- Jamaica, Queens
Jamaica is a neighborhood in the borough of
Queensin New York City. It was settled under Dutch rule in 1656 in New Netherlandas Rustdorp.cite web |url=http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~jdevlin/ny/jamaica_li_hist.htm |title=Jamaica |accessdate=2007-12-23 cite book |title=The History of Long Island, from its earliest settlement to the present time |author=Peter Ross |location=NY |publisher=Lewis Pub. Co. |date=1902] Under British rule, it became the center of the "Town of Jamaica". Jamaica was the county seat of Queens County from the formation of the county in 1683 until March 7, 1788, when the town was reorganized by the state government and the county seat was moved to Mineola (now part of Nassau County). When Queens was incorporated into the City of Greater New Yorkin 1898, both the Town of Jamaica and the Village of Jamaica were dissolved, but the neighborhood of Jamaica regained its role as county seat. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 12. [cite web |url=http://www.nyc.gov/html/cau/html/cb/cb_queens.shtml |title=Queens Community Boards |accessdate=2007-09-13]
Previously known as one of the predominantly
African Americanneighborhoods in the borough of Queens, Jamaica in recent years has been undergoing a sharp influx of other ethnicities. It has a substantial concentration of West Indianimmigrants, Indians, Arabs, Russians, Puerto Ricans, Dominicansas well as many long-established African American families. A fewWhat|date=July 2008 East Asian families are also known to have recently put down roots in Jamaica.Fact|date=July 2008
The neighborhood of Jamaica is completely unrelated to the
Caribbeannation of Jamaica(although Jamaican immigrants do live in the area); the name similarity is a coincidence. The English, who took it over in 1664, named the area "Jameco," for the Jameco Native Americans, who resided on the northern shores of Jamaica Bay, and whose name means "beaver" in Algonquian languages. [ [http://www.nycgovparks.org/sub_your_park/historical_signs/hs_historical_sign.php?id=12608 Major Mark Park] , accessed December 16, 2006]
Jamaica is the location of several government buildings including Queens Civil Court and the civil branch of the Queens County Supreme Court. Jamaica Center, the area around
Jamaica Avenueand 165th Street, is a major commercial center, as well as the home of the Central Library of the Queens Borough Public Library.
Some locals group Jamaica's surrounding neighborhoods [cite web |url=http://www.queensbp.org/content_web/map_boundaries.htm |title=Map of Queens neighborhoods] into an unofficial Greater Jamaica, roughly corresponding to the former Town of Jamaica, including Woodhaven, St. Albans, Springfield Gardens, Hollis, Laurelton, Queens Village, Howard Beach and Ozone Park. The
New York Racing Association, based at Aqueduct Racetrackin South Ozone Park, lists its official address as Jamaica (Central Jamaica once housed NYRA's Jamaica Racetrack, now the massive Rochdale Village housing development).
Jamaica Avenuewas an ancient trail for tribes from as far away as the Ohio Riverand the Great Lakes, coming to trade skins and furs for wampum. [ [http://www.queenslibrary.org/index.aspx?page_nm=CL-Communityinfo&branch_id=Sj Community History] , accessed December 16, 2006] It was in 1655 that the first settlers paid the Native Americans with two guns, a coat, and some powder and lead, for the land lying between the old trail and "Beaver Pond" (later Baisley Pond). Dutch Director-General Peter Stuyvesantdubbed the area "Rustdorp" in granting the 1656 land patent.
The English took over in 1664, renamed it "Jameco" for the Jameco (or Yamecah) Native Americans, and made it part of the county of Yorkshire. In 1683, when the British divided the
Province of New Yorkinto counties, Jamaica became the county seat of Queens County, one of the original counties of New York.
Colonial Jamaica had a band of 56 Minutemen that played an active part in the
Battle of Long Island, the outcome of which led to the occupation of the New York City area by British troops during most of the American Revolutionary War. In Jamaica, "George Washington slept here" is indeed true — in 1790, in William Warner's tavern. Rufus King, a signer of the United States Constitution, relocated here in 1805. He added to a modest 18th-century farmhouse, creating the manor which stands on the site today. King Manor has recently been restored to its former glory, and now houses King Manor Museum.
