Telegraphy (from the Greek words " (τηλε)" = far and " (γραφειν)" = write) is the long-distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters. Radiotelegraphy or wireless telegraphy transmits messages using
radio. Telegraphy includes recent forms of datatransmission such as fax, email, and computer networks in general.Fact|date=September 2008
A "telegraph" is a machine for transmitting and receiving messages over long distances, i.e., for telegraphy. The word telegraph alone now generally refers to an
electrical telegraph. Wireless telegraphy is also known as CW, for continuous wave(a carrier modulated by on-off keying), as opposed to the earlier radio technique using a spark gap.Fact|date=September 2008
A telegraph message sent by a telegraph operator (or telegrapher) using
Morse codewas known as a telegramor cablegram, often shortened to a "cable" or a "wire" message. Later, a telegram sent by the Telex network, a switched network of teleprinters similar to the telephone network, was known as a telex message.
Before long distance telephone services were readily available or affordable, telegram services were very popular. Telegrams were often used to confirm business dealings and, unlike email, telegrams were commonly used to create binding legal documents for business dealings.Fact|date=September 2008
A wire picture or wire photo was a newspaper picture that was sent from a remote location by a facsimile telegraph.
The first telegraphs came in the form of
optical telegraphs, including the use of smoke signalsand beacons, which have existed since ancient times. A semaphore network invented by Claude Chappeoperated in France from 1792 through 1846 [cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9066703/semaphore|title=Semaphore,Encyclopædia Britannica] . It helped Napoleonenough to be widely imitated in Europe and the U.S. The last commercial semaphore link ceased operation in Sweden in 1880.
Semaphores were able to convey information more precisely than smoke signals and beacons, and consumed no fuel. Messages could be sent at much greater speed than
post riders and could serve entire regions. However, like beacons and smoke signals, they were dependent on good weather to work. They required operators and towers every 30 km (20 mi), and could only accommodate about two words per minute. This was useful to governments, but too expensive for most commercial uses other than commodity price information. Electric telegraphs were to reduce the cost of sending a message thirtyfold compared to semaphores.
Some elevated locations where optical telegraphs were placed for maximum visibility were renamed to "Telegraph Hill", such as
Telegraph Hill, San Francisco, and Telegraph Hill in the PNC Bank Arts Centerin New Jersey. To people who are only aware of the electrical telegraph, the reason for this name will be obscure.
Samuel Thomas von Sömmeringconstructed his electrochemical telegraphin 1809. Also as one of the first, an electromagnetic telegraphwas created by Baron Schillingin 1832. Carl Friedrich Gaussand Wilhelm Weberbuilt and first used for "regular" communication the electromagnetic telegraph in 1833 in Göttingen. The first "commercial" electrical telegraphwas constructed by Sir William Fothergill Cookeand entered use on the Great Western Railwayin Britain. It ran for convert|13|mi|km from Paddington stationto West Draytonand came into operation on 9 April 1839. It was patented in the United Kingdomin 1837. In 1843 Scottish inventor Alexander Bain invented a device that could be considered the first facsimile machine. He called his invention a "recording telegraph". Bain's telegraph was able to transmit images by electrical wires. In 1855 an Italian abbot, Giovanni Caselli, also created an electric telegraph that could transmit images. Caselli called his invention "Pantelegraph". Pantelegraph was successfully tested and approved for a telegraph line between Parisand Lyon.
An electrical telegraph was independently developed and patented in the
United Statesin 1837 by Samuel F. B. Morse. His assistant, Alfred Vail, developed the Morse codesignaling alphabetwith Morse. America's first telegram was sent by Morse on January 6, 1838, across two miles (3 km) of wire at Speedwell Ironworksnear Morristown, New Jersey. The message read "A patient waiter is no loser." On May 24, 1844, he sent the message "What hath God wrought" (quoting Numbers 23:23) from the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the Capitol in Washington to the old Mt. Clare Depot in Baltimore. This message was chosen by Annie Ellsworth of Lafayette, Indiana, later Mrs. Roswell Smith ( Roswell, NMwas named after her husband), the daughter of Patent Commissioner Henry Leavitt Ellsworth. The Morse/Vail telegraph was quickly deployed in the following two decades.
