Annatto, sometimes called "Roucou", is a derivative of the
achiotetrees of tropical regions of the Americas, used to produce a red food coloringand also as a flavoring. Its scent is described as "slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg" and flavor as "slightly sweet and peppery".
Annatto is produced from the reddish
pulpwhich surrounds the seed of the achiote (" Bixa orellana" L.). It is used in many cheeses (e.g., Cheddar, Red Leicester, and Brie), margarine, butter, rice, smoked fishand custardpowder.
Annatto is commonly found in
Latin Americaand Caribbeancuisines as both a coloring agent and for flavoring. Central and South American natives use the seeds to make a body paint, and lipstick. For this reason, the achiote is sometimes called the "lipstick-tree".
Venezuela, annatto (called locally 'onoto') is used in the preparation of hallacas, perico, and other traditional dishes.
Brazil, both annatto (the product) and the tree (" Bixa orellana" L.) are called Urucum and the product itself may also be called Colorau.
Cubaand other Caribbean islands, both fruit and tree are popularly called Bija (pronounced bee-ha) instead of Bixa.
Philippines, it is called "atsuete" and is used as food coloring in traditional dishes.
It is a major ingredient in the popular spice blend "Sazón" made by
Use as a food coloring
The annatto seed contains 4.5-5.5% pigments, which consists of 70-80% bixin. [ [http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/?objectid=F59ACAC5-F1F6-975E-7C563568F5F7351B#selection Executive Summary Bixin, National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences] ] .
food additive, annatto has the E numberE160b. The fat soluble part of the crude extract is called bixin, the water soluble part is called norbixin, and both share the same E number as annatto.
In the United States, annatto extract is listed as a color additive “exempt from certification” ( [http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_02/21cfr73_02.html] Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations part 73) and is commonly considered to be a natural color. The yellowish orange color is produced by the compounds bixin and norbixin, which are classified as xanthophylls, a type of carotenoid. However, unlike beta-carotene, another well-known carotenoid, they do not have the correct chemical structures to be vitamin A precursors. [ [http://www.foodproductdesign.com/articles/natural-food-colors.html Natural Colors: A Shade More Healthy, Lynn A. Kuntz, Food Product Design] ] The more norbixin in an annatto color, the more yellow it is; a higher level of bixin gives it a more reddish shade. Unless an acid-proof version is used, it takes on a pink shade at low pH.
Allergies to annatto
Annatto has been linked with many cases of food-related allergies, and is the only natural food coloring believed to cause as many allergic-type reactions as artificial food coloring. [ [http://www.fedupwithfoodadditives.info/factsheets/Factannatto.htm Food Intolerance Network Factsheet] ] Because it is a natural colorant, companies using annatto may label their products "all natural" or "no artificial colors". However, consumers with food dye sensitivity or intolerance may wish to avoid products containing annatto.
Coeliacs (people diagnosed with
Coeliac Disease) or those with Gluten Intolerancemay have a reaction to Annatto similar tothat of glutenFact|There appears to be no evidence for this|date=August 2008.
References and sources for further reading
*The Herb Book, John Lust (Bantam Books, New York, USA, 1984)
*Cooking With Spices, Carolyn Heal & Michael Allsop (David & Charles, Vermont, USA 1983)
*The Book of Spices, F. Rosengarten Jr. (Livingston Publishing Co. , Penn., USA, 1969)
* [http://www.fao.org/docrep/v8879e/v8879e04.htm FAO: Major Colourants and Dyestuffs Entering International Trade, Annatto Seed and Its Extracts]
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