By 1776, Jamaica had become a trading post for farmers and their produce. For more than a century, their horse-drawn carts plodded along Jamaica Avenue, then called King's Highway. The Jamaica Post Office opened
September 25, 1794, and was the only post office in the present-day Boroughs of Queens or Brooklyn before 1803.cite web |url=http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/Civil/Nassau.P.O.html |title=Nassau County Post Offices 1794-1879 |author=David Roberts |accessdate=2007-12-23 cite book |title=New York Postal History: The Post Offices & First Postmasters from 1775 to 1980 |author=John L. Kay & Chester M. Smith, Jr.|publisher=American Philatelic Society|date=1982] The public school system started in 1813, funded for $125 and a year later, Jamaica Village was incorporated. By 1834, the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroadcompany had completed a line to Jamaica.
In 1850, the former Kings Highway (now Jamaica Avenue) became the Brooklyn and Jamaica
Plank Road, complete with toll gate. In 1866, tracks were laid for a horsecarline, and 20 years later it was electrified, the first in the state. On January 1, 1898, Queens became part of the City of New York, and Jamaica became the county seat.
The present Jamaica station of the
Long Island Rail Roadwas completed in 1913, and the BMT Jamaica Linearrived in 1918. The 1920s and 1930s saw the building of the Valencia Theatre (now restored by the Tabernacle of Prayer), the "futuristic" Kurtz furniture Store and the Roxanne Building.
Demographics and neighborhoods
Jamaica is very large and expansive area with a wide array of diversity in its population. Although formerly predominantly African American, it is reported that 27.69% of the population is now Asian, 25.01% white, 24.34% other, and 22.14% black. While the corresponding figures represent a certain portion of Jamaica, official statistics differ by the area's numerous zip codes such as 11432, 11433, 11434, 11435, and 11436. The total population of Jamaica is estimated to be a bit over 90,000 with all neighborhoods taken into consideration.
Jamaica was not always as diverse as it is today. Throughout the 19th to early 20th centuries, Jamaica was mainly populated with whites as new Irish immigrants settled around the places known today as Downtown and Baisley Pond Park. However in the 1950s, what was later called
white flightbegan and middle-income African Americans started taking their place. After the 1970s, as housing prices began to tumble, many hispanic and west Indian immigrants moved in. These ethnic groups tended to stay more towards the Jamaica Avenue and South Jamaica areas. Yet it wasn't until the late 1990s and early 2000s that immigration from other countries became widespread. Gentrificationand decrease in crime attracted many families toward Jamaica's safe havens. Hillside Avenue is a complete reflection of this trend. Along 150th to 161st streets, much of the stores and restaurants are of South American and Caribbean culture. Heading further east is the rapidly growing East Indian community. Mainly spurred on by Jamaica Muslim Center, Bangladeshishave flocked to this area due to easy transit access and the numerous Bangladeshi stores and restaurants lining 167th and 168th streets. Neighborhood analysts have concluded that Bangladeshis are becoming the most rapidly growing group. Other areas where they are known to reside include Merrick Blvd. and Sutphin Blvd. in South Jamaica. Yet heading down this same direction, you will find numerous churches, stores, salons, and hair-braiding shops thriving in the hip-hop and African-American cultures. A few Chinese, Japanese and Koreans are also known to have settled in the Jamaica area.
Economic history and development
Economic development was long neglected. In the 1960s and 1970s, many big box retailers moved into suburban areas where business was more profitable. Such retailers included brand name stores, commercial strips and movie theaters that once thrived in Jamaica's busiest areas.
Macy'sand the Valencia theater were the last companies to move out in 1969. The 1980's brought in the crack epidemicwhich created even more hardship as well as crime. Prime real estate spaces were replaced by unsuccessful hair salons and 99 cents stores. Furthermore, existing zoning patterns and inadequete infrastructure did not anticipate future development. However since then, the government reaction towards fighting crime and the recent decrease of the crime rate have provided a positive reaction to potential entrepreneurs who plan to invest in the area. The Greater Jamaica Development Corporation (GJDC) is a long-standing nonprofit organization that has done an excellent job in promoting development. They have acquired valuable real estate and sold them to national chains in order to expand neighborhood opportunities for advancement. As well they have completed underway proposals by allocating funds and providing loans to potential investors who have already established something in the area. One Jamaica Center is a mixed-use commercial complex that was built in 2002 housing Old Navy, Bally Total Fitness, Gap, and a 15-screen multiplex theater. Banking has also made a strong revival as Bank of America, Sterling National Bank, Washington Mutual, and Carver Federal Savings Bankhave each created at least one branch along various major streets: Jamaica Avenue, Parsons Boulevard, Merrick Boulevard, and Sutphin Boulevard. A $75 million deal with Home Depot cleared the way for a new location at 168th St. and Archer Ave.