The first commercially successful
transatlantic telegraph cablewas successfully completed on 18 July 1866. Earlier transatlantic submarine cables installations were attempted in 1857, 1858 and 1865. The 1857 cable only operated intermittently for a few days or weeks before it failed. The study of underwater telegraph cables accelerated interest in mathematical analysis of very long transmission lines. The telegraph lines from Britain to India were connected in 1870 (those several companies combined to form the Eastern Telegraph Company in 1872).
Australia was first linked to the rest of the world in October 1872 by a submarine telegraph cable at Darwin. [Briggs, Asa and Burke, Peter: "A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet," p110. Polity, Cambridge, 2005.] This brought news reportage from the rest of the world. [Conley, David and Lamble, Stephen (2006) "The Daily Miracle: An introduction to Journalism,"(Third Edition) Oxford University Press, Australia pp. 305-307] .
Further advancements in telegraph technology occurred in the early 1870s, when
Thomas Edisondevised a full duplex two-way telegraph and then doubled its capacity with the invention of quadruplex telegraphy in 1874. [Briggs, Asa and Burke, Peter: "A Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet," p117. Polity, Cambridge, 2005.] Edison filed for a US patent on the duplex telegraph on Sept 1, 1874 and received US patent|480567 on 9 August 1892.
The telegraph across the Pacific was completed in 1902, finally encircling the world.
Nikola Teslaand other scientists and inventors showed the usefulness of wireless telegraphy, radiotelegraphy, or radio, beginning in the 1890s. Alexander Stepanovich Popovdemonstrated to the public his receiver of wireless signals, also used as a lightning detector, on 7 May 1895. Guglielmo Marconisent and received his first radio in Italyup to 6 kilometres in 1896. On May 13 1897, Marconi, assisted by George Kemp, a CardiffPost Office engineer, transmitted the first wirelesssignals over water to Lavernock(near Penarthin Wales) from Flat Holm. [cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/southeast/sites/flatholm/pages/marconi.shtml |title=Marconi: Radio Pioneer |accessdate=2008-04-12 |format= |work=BBC South East Wales ] Having failed to interest the Italian government, the twenty-two year old inventor brought his telegraphy system to Britain and met William Preece, a Welshman, who was a major figure in the field and Chief Engineer of the General Post Office. A pair of masts about convert|34|m|ft|0 high were erected, at Lavernock Point and on Flat Holm. The receiving mast at Lavernock Point was a convert|30|m|ft|0|adj=on high pole topped with a cylindrical cap of zinc connected to a detector with insulated copper wire. At Flat Holm the sending equipment included a Ruhmkorff coilwith an eight-cell battery. The first trial on the 11th and 12th of May failed but on the 13th the mast at Lavernock was extended to convert|50|m|ft|0 and the signals, in Morse Code, were received clearly. The message sent was "ARE YOU READY"; the Morse slip signed by Marconi and Kemp is now in the National Museum of Wales.
In 1898 Popov accomplished successful experiments of wireless communication between a naval base and a battleship.
In 1900 the crew of the Russian coast defence ship "General-Admiral Graf Apraksin" as well as stranded Finnish fishermen were saved in the
Gulf of Finlandbecause of exchange of distress telegrams between two radiostations, located at Hogland island and inside a Russian naval basein Kotka. Both stations of wireless telegraphy were built under Popov's instructions.
Radiotelegraphy proved effective for rescue work in sea
disasters by enabling effective communication between ships and from ship to shore.
Other researchSpecify|date=December 2007 focused on the
multiplexingof telegraph connections. By passing several simultaneous connections through an existing copper wire, capacity could be upgraded without the laying of new cable, a process which remained very costly. Several technologies were developed like Frequency-division multiplexing. Long submarine communications cables became possible in segments with vacuum tube amplifiers between them.
With the invention of the
teletypewriter, telegraphic encoding became fully automated. Early teletypewriters used the ITA-1 Baudot code, a five-bit code. This yielded only thirty-two codes, so it was over-defined into two "shifts," "letters" and "figures". An explicit, unshared shift code prefaced each set of letters and figures.
