila International Airport (IATA: MNLICAO: RPLL), is the airport serving the general area of Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area. Located along the border between Pasay and Parañaque, about seven kilometers south of Manila proper, and southwest of Makati, NAIA is the main international gateway for travelers to the Philippines and is the hub for all Philippine airlines. It is managed by the Manila International Airport Authority (MIAA), a branch of the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC).

Officially, NAIA is the only airport serving the Manila area. However, in practice, both NAIA and Diosdado Macapagal International Airport (DMIA), located in the Clark Freeport Zone in Angeles, Pampanga serve the Manila area, with DMIA catering mostly to low-cost carriers that avail themselves of the lower landing fees than those charged at NAIA. In the long term DMIA is set to replace NAIA as the primary airport of the Philippines.[2] The airport is named after the late Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., who was assassinated at the airport in 1983. In 2009 the airport saw growth of 11.4% to 24.1 million passengers.[3] In 2010, NAIA terminal carried 27.1 million passengers, making it to the top 50 of the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic.

Contents

History

Destinations with service from Manila
Map of Ninoy Aquino International Airport

The original airport that served Manila, the Manila International Air Terminal, was opened in July 1937 at Nielson Field, the runways of which now form Ayala Avenue and Paseo de Roxas in Makati. In 1948, following Philippine independence, the airport was moved to its current site adjacent to the Villamor Airbase, which was then called Nichols Field. The original structure was built on what is now the site of the present-day Terminal 2.

In 1954 the airport's international runway and associated taxiway were built,[4] and in 1961 the construction of a control tower and a terminal building for the use of international passengers was completed.[4] In 1972 a fire caused substantial damage to the original terminal building, and a slightly smaller terminal was rebuilt in its place the following year. This second terminal would become the country's international terminal until 1981 when a new, higher-capacity terminal, known today as Terminal 1, was built to replace it.

The old international terminal would serve as Manila's domestic airport until another fire damaged it in May 1985. The present Terminal 1, originally named Manila International Airport, was given its present name on August 17, 1987 by virtue of Republic Act No. 6639, with the intention of honouring Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., who was assassinated at the airport after returning to the Philippines from his self-imposed exile in the United States on August 21, 1983. Plans for a new terminal were conceived in 1989, when the Department of Transportation and Communications commissioned Aéroports de Paris to do a feasibility study to expand capacity.

The recommendation was to build two new terminals, and in 1998 Terminal 2 was completed. Terminal 2 was nicknamed the Centennial Terminal as its completion coincided with the 100th anniversary of Philippine independence from Spain. In 1997 the government approved the construction of Terminal 3, which was originally scheduled to be completed in 2002. After many delays caused by technical and legal issues, the terminal became fully operational in mid-2008. The government aims to return services from many of the airlines which cancelled services to Manila as a result of the current Terminal 1's problems.

In 2011, it has been tagged as the Wost Airport in the world by the website “The Guide to Sleeping in Airports”.

Statistics

Volume of Passengers

This table of passenger movements at MNL is based on data from Airport Council International (ACI).[5] 2010 NAIA passenger traffic was based on Manila International Airport Authority's website for the full-year of 2010.

Year Passenger
Movements
2003 12,955,809 (81st)
2004 15,186,521 (75th)
2005 16,216,031 (77th)
2006 17,660,697 (73rd)
2007 20,467,627 (64th)
2008 22,253,158 (57th)
2009 24,108,825 (51st)
2010 27,119,899 (48th)

Terminals

Terminal 1

The check-in hall of NAIA Terminal 1

The development of the Manila International Airport was finally approved through the promulgation of Executive Order No. 381, which authorized the airport's development. In 1973, a feasibility study/airport master plan was done by Airways Engineering Corporation through a US$29.6 million loan from the Asian Development Bank. The Detailed Engineering Design of the New Manila International Airport Development Project was done by Renardet-Sauti/Transplan/F.F. Cruz Consultant while the terminal's Detailed Architectural Design was prepared by Leandro Locsin's L.V. Locsin and Associates.[6]