The most prominent piece of development has been the creation of the Sutphin Boulevard transit hub aka "Jamaica Station" which was fully completed in 2003. It includes the Sutphin Blvd. E, J, and Z subway subway station,
LIRR, and the Airtrain JFKwhich provides a 5-7 minute direct ride from Jamaica to John F. Kennedy International Airport. The Airtrain station remains the central figure for ongoing economic progress. With the growing number of riders each day passing through this station, the city is providing some major changes to the surrounding blocks of this massive hub of transport.
Currently Jamaica has great potential to be a premier business center in New York City following the examples of major redevelopment occurring in
Long Island City, Flushing, and Downtown Brooklyn. In 2005, the New York City Department of City Planning drafted a plan that would rezone 368 blocks of Jamaica in order to stimulate new development, relieve the overwhelming traffic situation, and shift upscale amenities away from low-density residential neighborhoods. The plan includes up-zoning the immediate areas around Jamaica Station to accommodate passengers traveling through the area. To improve infrastructure the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation has agreed to create more greenery and open spaces to allow pedestrians to enjoy the scenery. At the same time, the city has reserved the right to protect the suburban/residential charm of neighboring areas. Several blocks will be down-zoned to keep up with the existing neighborhood character. On September 10,2007 the City Council overwhelmingly approved the plan. Structures of up to 28 stories can be built around the main transit hub as well as residential buildings of up to 7 stories can be built on Hillside Ave. As of today, there are a few up and coming projects. The city economic development corporation has issued an RFP for redevelopment of a 45,000 sq. ft. abandoned garage located at 168th St. and 93rd Ave. Plans are underway to convert this space into retail and parking spots. "TechnoMart Queens" has been the first ever declared approved project. Located at Sutphin Blvd. and 94th Ave., Korean Based Prime Construction Corp., Greater Jamaica Development Corporation, and several other partners have signed a deal to create a 13-story Mega-mall. 9 floors will be dedicated towards wholesale electronics, 3 floors to retail space for shopping, and it is estimated to contain parking for up to 800 cars. Groundbreaking on this site will initiate in late 2008 and is slated for completion by mid-2011. The GJDC has announced in their newsletter that another site adjacent to the mall will be converted into a hotel for Airtrain passengers. Official groundbreaking information has not been released nor declared yet its completion is set for 2010.
Jamaica Station is a central transfer point on the
Long Island Rail Road(LIRR), which is headquartered in a building adjoining the station; all but one of the commuter railroad's lines (the exception being the Port Washington Branch) run through Jamaica.
New York City Subway's IND Queens Boulevard Line(NYCS Queens Hillside) terminates at 179th Street, at the foot of Jamaica Estates, a neighborhood of mansions east of Jamaica's central business district. The Archer Avenue Line, which opened in 1988 (NYCS Archer), terminates at Jamaica Center-Parsons/Archer. Jamaica Center is not just a transit hub; it is also the name of a business and government center that includes a federal office building, and a shopping mall and theater multiplex (One Jamaica Center), and is adjacent to various other businesses and agencies, such as the main forensic laboratory facility for the New York City Police Department.
Jamaica's bus network provides extensive service across eastern Queens, as well as to destinations as distant as Hicksville in Nassau County, Q44 serves to western Bronx, the Rockaways, and
Midtown Manhattan. Nearly all bus lines serving Jamaica terminate there; most do so at the 165th Street Bus Terminalor the Jamaica Center subway station.
Jamaica, a large, sprawling neighborhood, is also home to
John F. Kennedy International Airport—one of the busiest international airports in the United States and the world— public transportation passengers are connected to airline terminals by AirTrain JFK, which operates as both an airport terminal circulator and rail connection to central Jamaica at the integrated LIRR and bilevel subway station located at Sutphin Blvd and Archer Avenue.