The airline industry remains one of the last users of Teletype and in a few situations still sends messages over the
SITAor AFTNnetworks. For example, The British Airwaysoperations computer system (FICO) as of 2004still used teletype to communicate with other airline computer systems.Fact|date=December 2007 The same goes for PARS(Programmed Airline Reservation System) and IPARSthat used a similar shifted six-bit Teletype code, because it requires only eight bits per character, saving bandwidth and money. A teletype message is often much smaller than the equivalent EDIFACTor XMLmessage. In recent years as airlines have had access to improved bandwidth in remote locations, IATAstandard XMLis replacing Teletype as well as (EDI).The first electrical telegraph developed a standard signaling system for telecommunications. The "mark" state was defined as the powered state of the wire. In this way, it was immediately apparent when the line itself failed. The moving pointer telegraphs started the pointer's motion with a "start bit" that pulled the line to the unpowered "space" state. In early telex machines, the start bit triggered a wheeled commutator run by a motor with a precise speed (later, digital electronics). The commutator distributed the bits from the line to a series of relays that would "capture" the bits. A "stop bit" was then sent at the powered "mark state" to assure that the commutator would have time to stop, and be ready for the next character. The stop bit triggered the printing mechanism. Stop bits initially lasted 1.42 baud times (later extended to two as signaling rates increased), in order to give the mechanism time to finish and stop vibrating. Hence an ITA-2 Murray codesymbol took 1 start, 5 data, and 1.42 stop (total 7.42) baud times to transmit. [ [http://www.nadcomm.com/fiveunit/fiveunits.htm Hobbs, Allan G. Five-unit codes (1999) accessed 2007-12-20] ]
By 1935, message routing was the last great barrier to full automation. Large telegraphy providers began to develop systems that used telephone-like rotary dialing to connect teletypes. These machines were called "telex". Telex machines first performed rotary-telephone-style
pulse dialingfor circuit switching, and then sent data by Baudot code. This "type A" telex routing functionally automated message routing.
The first wide-coverage telex network was implemented in
Germanyduring the 1930s.Fact|date=December 2007 The network was used to communicate within the government.
At the then-blinding rate of 45.45 (±0.5%)
baud, up to 25 telex channels could share a single long-distance telephone channel by using "voice frequency telegraphy" multiplexing, making telex the least expensive method of reliable long-distance communication.
Canada-wide automatic teleprinter exchange service was introduced by the CPR Telegraph Company and
CN Telegraphin July 1957 (the two companies, operated by rival Canadian National Railwayand Canadian Pacific Railwaywould join to form CNCP Telecommunicationsin 1967). This service supplemented the existing international Telex service that was put in place in November 1956. Canadian Telex customers could connect with nineteen European countries in addition to eighteen Latin American, African, and trans-Pacific countries. [C.J. Colombo, “Telex in Canada”, Western Union Technical Review, January 1958: 21] The major exchanges were located in Montreal(01), Toronto(02), Winnipeg(03). [Phillip R. Easterlin, “Telex in New York”, Western Union Technical Review, April 1959: 47 figure 4]
In 1958, Western Union Telegraph Company started to build a telex network in the United States. [Phillip R. Easterlin, “Telex in New York”, Western Union Technical Review, April 1959: 45] This telex network started as a satellite exchange located in New York City and expanded to a nationwide network. Western Union chose Siemens & Halske AG, [Phillip R. Easterlin, “Telex in Private Wire Systems”, Western Union Technical Review, October 1960: 131] now Siemens AG, and ITT [James S. Chin and Jan J. Gomerman, “CSR4 Exchange”, Western Union Technical Review, July 1966: 142–149] to supply the exchange equipment, provisioned the exchange trunks via the Western Union national microwave system and leased the exchange to customer site facilities from the local telephone company. Teleprinter equipment was originally provided by Siemens & Halske AG [Fred W. Smith, “European Teleprinters”, Western Union Technical Review, October 1960: 172-174] and later by Teletype Corporation. [Fred W. Smith, “A New Line of Light-duty Teleprinters and ASR Sets”, Western Union Technical Review, January 1964: 18–31] Initial direct International Telex service was