In 1974, the detailed designs were adopted by the Philippine Government and was subsequently approved by the Asian Development Bank on September 18, 1975. Actual work on the terminal began during the second quarter of 1978. The terminal was completed in 1981 and had a size of 67,000 square meters with a design capacity of 4.5 million passengers per year.[7] It currently serves all non-Philippine Airlines and non-Cebu Pacific international flights. In 1989, a Master Plan Review recommended the construction of two new terminals (NAIA 2 and NAIA 3), as well as many other facility improvements.[6]

Airside view of the T1 taken from Kaingin Road

The terminal reached capacity in 1991, when it registered a total passenger volume of 4.53 million. Since 1991, the terminal has been over capacity and has been recording an annual average growth rate of 11%.[6] It has 18 air bridges and services 33 airlines (as of May 2011). Interestingly enough, the building does not have a Gate 8 and a Gate 13. Compared to international terminals in other Asian countries, Terminal 1 consistently ranks at the bottom, with limited and outdated facilities, poor passenger comfort, and the facility long ago exceeded its design capacity.[8]

The DOTC previously announced that as soon as Terminal 3 becomes fully operational, Terminal 1 would be rehabilitated into an "Airport City", with the intention of Cebu Pacific Airways to convert Terminal 1 as their exclusive terminal.[9] This terminal handles all international flights except those operated by Cebu Pacific and Philippine Airlines.

Terminal 2 (Centennial Terminal)

The NAIA Centennial Terminal 2 departure hall

The second terminal, NAIA-2, located at the Old MIA Road, was completed in 1998 and began operations in 1999. It has been named the Centennial Terminal in commemoration of the centennial year of the declaration of Philippine independence. The 75,000-square-meter terminal was originally designed by Aéroports de Paris to be a domestic terminal, but the design was later modified to accommodate international flights.[10] It has a capacity of 2.5 million passengers per year in its international wing and 5 million in its domestic wing, it is possible to accommodate nine million passengers per year if required.[10]

Terminal 2 is for the exclusive terminal of Philippine Airlines and is used for both its domestic and international flights. It is divided into Two wings: the North Wing, which handles international flights, and the South Wing, which handles domestic flights. It currently has 12 air bridges. There are several cafes and restaurants scattered around the Terminal post-security and include Cafe Nescafe and Cafe Delifrance. There is also a (very) small duty-free section in the north wing. The need for two more terminals was proposed by a Master Plan Review of the Ninoy Aquino International Airport that was undertaken in 1989 by Aéroports de Paris (ADP), which was facilitated through a grant from the French Government. The review cost 2.9 million French francs and was submitted to the Philippine Government for evaluation in 1990.[6]

In 1991, the French government granted a 30 million franc soft loan to the Government of the Philippines, which was to be used to cover the Detailed Architectural and Engineering Design of the NAIA Terminal 2. ADP completed the design in 1992 and in 1994, the Japanese Government granted an 18.12 billion yen soft loan to the Philippine Government to finance 75% of the terminal's construction costs and 100% of the supervision costs. Construction of the terminal began on December 11, 1995, and was formally turned over to the government of the Philippines on December 28, 1998.

Terminal 3

Cebu Pacific check-in at Terminal 3.

The third terminal of the airport, Terminal 3 or NAIA-3, is the newest and biggest terminal in the NAIA complex, wherein construction started in 1997. The terminal is one of the most controversial projects in the Philippines in that the government has become involved with legal battles, red tape, and arbitration cases in both the United States and Singapore, as well as technical and safety concerns which delayed its opening several times.[11]

The terminal officially opened to selected domestic flights from July 22, 2008 (initially Cebu Pacific only, then Philippine Airlines' subsidiaries Air Philippines and PAL Express), with Cebu Pacific international flights using it from August 1, 2008. All international operations, except for those from PAL, are intended to operate from Terminal 3 in the future, originally proposed to move in fourth quarter of 2010,[12] however domestic carriers Cebu Pacific and Airphil Express (then Air Philippines) remained the only tenants for the first two years of its operation. The vast majority of international flights still operate from Terminal 1, with the exception of ANA All Nippon Airways being the first foreign-based carrier to operate out of Terminal 3 starting Feb.27th.