Major streets include Archer Avenue, Hillside Avenue, Jamaica Avenue, Liberty Avenue, Merrick Boulevard, Parsons Boulevard, Guy R. Brewer Boulevard (formerly known as New York Boulevard), and Sutphin Boulevard, as well as the Van Wyck Expressway (I-678) and the
Grand Central Parkway.
Neighboring areas are Jamaica Estates,
Jamaica Hills, Briarwood, Cambria Heights, St. Albans, Hollis, Queens Village, South Ozone Park, Kew Gardens, Richmond Hill, Laurelton, Rosedale, Brookville, Rochdale, South Jamaica, Springfield Gardens, Hillcrest, Kew Gardens Hills, Fresh Meadows. South Flushing, and Woodhaven.
Jamaica Avenueis Jamaica's busiest thoroughfare. The route actually begins in Brooklyn, near the boundary of the East New Yorkneighborhood. Jamaica Avenue enters Jamaica east of the Van Wyck Expressway, and it brings the traveler to the Social Security Administration Building, courthouses and the main branch of the Queens Public Library, along with many discount stores offering a variety of goods. Jamaica Avenue also sets the tone for historical and cultural amenities. The 200-year-old King Manor Museum, once home to Rufus King, a founding father of America, is located at the corner of 153rd St. and Jamaica Ave. It includes a 2-story museum with over an acre of land and a public park. Directly across from the Museum is the Jamaica Performing Arts Center which was completed in 2007 and has since opened. [A Road Not Taken, Much]
Hillside Avenue is located along the northern boundary of Jamaica. It is served by the NYCS|F|F train, which runs all the way from Sutphin Boulevard to 179th Street, where it terminates. Hillside Avenue starts off in the
Richmond Hillarea and runs east bypassing Ozone Park, running throughout Jamaica, and into Queens Villageand Long Island. It consists of a wide 6 lane street with numerous commercial activity. The Q43 Bus runs its entire length starting off in Sutphin Boulevard. Today, Hillside Avenue. is recognized to be a neighborhood within itself with respect to Jamaica known simply as "Hillside", "Hills", or "Jamaica Hills". The enormous cultural diversity is well foreseeable in this region. Within every couple or so blocks, there is a unique transition of one ethnic group to another. From 148th Street to 150th Street, one will find numerous wholesale and merchandise shops with a well amount of family oriented restaurants of South American descent. From 151st Street and into 164th Street, there is an unprecedented amount of groceries and restaurants pertaining to the West Indies. Mainly of Guyanese and Trinidadian origin, these stores serve their respective population living in and around the Jamaica Center area. Lastly, advancing east from 167th Street to 171st Street, there is an enormous amount of East Indian shops. Mainly invested by the evergrowing Bangladeshi population, hundreds of South Asians come here to shop for Eastern goods not found anywhere else in Queens. Also restaurants such as "Sagar", "Ghoroa", "Desi Shaad" and countless more resemble the Bangladeshi stronghold here. Some people actually refer to this area as being another "Little South Asia" similar to that of Jackson Heights.
Sutphin Boulevard is Jamaica's second busiest throughfare. It is home to the NYCS|E, NYCS|F, NYCS|J and NYCS|Z trains, the LIRR,
AirTrain JFK, and two Queens Courthouses. It begins at Hillside Avenue and 147th Place in the north and works its way downward connecting with Jamaica Avenue, Archer Avenue, Liberty Ave., South Road, Linden Boulevard, and finally terminates at Baisley Boulevard. At first it is a small four-lane street, but when reaching the downtown area it curves into a complete six-lane passageway. At 95th Avenue, it reemerges from the LIRR underpass and becomes a four-lane street once more until its endpoint.
Colleges and universities
Several colleges and universities make their home in Jamaica proper or in its close vicinity, most notably:
*York College, a Senior College of the
City University of New York
*St. John's University (Queens Campus), A private, Roman Catholic University founded by the Vincentian Fathers (
Primary and secondary schools
Jamaica's public schools are operated by the
New York City Department of Education.