offered by Western Union, via W.U. International, in the summer of 1960 with limited service to London and Paris. [T.J. O’Sullivan, “TW 56 Concentrator”, Western Union Technical Review, July 1963: 111-112] In 1962, the major exchanges were located in New York City (1), Chicago (2), San Francisco (3), Kansas City (4) and Atlanta (5). [Phillip R. Easterlin, “Telex in the U.S.A.”, Western Union Technical Review, January 1962: 2-15] The Telex network expanded by adding the final parent exchanges cities of Los Angeles (6), Dallas (7), Philadelphia (8) and Boston (9) starting in 1966. The telex numbering plan, usually a six-digit number in the United States, was based on the major exchange where the customer's telex machine terminated. [Kenneth M. Jockers, “Planning Western Union Telex”, Western Union Technical Review, July 1966: 92-95] For example, all telex customers that terminated in the New York City exchange were assigned a telex number that started with a first digit "1". Further, all Chicago based customers had telex numbers that started with a first digit of "2". This numbering plan was maintained by Western Union as the telex exchanges proliferated to smaller cities in the United States. The Western Union telex network was built on three levels of exchanges. [Kenneth M. Jockers, “Planning Western Union Telex”, Western Union Technical Review, July 1966: 94 figure 2] The highest level was made up of the nine exchange cities previously mentioned. Each of these cities had the dual capability of terminating both telex customer lines and setting up trunk connections to multiple distant telex exchanges. The second level of exchanges, located in large cities such as Buffalo, Cleveland, Miami, Newark, Pittsburgh and Seattle, were similar to the highest level of exchanges in capability of terminating telex customer lines and setting up trunk connections. However, these second level exchanges had a smaller customer line capacity and only had trunk circuits to regional cities. The third level of exchanges, located in small to medium sized cities, could terminate telex customer lines and had a single trunk group running to its parent exchange.
Loop signaling was offered in two different configurations for Western Union telex in the United States. The first option, sometimes called local or loop service, provided a 60 milliampere loop circuit from the exchange to the customer teleprinter. The second option, sometimes called long distance or polar was used when a 60 milliampere connection could not be achieved, provided a ground return polar circuit using 35 milliamperes on separate send and receive wires. By the 1970s, and under pressure from the Bell operating companies wanting to modernize their cable plant and lower the adjacent circuit noise that these telex circuits sometimes caused, Western Union migrated customers to a third option called F1F2. This F1F2 option replaced the dc voltage of the local and long distance options with modems at the exchange and subscriber ends of the telex circuit.
Western Union offered connections from Telex to the AT&T TWX system in May 1966 via its New York Information Services Computer Center. [Sergio Wernikoff, “Information Services Computer Center”, Western Union Technical Review, July 1966: 130] These connections were limited to those TWX machines that were equipped with automatic answerback capability per CCITT standard.
Cubaand Pakistanwere still running 45.5 baud type A Telex.Fact|date=December 2007 Telex is still widely used in some developing countries' bureaucracies, probably because of its reliability and low cost. The UNasserted at one time that more political entities were reliably available by Telex than by any other single method.
Around 1960 [?] , some nations began to use the "figures" Baudot codes to perform "Type B" telex routing.Fact|date=December 2007
Telex grew around the world very rapidly. Long before automatic telephony was available, most countries, even in central
Africaand Asia, had at least a few high-frequency ( shortwave) telex links. Often these radio links were the first established by government postal and telegraph services (PTTs). The most common radio standard, CCITT R.44 had error-corrected retransmitting time-division multiplexing of radio channels. Most impoverished PTTs operated their telex-on-radio (TOR) channels non-stop, to get the maximum value from them.
The cost of TOR equipment has continued to fall. Although initially specialised equipment was required, many
amateur radiooperators now operate TOR (also known as RTTY) with special software and inexpensive hardware to adapt computer sound cards to short-wave radios.