History

Departure hall of Terminal 3

1990s

The original proposal for the construction of a third terminal was proposed by Asia's Emerging Dragon Corporation (AEDP). AEDP eventually lost the bid to PairCargo and its partner Fraport AG of Germany, who went on to begin construction of the terminal under the administration of Joseph Estrada. Terminal 3 was approved for construction in 1997 and the structure was mostly completed several years ago and was originally scheduled to open in 2002. The ultra-modern US$640 million, 189,000 square meter facility was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) to have a capacity of 13 million passengers per year. However, a legal dispute between the government of the Philippines and the project's main contractor, Philippine International Air Terminals Co. Inc. (PIATCO), over the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) contract, delayed the final completion and opening of the terminal.

While the original agreement was one in which PairCargo and Fraport AG would operate the airport for several years after its construction, followed by a handing over of the terminal to the Philippine Government, the government offered to buy out Fraport AG for $400 million, to which Fraport agreed. However, before the terminal could be fully completed, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, called the contract "onerous" formed a committee to evaluate the agreement to buy out Fraport AG. It is this action that sparked the most controversy. The Philippine Supreme Court eventually found the PIATCO contract "null and void" citing a variety of anomalies.

The administration of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo eventually abrogated PIATCO's BOT Contract for allegedly having been anomalous in certain important respects. In a subsequent decision, the Philippine Supreme Court upheld the Philippine Government's position on the matter and declared the BOT contract "null and void" for, among other things, violations of certain provisions of the BOT law. More specifically, the Court found that the original contract was revised to allow for a Philippine Government guarantee of PIATCO's obligations to its creditors, contractors and suppliers. The BOT law disallows the granting of such sovereign guarantees. PIATCO disagrees and continues to maintain that the provisions cited by the Supreme Court do not amount to a prohibited sovereign guarantee by the Philippine Government.

2000s

In December 2004, the Philippine Government expropriated the terminal project from PIATCO through an order of the Pasay City Regional Trial Court (RTC). However, the court only allowed the Philippine Government to take over the terminal upon payment of an initial amount of PHP3 billion (approx. US$64 million) to PIATCO. The Philippine Government formally paid PIATCO the said amount on the second week of September 2006. According to the Philippine Government, NAIA-3 was 98% complete (prior in 2006) and required at least an additional USD6 million to complete. The government was then in the process of negotiating a contract with the builder of the terminal, Takenaka of Japan, because another factor that delayed the terminal's opening was the ongoing investigation into the collapse of a 100 sqm. area of the terminal's ceiling.

PIATCO (and its German partner Fraport) have instituted arbitration proceedings before different international bodies (Piatco in Singapore before the ICC and Fraport in Washington D.C. before the ICSID) to recover a fair settlement. In 2007, the ICSID case filed in Washington was decided in favor of the Philippine Government because of a violation of Philipine Law by Fraport. However, this decission was annulled in 2010 due to a violation of FRAPORT's right to be heard.[13] A new proceeding before the ICSID is ongoing.[14] The case in Singapore continues to be under litigation. PIATCO, speaking through its lawyers, has stated in the local Philippine press that it remains open to reaching an amicable settlement with the Philippine Government. By Executive Order No. 732, the NAIA Terminal 3 Task Force was made and Michael Defensor was appointed on June 19, 2008 as head, creating the Presidential Task Force on the NAIA-3 that was "mandated to ensure the immediate opening and operation of Terminal III." The order provides for the NAIA-3 opening based on decisions of the Supreme Court and applicable laws.[15]

Terminal 3 began partial operations at 0515 on July 22, 2008 with 16 inbound and outbound domestic flights from Cebu Pacific. Philippine Airlines' budget brand PAL Express and Air Philippines moved their operations to this terminal two days later.[16] Cebu Pacific moved all of its domestic and international operations to the terminal on August 1, 2008. On August 1, 2010, President Noynoy Aquino has announced plans to utilize Terminal 3 to its maximum capacity by Christmas Season 2010, which may mean moving international carriers to Terminal 3, but the goal was never reached.[17]

