- Khalid al-Azm
name = Khalid al-Azm
order = Interim
President of Syria
April 4 1941
September 16 1941
Taj al-Din al-Hasani
office1 = Prime Minister of Syria
April 4 1941
September 21 1941
December 16 1946
December 29 1946
Jamil Mardam Bey
December 16 1948
March 30 1949
Jamil Mardam Bey
December 27, 1949
June 4, 1950
March 27 1951
August 9 1951
September 17, 1962
March 9, 1963
Salah al-Din Bitar
birth_date = 1903
November 18, 1965(aged 62)
party = Independent
Khalid al-Azm (1903-1965) ( _ar. خالد العظم) was a
Syrian nationalist leader and six-time Prime Minister, as well as Acting President (April 4 - September 16, 1941). He was a member of one of the most prominent political families in Syria, and the son of an Ottoman minister of religious affairs.
He graduated from the University of
Damascusin 1923 with a degree in law, and joined the city government in 1925. At this time he also actively ran his family's estates throughout the country. In the 1930s, he became close associates with leading members of the anti-French National Bloc coalition such as future presidents Hashim al-Atassiand Shukri al-Kuwatli. He remained a long time supporter of the former, but often quarreled with the latter, whom he accused of being too authoritarian. In 1941 the French appointed him Prime Minister and Acting President, having had no success in finding a viable candidate since the resignation of the nationalist Atassi in 1939. However he was replaced 5 months later with a French loyalist, Taj al-Din al-Hasani. Azm served repeatedly in parliament and in the cabinet from 1943-1947. He became a focus of opposition when he resigned from the cabinet in 1945 and lead the forces opposed to Kuwatli's drive to amend the constitution to allow himself a second term in office. Kuwatli prevailed, and Azm ran against him in 1947 and lost. However he accepted the position of ambassador to France and served in that capacity for a year. He concluded successful arms purchases from France and later from the Soviet Union. In May 1948 Azm agreed to form a multi-party cabinet under Kuwatli which served until March 1949. He allied himself with France and the United States and attempted to obtain loans from them for domestic development. He traveled frequently to attend United Nationsassemblies on the Palestinian problem. Azm clashed with members of the military, especially Chief of Staff Husni al-Za'im. The latter launched a coup on March 29, 1949 and imprisoned both Azm and president Kuwatli. When Za'im was overthrown five months later, Azm returned to parliament as deputy for Damascus and became minister of finance. He was also elected into the Constituent Assemblythat drafted a new constitution for Syria. He became Prime Minister again under Hashim al-Atassi's second administration, in June 1950, heading three cabinets between then and 1951. Azm closed the border to Lebanese goods in an attempt to prevent the crash of domestic Syrian industry due to rampant Lebanese imports. He also clashed repeatedly with the military because he refused to appoint officers in any of his cabinets, and always reserved the defense portfolio for himself. He also clashed with pro- Hashemiteelements in Syrian politics that advocated union with Iraq. Socialists distrusted him because of his aristocratic and wealthy Ottoman background. Azm left the public arena from 1951 to 1954 in protest over the coup of Adib al-Shishakliwhich toppled Atassi's democratic administration.
Opposition to Nasser
After the deposition of Shishakli, Azm again lost to Kuwatli in the presidential election of 1955. He retired briefly, then reemerged in November 1956 to enter the cabinet of Prime Minister
Sabri al-Asalias minister of defense. Azm played a key role in achieving an alliance with the USSR, and traveled there repeatedly to arrange loans, economic pacts and arm sales, angering the United States, where he was nicknamed the "Red Millionaire". This name was even adopted by the Syria Press in the 1950s, although he was not a socialist, and in fact opposed the pre-eminent advocate of state socialism in the Arab World, Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. He opposed in vain the union with Egypt in 1958 which created the United Arab Republic, arguing that Nasser would destroy Syria's democratic system and free market economy. Azm once again deserted political life during the Union years (1958-1961), and moved to Lebanon.
When the union was dissolved he returned to Syria, helped draft the secessionist document himself, and tried to run for presidential office but his candidacy was thwarted by the military.
Nazim al-Kudsiwas elected, and Azm returned to parliament as deputy for Damascus. On March 28, 1962, yet another coup toppled the civilian administration, and Kudsi and Azm were both imprisoned. On April 2a counter coup released them, and Azm became Prime Minister again under Kudsi. The two men allied with former president Kuwatli to rid the army of pro-Nasserist elements, and reverse the austere program of nationalizationinstituted by Nasser when he was head of the UAR. Before this could be achieved, the socialist Baathparty came to power in Syria in March 1963 and both Azm and Qudsi fled into exile.
Azm relocated permanently to
Beirut, where he lived in difficult financial circumstances, his vast Syrian holdings having been appropriated by the Baathists. There he died and was buried on November 18, 1965. His memoirs were published posthumously in 1973.
* Sami Moubayed "Steel & Silk: Men and Women Who Shaped Syria 1900-2000" (Cune Press, Seattle, 2005).
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Khalid Al-Azm — (Damas, 1903 Beyrouth, 18 novembre 1965) (arabe : خالد العظم) était un leader nationaliste syrien, qui a été six fois Premier ministre avant de devenir Président de la République par intérim (4 avril au 16 septembre 1941). Sommaire … Wikipédia en Français
Khalid al-azm — (Damas, 1903 Beyrouth, 18 novembre 1965) (arabe : خالد العظم) était un leader nationaliste syrien, qui a été six fois Premier ministre avant de devenir Président de la République par intérim (4 avril au 16 septembre 1941). Sommaire … Wikipédia en Français
Khalid al-Azm — (Damas, 1903 Beyrouth, 18 novembre 1965) (arabe : خالد العظم) était un leader nationaliste syrien, qui a été six fois Premier ministre avant de devenir Président de la République par intérim (4 avril au … Wikipédia en Français
Azm — steht für: Aargauer Zentralmolkerei, Teil der Emmi Gruppe Academisch Ziekenhuis Maastricht, eine niederländische Universitätsklinik (Universitair Medisch Centrum), verbunden mit der Universität Maastricht Acetazolamid, ein Arzneistoff American… … Deutsch Wikipedia
AZM — steht für: Aargauer Zentralmolkerei, Teil der Emmi Gruppe Academisch Ziekenhuis Maastricht, eine niederländische Universitätsklinik (Universitair Medisch Centrum), verbunden mit der Universität Maastricht Acetazolamid, ein Arzneistoff American… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Khalid — Khaled Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Khalid ou Khaled (arabe خالد, Ḫâlid, « éternel ») est un prénom arabe. Ce prénom est donné généralement en l honneur de Khalid ibn al… … Wikipédia en Français
Hashim Khalid al-Atassi — Haschim Chalid al Atassi Haschim Chalid al Atassi Haschim Chalid al Atassi (arabisch هاشم خالد الأتاسي … Deutsch Wikipedia
List of Prime Ministers of Syria — This page lists prime ministers of Syria.Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Syria, 1920*Rida Pasha al Rikabi: March May 1920 *Hashim al Atassi: May 28 July 1920 *Alaa al Din al Durubi Basha: 28 July 21 August 1920 *Jamil al Ulshi: 6 September 30… … Wikipedia
Liste Des Premiers Ministres De La Syrie — Syrie Cet article fait partie de la série sur la politique de la Syrie, sous série sur la politique. Présidents de … Wikipédia en Français
Liste des Premiers ministres de la Syrie — Syrie Cet article fait partie de la série sur la politique de la Syrie, sous série sur la politique … Wikipédia en Français