Modern "cablegrams" or "telegrams" actually operate over dedicated Telex networks, using TOR whenever required.Fact|date=December 2007
Telex messages are routed by addressing them to a telex address, e.g. "14910 ERIC S", where 14910 is the subscriber number, ERIC is an abbreviation for the subscriber's name (in this case Telefonaktiebolaget L.M. Ericsson in Sweden) and S is the country code. Solutions also exist for the automatic routing of messages to different telex terminals within a subscriber organization, by using different terminal identities, e.g. "+T148".
A major advantage of Telex was (is) that the receipt of the message by the recipient could be confirmed with a high degree of certainty by the "answerback". At the beginning of the message, the sender would transmit a WRU (Who aRe yoU) code, and the recipient machine would automatically initiate a response which was usually encoded in a rotating drum with pegs, much like a
music box. The position of the pegs sent an unambiguous identifying code to the sender, so the sender could verify connection to the correct recipient. The WRU code would also be sent at the end of the message, so a correct response would confirm that the connection had remained unbroken during the message transmission. This gave Telex a major advantage over less verifiable forms of communications such as telephone and fax.
The usual method of operation was that the message would be prepared off-line, using
paper tape. All common Telex machines incorporated a 5-hole paper-tape punch and reader. Once the paper tape had been prepared, the message could be transmitted in minimum time. Telex billing was always by connected duration, so minimising the connected time saved money. However, it was also possible to connect in "real time", where the sender and the recipient could both type on the keyboard and these characters would be immediately printed on the distant machine.
Telex could also be used as a rudimentary but functional carrier of information from one IT system to another, in effect a primitive forerunner of
Electronic Data Interchange. The sending IT system would create an output (e.g., an inventory list) on paper tape using a mutually agreed format. The tape would be sent by Telex and collected on a corresponding paper tape by the receiver and this tape could then be read into the receiving IT system.
One use of Telex circuits, in use until the widescale adoption of
x.400and Internetemail, was to facilitate a message handling system, allowing local email systems to exchange messages with other email and telex systems via a central routing operation, or switch. One of the largest such switches was operated by Royal Dutch Shellas recently as 1994, permitting the exchange of messages between a number of IBM Officevision, Digital Equipment Corporation All-In-Oneand Microsoft Mailsystems. In addition to permitting email to be sent to Telex addresses, formal coding conventions adopted in the composition of telex messages enabled automatic routing of telexes to email recipients.
TWX originally ran 75 bits per second, sending Baudot code and dial selection. However, Bell later developed a second generation of "four row" modems called the "Bell 101 dataset", which is the direct ancestor of the Bell 103
modemthat launched computer time-sharing. The 101 was revolutionary, because it ran on ordinary subscriber lines that could (at the office) be routed to special exchanges called "wide-area data service". Because it was using the public switched telephone network, TWX had special area codes: 510, 610, 710, 810 and 910. With the demise of TWX service, these codes were re-provisioned as standard geographic NPAs in the 1990s.
Bell's original consent agreement limited it to international dial telephony.
Western UnionTelegraph Company had given up its international telegraphic operation in a 1939 bid to monopolize U.S. telegraphy by taking over ITT's PTT business. The result was de-emphasis on telex in the U.S. and a cat's cradle of small U.S. international telex and telegraphy companies. These were known by regulatory agencies as "International Record Carriers".
Western UnionTelegraph Company developed a spinoff called "Cable System". Cable system later became Western Union International.
* ITT's "World Communications" was amalgamated from many smaller companies: "Federal Telegraph", "All American Cables and Radio", "Globe Wireless", and a common carrier division of Mackay Marine.
* RCA communications had specialised in crossing the Pacific. It later joined with Western Union International to become MCI.
* Before World War I, Tropical Radiotelegraph put radio telegraphs on ships for its owner, The United Fruit Company, to enable them to deliver bananas to the best-paying markets. Communications expanded to UFC's plantations, and were eventually provided to local governments. TRT Telecommunications (as it is now known) eventually became the national PTT of many small Central American nations.