The Philippine Government has made a new plan where Terminal 3 would be 100% operational by the end of 2011, but lowered their goal to 55% operational after further study.[18] Starting February 2011, The move of international carriers began with All Nippon Airways starting new service to Manila from Terminal 3, rather than Terminal 1 with other international carriers.[19] ANA will be the only foreign carrier at Terminal 3, while other carriers have no intention of moving yet or are still in negotiations such as Cathay Pacific.[20]

Structure

A shot of the airport taken from a departing aircraft

Terminal 3 is built on a 63.5-hectare lot that sits on Villamor Air Base. The terminal building has a total floor area of 182,500 m², having a total length of 1.2 kilometers. A four-level shopping mall connects the terminal and parking buildings. The parking building has a capacity of 2,000 cars while the outdoor parking area has a capacity of 1,200 cars. The terminal is capable of servicing 33,000 passengers daily at peak or 6,000 passengers per hour.

Its apron area has a size of 147,400 m², 34 air bridges, 20 contact gates with the ability of servicing 28 planes at any given time. The terminal has 70 flight information terminals, 314 display monitors, with 300 kilometers of fiber optic I.T. cabling. It also has 29 restroom blocks. The departure area has five entrances all equipped with X-ray machines with the final security check having 18 X-ray machines. Its baggage claim has 7 large baggage carousels, each with its own flight display monitor.[10]

Manila Domestic Passenger Terminal

This terminal is host to all domestic flights within the Philippines that are operated by Zest Air and South East Asian Airlines. There are no jet bridges and passengers walk to and from the aircraft or are occasionally bussed. Twenty-six Check-in counters are located in the Terminal, the departure hall has the seating capacity for 969 people at a time. Several food stores and a book and magazine stall are also available. Five baggage carousels are located in the terminal whilst Domestic airline offices, banks, restaurants and a grocery store are also located right beside the Domestic passenger terminal.[21] The Domestic Terminal on the old Airport Road was built in 1948 and is located near the north end of Runway 13/31. An old hangar has since been annexed to the terminal.

Airlines and destinations

Passenger

Airlines Destinations Terminal
Air China Beijing-Capital 1
Air Niugini Port Moresby 1
Airphil Express Bacolod, Busuanga, Cagayan de Oro, Calbayog, Catarman, Caticlan, Cebu, Cotabato, Davao, General Santos, Iloilo, Kalibo, Legazpi, Laoag [begins December 18], Masbate, Naga, Ozamiz, Puerto Princesa, San Jose (Mindoro), Singapore, Surigao, Tacloban, Tagbilaran, Tuguegarao, Zamboanga 3
All Nippon Airways Tokyo-Narita 3
Asiana Airlines Busan, Seoul-Incheon 1
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong 1
Cebu Pacific Bacolod, Bandar Seri Begawan, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Busan, Busuanga, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Calbayog, Catarman, Caticlan, Cauayan, Cebu, Cotabato, Davao, Dipolog, Dumaguete, General Santos, Guangzhou, Hanoi [resumes March 17], Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Iloilo, Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Kalibo, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Laoag, Legazpi, Macau, Naga, Osaka-Kansai, Ozamiz, Pagadian, Puerto Princesa, Roxas City, San Jose (Mindoro), Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapore, Surigao, Tacloban, Tagbilaran, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tuguegarao, Virac, Zamboanga 3
China Airlines Kaohsiung, Taipei-Taoyuan 1
China Southern Airlines Beijing-Capital, Guangzhou, Xiamen 1
Continental Airlines Guam, Koror 1
Delta Air Lines Detroit, Nagoya-Centrair, Tokyo-Narita 1
Dragonair Hong Kong 1
Emirates Dubai 1
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 1
EVA Air Taipei-Taoyuan 1
Gulf Air Bahrain 1
Hawaiian Airlines Honolulu 1
Hong Kong Express Airways Hong Kong 1
Japan Airlines Tokyo-Narita 1
Jeju Air Seoul-Incheon 1
Jetstar Airways Darwin, Sydney 1
Jetstar Asia Airways Singapore 1
KLM Amsterdam 1
Korean Air Busan, Seoul-Incheon 1
Kuwait Airways Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Kuwait 1
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur 1
Philippine Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Busan, Delhi, Fukuoka, Guam, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Macau, Melbourne, Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, San Francisco, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita, Vancouver, Xiamen 2 North
Philippine Airlines Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Cotabato , Davao, General Santos, Iloilo, Kalibo, Laoag, Legazpi, Puerto Princesa, Roxas City, Tacloban, Tagbilaran 2 South
Philippine Airlines Bacolod, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Ozamiz, Zamboanga (all flights transfer to Terminal 2 South on November 24) 3
Qantas Brisbane, Sydney 1
Qatar Airways Doha 1
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan 1
Saudi Arabian Airlines Dammam, Jeddah, Riyadh 1 1
Singapore Airlines Singapore 1
Sky Pasada Baguio, Basco Domestic
South East Asian Airlines Basco, Caticlan, El Nido, Tablas, Taytay
Seasonal: Vigan
Domestic
Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 1
Tiger Airways Singapore 1
Zest Airways Bacolod, Busuanga, Cagayan de Oro, Calbayog, Catarman, Cebu, Davao, Iloilo, Kalibo, Legazpi, Marinduque, Masbate, Puerto Princesa, San Jose (Mindoro), Tablas, Tacloban, Tagbilaran, Virac Domestic
Zest Airways Jinjiang [begins December 22], Kuala Lumpur [begins 29 November] 1
Notes
  • ^1 : Although most of Saudi Arabian Airlines' flights to Saudi Arabia stop in Hong Kong, Saudi Arabian Airlines has no rights to transport passengers between Manila and Hong Kong.