Public high schools in Jamaica include:
*Thomas A. Edison Vocational and Technical High School
*Hillcrest High School
*Jamaica High School
Queens High School for the Sciencesat York College
*Andrew Jackson High School
Queens Gateway for the Health Sciences High School
*High School for Law Enforcement and Public Safety
Public Elementary Schools in Jamaica include:
* [http://schools.nyc.gov/SchoolPortals/28/Q050/default.htm?searchType=school P.S. 50 Talfourd Lawn Elementary School]
* [http://schools.nyc.gov/SchoolPortals/28/Q086/default.htm?searchType=school P.S. 86]
* [http://schools.nyc.gov/schoolportals/29/Q131 P.S. 131 Abigal Adams Elementary school]
* [http://schools.nyc.gov/SchoolPortals/28/Q160/default.htm?searchType=school P.S. 160]
* [http://schools.nyc.gov/SchoolPortals/28/Q182/default.htm P.S. 182 Samantha Smith]
* [http://schools.nyc.gov/schoolportals/29/Q238 I.S. 238 Susan B Anthony]
Private schools in Jamaica include:
Al-Iman School, an islamic PK-12 school.
Archbishop Molloy High School.
Immaculate Conception School, a co-ed Catholic school from Pre-K to 8th grade. The school is a local landmark located on the property of Immaculate Conception Church and Monastery, run by The Passionist Congregation of Priests.
The Mary Louis Academy, a private, Catholic, girls' high school run by the Sisters of St. Joseph.
The Catholic schools are administered by the
Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn.
The Central Library of the
Queens Borough Public Library, the nation's highest circulation public library system, is in Jamaica. The Baisley Park Branch and the South Jamaica Branch are also located in Jamaica.
Notable current and former residents of Jamaica include:
Cecily Adams, actress
Rafer Alston, basketball player
Lloyd Banks, rapper from South Jamaica
Bob Beamon, Olympic gold medalist. [Araton, Harvey. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07E1DE133FF93AA25756C0A9629C8B63 "Sports of The Times; I.O.C. Misses Opportunity for Change"] , " The New York Times", May 19, 2004. Accessed October 19, 2007. "There are respected sports men and women who are part of the NYC2012 team, like Bob Beamon, who grew up in Jamaica, Queens, and Allan Steinfeld of the New York Road Runners."]
Yummy Bingham, singer
Paul Bowles, writer and composer
Jimmy Breslin, author and columnist
Mike Bruhert, New York Mets pitcher in the late 1970s
Sri Chinmoy, philosopher and spiritual teacher
Mario Cuomo, former governor of New York 1983-1995
Nelson DeMille(1943-), author. [Strickland, Carol. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE4DE163EF93BA35757C0A966958260 "Novelist Uses The Island's Gold Coast As A Setting For A Clash of Cultures"] , " The New York Times", April 8, 1990. Accessed December 13, 2007. "Mr. De Mille was born in Jamaica, Queens, and educated at Elmont High School and Hofstra University, and so he knows the area well, although he calls himself "a member in good standing of the middle class."]
Rocco DiSpirito, chef
Alan Dugan, poet
Ann Flood, actress
Milford Graves, free-jazz drummer
Marc Iavaroni, basketball player, head coach of the Memphis Grizzlies
50 Cent(Curtis James Jackson III), rapper from South Jamaica
James P. Johnson, pianist and composer
William T. Kane, physicist; born in Jamaica in 1932
Crad Kilodney, writer
Rufus King, signer of the United States Constitution
Lamar Odom, basketball player
Letty Cottin Pogrebin, writer/journalist
Freddie Roman, comedian
Heathcliff Slocumb, former pitcher
Nuttin' But Stringz, violinist
Donald Trump, real estate developer
Marinus Willett, mayor of New York 1807-08
The Lost Boyz, rap group
Nuttin' But Stringz, musicians
* [http://www.gjdc.org Greater Jamaica Development Corporation] (the source of much of the historical information in this article)
* [http://www.go2ccj.org The Cultural Collaboration of Jamaica] JAMS sponsor
* [http://www.york.cuny.edu York College Web Site]
* [http://www.kingmanor.org King Manor Museum, home of anti-slavery Founding Father Rufus King]
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/15/nyregion/thecity/15jama.html?ref=thecity A Road Not Taken, Much] NY Times City Section, April 15, 2007
* [http://www.jcal.org Jamaica Center for Arts and Learning]
* [http://www.queenslibrary.org Queens Library]
* [http://www.queensbp.org/content_web/map_boundaries.htm Map of Queens neighborhoods]
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