* The French Telegraph Cable Company (owned by French investors) had always been in the U.S. It laid cable from the U.S. to France. It was formed by "Monsieur Puyer-Quartier". This is how it got its telegraphic routing ID "PQ".
* Firestone Rubber developed its own IRC, the "Trans-Liberia Radiotelegraph Company".Fact|date=December 2007 It operated shortwave from
Akron, Ohioto the rubber plantations in Liberia. TL is still based in Akron.
Bell telex users had to select which IRC to use, and then append the necessary routing digits. The IRCs converted between TWX and
Western UnionTelegraph Co. standards.
Arrival of the Internet
DARPAcommissioned a study of decentralized switching systems. Some of the ideas developed in this study provided inspiration for the development of the ARPANET packet switchingresearch network, which later grew to become the public Internet.
As the PSTN became a digital network,
T-carrier"synchronous" networks became commonplace in the U.S. A T-1 line has a "frame" of 193 bits that repeats 8000 times per second. The first bit, called the "sync" bit, alternates between 1 and 0 to identify the start of the frames. The rest of the frame provides 8 bits for each of 24 separate voice or data channels. Customarily, a T-1 link is sent over a balanced twisted pair, isolated with transformers to prevent current flow. Europeans adopted a similar system (E-1) of 32 channels (with one channel for frame synchronisation).
SONETand SDH(the synchronous digital hierarchy) were adapted to combine carrier channels into groups that could be sent over optic fiber. The capacity of an optic fiber is often extended with wavelength division multiplexing, rather than rerigging new fibre. Rigging several fibres in the same structures as the first fibre is usually easy and inexpensive, and many fibre installations include unused spare "dark fibre", "dark wavelengths", and unused parts of the SONET frame, so-called "virtual channels." As of 2006, the fastest well-defined communication channel used for telegraphy is the SONETstandard OC-768, which sends about 40 gigabits per second.Update after | 2007 | 12 | 1
The theoretical maximum capacity of an optic fiber is more than 1012 bits (one
terabitor one trillion bits) per second. No current (2006) encoding system approaches this theoretical limit, even with wavelength division multiplexing.
Since the Internet operates over any digital transmission medium, further evolution of telegraphic technology will be effectively concealed from users.
As of 2007, most telegraphic messages are carried by the Internet in the form of e-mail.
2002the Internet was used by Kevin Warwickat the University of Readingto communicate neural signals, in purely electronic form, telegraphically between the nervous systems of two humans [ Warwick, K, Gasson, M, Hutt, B, Goodhew, I, Kyberd, P, Schulzrinne, H and Wu, X: “Thought Communication and Control: A First Step using Radiotelegraphy”, "IEE Proceedings on Communications", 151(3), pp.185-189, 2004] , potentially opening up a new form of communication combining the Internet and telegraphy.
E-mail displaces telegraphy
Multicsin the late 1960s.Fact|date=December 2007 At first, e-mail was only possible between different accounts on the same computer (typically a mainframe). UUCPallowed different computers to be connected to allow e-mails to be relayed from computer to computer. With the growth of the Internet, e-mail began to be possible between any two computers with access to the Internet.
Various private networks (
UUNET, the Well, GEnie) had e-mail from the 1970s, but subscriptions were quite expensive for an individual, $25 to $50 a month, just for e-mail. Internet use was then largely limited to government, academia and other government contractors until the net was opened to commercial use in the 1980s.
By the early 1990s,
modems made e-mail a viable alternative to telex systems in a business environment. But individual e-mail accounts were not widely available until local Internet service providers were in place, although demand grew rapidly, as e-mail was seen as the Internet's killer app. The broad user base created by the demand for e-mail smoothed the way for the rapid acceptance of the World Wide Webin the mid-1990s.