Cargo

The following cargo airlines serve Ninoy Aquino International Airport.

Airlines Destinations
Air Hong Kong Hong Kong
China Airlines Cargo Hong Kong, Penang, Taipei-Taoyuan
EVA Air Cargo Taipei-Taoyuan
FedEx Express Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Shanghai-Pudong, Shenzhen
Korean Air Cargo Penang, Seoul-Incheon
Shenzhen Donghai Airlines Shenzhen
Singapore Airlines Cargo Singapore
Transmile Air Services Kuala Lumpur
ULS Airlines Cargo Istanbul-Atatürk
Yangtze River Express Shanghai-Pudong

Structure

The Airbus A380 visited NAIA on October 11, 2007.

Runways

NAIA has a primary runway (3,737 m) running at 061°/241° (designated as Runway 06/24) and a secondary runway (2,258 m) running at 136°/316° (designated as Runway 13/31). On October 11, 2007, NAIA witnessed the debut of the Airbus A380 in the Philippines, after test aircraft MSN009 landed on NAIA's primary runway. The test flight proved that the A380 could be flown in existing runways in Asia, and that the primary international airport of the Philippines can support aircraft as large as the A380.[22]

Other structures

The airport also serves as a gateway facility of the logistics company DHL, and hosts the aircraft repair and maintenance facilities of German firm Lufthansa Technik AG, a division of Lufthansa.

Ground transportation

Taxi service is available to NAIA from all points of Metro Manila. Also, several bus routes directly serve the airport complex, either serving Terminals 1 and 2, Terminal 3 and the Domestic Terminal, or Terminal 3 exclusively. Some of the bus routes are also served by jeepneys. A shuttle bus system connects all four terminals for the convenience of passengers who have onward connections on flights departing from another terminal. The airport is also accessible, albeit indirectly, by rail: Baclaran station of the Manila Light Rail Transit System and Nichols station of the Philippine National Railways both serve the airport complex.

In the future, with the extension of the existing Yellow Line, a new station, Manila International Airport station, is set to connect the airport, albeit still indirectly, to the LRT. The NAIA Expressway or NAIA Skyway connecting NAIA/Sales Exit of Metro Manila Skyway and Andrews Avenue in front of Terminal 3. It would soon be extended to Domestic Road, linking with the Domestic Terminal, and NAIA Road before reaching the Coastal Road. Terminal 3 is served by Sales Exit of South Luzon Expressway, and the NAIA Road-Roxas Boulevard Intersection of Coastal Road serving Terminals 1 and 2 and Domestic Terminal.