Telegraphy as a legacy system
Western Union announced the discontinuation of all of its telegram services effective from
31 January 2006. [ [http://www.westernunion.com/info/osTelegram.asp Western Union Telegrams | Send a Telegram | Birthday Telegrams | Sympathy Telegrams | Get Well Telegrams ] ] Only 20,000 telegrams were sent in 2005, compared with 20 million in 1929. According to Western Union, which still offers money transfer services, its last telegram was sent Friday, 27 January 2006. [ [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5186113 "NPR: Western Union sends its last telegram"] by Robert Siegel, February 2 2006] The company stated that this was, "... the final transition from a communications company to a financial services company." [ [http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,70147-0.html Telegram Passes Into History ] ]
Telegram service in the United States and Canada is still available, operated by
iTelegramand Globegram. Some companies, like Swedish Teliastill deliver telegrams, but these telegrams serve as nostalgicnovelty items rather than a primary means of communication.
In the Netherlands, telegram operations ceased in 2004.Fact|date=December 2007 On
9 February 2007, according to the online edition of the Telegraaf newspaper, the Netherlands national telecommunications company KPN pulled the plug on the last Telex machine in the Netherlands after having operated a Telex network since 1933. Citing the fact that they only had 200 customers for its Telex service remaining, it was decided that it was no longer worthwhile to continue to offer Telex within the Netherlands. It is, however, still possible to send Telex messages to foreign customers through the Internet. In Belgium though, services continue through Belgacom. In this case, however, business is flourishing; many telegrams are sent every day.Fact|date=December 2007
In Japan, NTT provides a telegram ("denpou") service that is today used mainly for special occasions such as weddings, funerals, graduations, etc. [cite web |url=http://news.goo.ne.jp/article/r25/life/r25-1112008041713.html |title=【コラム】 メール全盛の現代なのに…“電報”が生き残るワケとは? |author=R25編集部 |date=2008-04-21 |language=Japanese |accessdate=2008-05-15 |work=R25.jp - gooニュース] Local offices offer telegrams printed on special decorated paper and envelopes.
New Zealand, while general public use telegrams have been discontinued, [ [http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/425823/786526 Telegrams back in vogue | BUSINESS | NEWS | tvnz.co.nz ] ] a modern variant has arisen for businesses, mainly utilities and the like, to send urgent confidential messages to their customers, leveraging off the perception that these are important messages. New Zealand Postdescribes the service as " a cost effective debt collection tool designed to help you to recover overdue money from your customers. New Zealand Post Telegrams are delivered by a courier in a Telegram branded envelope on Telegram branded paper. This has proven to be an effective method to spur customers into immediate action". [ [http://www.nzpost.co.nz/Cultures/en-NZ/Business/BillPaymentAndFinancialServices/Telegrams/ Telegrams ] ]
United Kingdom, the international telegram service formerly provided by British Telecom has been spun off as an independent company which promotes the use of telegrams as a retro greeting card or invitation. [ [http://www.telegramsonline.co.uk/ Telegrams Online - Send a telegram within the UK or send an international telegram ] ]
Australia, Australia Postoffers the TELeGRAM service - "The TELeGRAM combines new age demands withold world charm to offer you a quick, convenient way to send a message that matters." [http://www.auspost.com.au/telegram/] Messages can be submitted online or by telephone, and can be printed on a range of template designs. The printed telegrams are dispatched using Express Post Mail Service or the Ordinary Mail Service. Orders received before 15:00 are dispatched on the same day. The cost of the service, being AUD4.50 for Ordinary and AUD8.50 for Express Post Mail Services in comparison with AUD0.50 for an Australia-wide postage fee, makes this service too expensive for day-to-day communication.
Mexico, meanwhile, the telegraph is still used as a low-cost communication service for people who cannot afford or do not have the computer skills required to send an
The telegraph has had a long-lasting effect on society and
telecommunications. Most notably, the telegraph's pioneering ability to effectively separate communication from transportation made it a valuable piece of technology for all long-distance communication ranging from personal reconaissance to business transactions. The formation of a global infrastructure of telegraph wiring allowed the technology to surpass land and sea-based vices as a preferred form of communication for businesses, allowing them to making transactions much faster and on a more impersonal level. [Carey, James (1989) "Communication as Culture," Routledge, New York.]
The telegraph's ability to communicate over longer distances as well as associated economic factors forced news organisations to reorganise. Consequently, journalism was much more objective, stripped all but the most necessary information and any regional colloquialisms. It is believed that objective journalism finds its roots in the communicative strictures of the telegraph. [Carey, James (1989) "Communication as Culture," Routledge, New York.]
Names of periodicals
The word "Telegraph" still appears in the names of numerous periodicals in various countries, a remnant of the long period when Telegraphy was a major means for newspapers to get news information (see
Telegram styleThe concise written style developed for use in a telegram.
David E. Hughesdesigned a telegraph that used an alphabetic keyboard and printer wheel in 1856.
* Jeffrey L. Kieve — "The Electric Telegraph: a Social and Economic History" David and Charles (1973) ISBN 0-7153-5883-9
* Tom Standage — "The Victorian Internet" Berkley Trade, (1998) ISBN 0-425-17169-8
* "The Old Telegraphs", Geoffrey Wilson, Phillimore & Co Ltd 1976 ISBN 0900592796
* "The Railway Telegraph", Dargan, J, Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, March, 1985 pp49-71
* [http://www.porthcurno.org.uk/ The Porthcurno Telegraph Museum] The biggest Telegraph station in the world, now a museum
* [http://eh.net/encyclopedia/article/nonnenmacher.industry.telegraphic.us History of the U.S. Telegraphic Industry] from Economic History.net
* [http://distantwriting.co.uk/ Distant Writing] - The History of the Telegraph Companies in Britain between 1838 and 1868
* [http://www.livescience.com/technology/060131_western_union.html Era Ends: Western Union Stops Sending Telegrams]
* [http://www.remuseum.org.uk/rem_his_special.htm Royal Engineers Museum — Telegraph Services]
* [http://americanhistory.si.edu/archives/d8073.htm Anglo-American Telegraph Company, Ltd. Records, 1866 – 1947] Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
* [http://invention.smithsonian.org/resources/fa_wu_index.aspx Western Union Telegraph Company Records, 1820–1995] Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
* [http://technikum29.de/en/communication/fax Early telegraphy and fax engineering, still operable in a German computer museum]
* [http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2008/06may_carringtonflare.htm? NASA - Carrington Super Flare]
NASA May 6 2008
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Telegraphy — Te*leg ra*phy, n. [Cf. F. t[ e]l[ e]graphie.] The science or art of constructing, or of communicating by means of, telegraphs; as, submarine telegraphy. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
telegraphy — [tə leg′rə fē] n. 1. the operation of telegraph apparatus or the study of this 2. the transmission of messages by telegraph … English World dictionary
telegraphy — Synonyms and related words: TelAutography, Teletype, Teletype network, Teletyping, closed circuit telegraphy, code, duplex telegraphy, electricity, facsimile telegraph, interrupter, key, multiplex telegraphy, news ticker, quadruplex telegraphy,… … Moby Thesaurus
Telegraphy — telegrafija statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. telegraphy vok. Fernschreiben, n; Telegraphy, f rus. телеграфия, f; телеграфная связь, f pranc. télégraphie, f … Automatikos terminų žodynas
telegraphy — telegrafija statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. telegraphy vok. Fernschreiben, n; Telegraphy, f rus. телеграфия, f; телеграфная связь, f pranc. télégraphie, f … Automatikos terminų žodynas
telegraphy — noun a) communication at a distance by means of the telegraph, either over wires or by wireless telegraphy, usually using Morse code b) the apparatus and techniques used in such a system … Wiktionary
telegraphy — telegrafija statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. telegraphy vok. Telegraphie, f rus. телеграфия, f pranc. télégraphie, f … Fizikos terminų žodynas
telegraphy — telegraph ► NOUN ▪ a system or device for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire, especially one creating signals by making and breaking an electrical connection. ► VERB 1) send a message to by telegraph. 2) send (a message) by… … English terms dictionary
telegraphy — noun Date: 1795 the use or operation of a telegraph apparatus or system for communication … New Collegiate Dictionary
telegraphy — /teuh leg reuh fee/, n. the art or practice of constructing or operating telegraphs. [1785 95; TELE 1 + GRAPHY] * * * … Universalium