Accidents and incidents

  • On February 24, 1949, Cathay Pacific (Douglas C-47A-90-DL). The crew aborted an approach in poor visibility and tried to go around. The aircraft struck a hillside near Braemar Reservoir. All 23 occupants were killed.
  • On November 19, 1970, Douglas C-47As PI-C9 and PI-C15 of Philippine Air Lines, and Douglas DC-3D PI-C944 of Fairways Corportation were damaged beyond repair by Typhoon Patsy.[23][24][25]
  • On July 25, 1971, Pan American World Airways (Boeing 707-321C) The Boeing, named "Clipper Rising Sun", was on a cargo flight from San Francisco via Honolulu, Guam and Manila to Saigon. While on a VOR/DME approach to Manila runway 24, the aircraft struck Mount Kamunay at an altitude of 2525 feet (770 m). All 4 occupants were killed.
  • On November 15, 1974, Douglas C-47A RP-C570 of OASIS was damaged beyond economic repair when a forced landing was made in a paddy field shortly after take-off from Manila International Airport following failure of the starboard engine. One of the eight people on board was killed.[26]
  • On February 7, 1980, China Airlines Boeing 707 originated from Taipei-Chiang Kai Shek International Airport (TPE) (TPE/RCTP) undershot the runway on landing and caught fire. Of all the 135 onboard, theres only 2 fatalities.
  • During 1982, Douglas C-47B RP-C3 of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas was damaged beyond repair in an accident at Manila International Airport.[27]
  • On August 21, 1983, the most unforgettable incident was the assassination of Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr., who was killed at the airport after returning to the Philippines from his self-imposed exile in the United States. Five years after the incident he was memorialized by having the airport named in his honor, by virtue of Republic Act No. 6639.
  • On December 13, 1983, Douglas C-47B RP-C287 of Philair crashed shortly after take-off following an engine failure. The aircraft was on a non-scheduled passenger flight. All ten people on board survived.[28]
  • On May 6, 1989, Douglas C-47A RP-C82 of MATS crashed on following an engine failure. The aircraft was being used on a domestic non-scheduled passenger flight although it was not licenced to carry passengers. All 18 people on board survived.[29]
  • On April 28, 1989 Douglas C-47A RP-C81 of Manila Aero Transport System (MATS) crashed shortly after take-off on a non-scheduled domestic passenger flight to Roxas Airport following an engine failure. MATS did not have a licence to fly passengers. Seven of the 22 passengers were killed. The aircraft had earlier made a forced landing on a taxiway at the airport.[30]
  • On July 21, 1989 Philippine Airlines Flight 124, a BAC One-Eleven overran a runway in poor visibility and heavy rain. No passengers or crew on board were killed but eight people on the ground were killed when the jet crossed a road.[31]
  • On May 11, 1990, Philippine Airlines Flight 143, a Boeing 737–300 suffered an explosion in the center fuel tank near the terminal of Ninoy Aquino International Airport while preparing for takeoff. The fire and smoke engulfed the aircraft before it could be completely evacuated. The explosion was similar to what happened to the ill-fated TWA Flight 800 six years later. 8 people died during the incident
  • On May 18, 1990, Aerolift Philippines (Beechcraft 1900C-1) a Domestic Scheduled Passenger bound for Surigao Airport (SUG) (SUG/RPMS) Crashed into a residential area following takeoff. The Beech reportedly suffered an engine failure. All 21 occupants and 4 people on the ground were killed.
  • On September 4, 2002, Asian Spirit flight 897 (de Havilland Canada DHC-7-102)carrying 49 occupants, was the last flight of the day to Caticlan and departed the Manila domestic airport for at 15:36 for a one hour flight. On approach to Caticlan the right main gear failed to deploy. The approach was abandoned and the crew decided to return to Manila for an emergency landing. The plane circled for about 35 minutes over Las Piñas to burn off fuel. The crew then carried out an emergency landing with the right gear retracted on Manila's international airport runway 24. After touchdown the aircraft swerved off the runway onto a grassy area. There were no reported injuries or fatalities but the aircraft was Written off (damaged beyond repair).
  • On November 11, 2002, Laoag Flight 585 took off from Manila runway 31 at just after 6 o'clock for a flight to Laoag and Basco Airport (BSO). Shortly after takeoff engine trouble developed in the aircraft's left engine. The pilot declared an emergency and he tried to land the plane but decided at the last minute to ditch it into the sea. The aircraft broke up and sank in the water to a depth of about 60 feet. 19 of the 34 occupants were killed.[32]
  • In March 2006, just before the scheduled soft-opening of terminal 3, a portion of its ceiling collapsed. This pushed back its initial partial opening until July 22, 2008.
  • On July 25, 2008 Qantas Flight 30, a Boeing 747 headed from London to Melbourne with a stopover at Hong Kong, made an emergency landing at Manila's Ninoy Aquino International Airport. A gaping hole on the belly near the right wing was torn from the fuselage in mid-air when a large piece of what appeared to be canvas and a red piece of insulation material stuck out of the fuselage as if pushed by an explosion from the inside. The 747 was carrying 356 passengers and 19 crew but there were no reported injuries or fatalities.[33]
  • On Sunday August 23, 2009, South East Asian Airlines flight DG-0624, flown by Dornier 328 RP-C6328, was hit by strong crosswind when decelerating after landing on runway 13. The aircraft veered off the runway and came to a stop in the grass. None of the 32 passengers and 3 crew was injured. The airport had to be temporarily closed for towing the Seair Dornier away.
  • On October 17, 2009, Douglas DC-3 RP-C550 of Victoria Air crashed shortly after take-off on a flight to Puerto Princesa International Airport after an engine malfunctioned.The Plane Crashed near a factory in Las Piñas. All on board died[34]
  • On June 19, 2010 The Doppler Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range ( DVOR ) controlling the Ninoy Aquino International Airport's Navigational aid malfunctioned due to a short circuit. Reports said that the short circuit was caused by a heavy rain downpour. Authorities were forced to close the whole airport for the whole evening and divert all air traffic to Diosdado Macapagal International Airport in Clark, Pampanga, Mactan-Cebu International Airport in Cebu City, Cebu. Although they have to get some replacement parts from the Subic Bay International Airport's own VOR, the radar was repaired and daylight air traffic was restored to normal the following day whilst pilots limited only for a visual approach in all of its runways

See also

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References

  1. ^ "Passenger Statistics 2009". May 14, 2010. http://www.caap.gov.ph/Downloads/adms.pdf. Retrieved April 21, 2009. 
  2. ^ Arroyo wants DMIA become top airport amid plan to close NAIA, GMA News and Public Affairs, January 29, 2008.
  3. ^ MIAA counts on double-digit passenger growth in 2010, January 24, 2010
  4. ^ a b BRIEF HISTORY OF MIAA
  5. ^ Airport Council International.
  6. ^ a b c d Airport : Terminal 1 Manila International Airport Authority Accessed September 7, 2006
  7. ^ TERMINAL 1
  8. ^ Reviews of Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport with Passenger reviews about Manila Ninoy Aquino Airport standards airlinequality.com.
  9. ^ This has yet to occur or commence.Cebu Pacific eyeing 'Airport City'--DOTC – Inquirer.net, Philippine News for Filipinos globalnation.inquirer.net.
  10. ^ a b c airport-tech
  11. ^ GMANews.TV – NAIA 3 inspected for Monday opening – report – Nation – Official Website of GMA News and Public Affairs – Latest Philippine News – BETA. gmanes.tv. Accessed June 28, 2008.
  12. ^ Bright future for rural banks – Business Mirror Accessed May 14, 2009.
  13. ^ http://dispute.practicallaw.com/1-504-9581
  14. ^ http://www.iareporter.com/articles/20110331_7
  15. ^ Abs-Cbn Interactive, Arroyo appoints Mike Defensor as NAIA-3 task force head
  16. ^ newsinfo.inquirer.net, Planes start flying out of NAIA 3 for 1st time
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^ [3]
  20. ^ [4]
  21. ^ Domestic Terminal
  22. ^ AFP: Airbus super jumbo visits Philippines to show it is ready for Asia, Agence France-Presse, October 11, 2007
  23. ^ "PI-C15 Hull-loss description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19701119-1. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  24. ^ "PI-C9 Hull-loss description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19701119-2. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
  25. ^ "PI-C944 Hull-loss description". Aviation Safety Network. http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19701119-3. Retrieved October 20, 2010. 
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