- Zhang (surname)
Zhang Family name Meaning
(张) expansive bow, bowmaker(章) State of Zhang
Zhang (traditional Chinese: 張; simplified Chinese: 张; pinyin: Zhāng) is among the most common Chinese surnames. In the 1990 edition of Guinness Book of Records, it was listed as the world's most common surname, with over 100 million people worldwide with this surname. It was also ranked third in the People's Republic of China by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in early 2006. . The use of this surname dates back to about 4,700 years ago.
Zhang is pronounced and transliterated in a variety of ways. In Mandarin Chinese it is Hanyu Pinyin: Zhāng, Wade–Giles: Chang, Tongyong Pinyin: Jhāng. In Cantonese it is Yale: Jèung, Jyutping: Zoeng1, Hong Kong Government: Cheung. In Shanghainese, it is Tsan or Tsaon. In Min Nan, it is Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tiuⁿ, in Southeast Asia where a variety of dialects are spoken: Teo or Teoh in the Minnan/Teochew dialects, Chong in Hakka, Cheong in Cantonese, Tiong in Foochow and many other spellings based on the romanisation of the Chinese dialects used. The corresponding Korean surname is 장 which is frequently transliterated as Jang or Chang or (less frequently) Zang. Some confusion arises with the surnames Zhuang (莊) and Jiang (蔣) that are also written as 장 in Korean, and which are also frequently transliterated as Jang or Chang. The corresponding Vietnamese version is Trương or Trang.
Another Zhang, 章, is a less common surname which also has the same pronunciation of Zhāng in Mandarin, Cheung in Cantonese, and Jang in Korean. However, this name is pronounced differently in Minnan (Chiong) than Tiuⁿ (張). Likewise, the Vietnamese can clearly distinguish this name, pronounced Chương, or Trang from Trương (張). Although both of the Zhang (章) and (张/張) have the same pronunciation, both are not related and have different origins.
The character 張 is made of the characters 弓 (gōng, meaning bow) and 長 (cháng, zhǎng, or zhàng, meaning long or length). 張 means to open up or to spread, but its more common meaning is a measure word for flat objects such as paper and mattresses, like the English sheet.
History of the surname (張 or 张)
The origin of the surname Zhang is legendary. The fifth son of Huáng Dì (Emperor), the legendary supreme ancestor of all Han Chinese, was Qīng Yáng Shì (青阳氏). Qīng Yáng Shì's son Huī (挥) was inspired by the Chinese Arc Constellation—Tiān Gōng Xīng (天弓星) in the sky and invented the bow. Later Hui was assigned as Gōng Zhèng (弓正), the minister in charge of observing the Arc Constellation and making bows. Then Hui and his descendants were bestowed the surname Zhang, which, if broken into its constituent radicals, would mean "the master of bows" in Chinese. It is believed that the ancestors of Zhangs were archers and the bow as a totem of their tribe.
History of the surname (章)
The surname Zhang originated from Jiang (Chinese: 姜; pinyin: Jiang), which is the surname of the legendary Emperor Yan. When the State of Qi(齐国) was established, Jiang Ziya in turn gave lands to his many descendants, one of these small subordinate states was the State of Zhang(鄣国). After it was annexed by Qi, people from this state took Zhang as their surnames.
Prominent people with Chinese family name 張/张
- Chang, Angela, Taiwanese singer and actress.
- Chang Chen-yue 張震嶽 or A-Yue 阿嶽, Taiwanese rock musician.
- Chang Fei 張菲 or Fei Ge 菲哥, Taiwanese television personality.
- Chang Hui-mei 張惠妹 or A-mei 阿妹, aboriginal Taiwanese singer and occasional songwriter.
- Chang, Jeff, Taiwanese singer.
- Chang, Phil, Taiwanese singer-songwriter and television personality.
- Chang Xuan 張懸 or Deserts Chang, Taiwanese singer-songwriter.
- Chang Yu-sheng 張雨生 (1966–1997), Taiwanese singer, composer, and producer.
- Cheung, Cecilia 張柏芝, Hong Kong actress and singer.
- Cheung, Dicky 張衛健, Hong Kong actor, singer and quarter of Big Four and winner of the 3rd annual New Talent Singing Awards.
- 張茜Zhang Qian, Hong Kong actress.
- Cheung, Jacky 張學友, Hong Kong actor and singer.
- Cheung, Leslie 張國榮 (1956–2003), Hong Kong actor and musician.
- Cheung, Maggie 張曼玉, Hong Kong actress.
- Cheung, Sharla or Cheung Man, Hong Kong actress.
- Cheung Tak Lan 張德蘭 or 張圓圓 when younger, Hong Kong singer.
- Teoh, Lina or Angelina Teoh Pick Lim, Miss Malaysia, 1998.
- Zhāng Liàngyǐng 张靓颖, Chinese pop singer.
- Zhāng Lìyǐn 張力尹 or Jang Ri-in 장리인, a Chinese singer also famous in South Korea.
- Zhang Ziyi, a Chinese Actress.
- Zhāng Yáng 張揚, Chinese film director, screenwriter, and occasional actor.
- Zhāng Yìmóu 張藝謀, Chinese filmmaker and former cinematographer.
- Zhāng Xiánzǐ 张弦子, Chinese singer.
- Chang Chong-Chen, a cartoon character in The Adventures of Tintin
- Chang, Cho, character in the Harry Potter novels
- Zhāng Tài-Yán, grandmaster of Hokuto Sōkaken in the manga and anime series Fist of the Blue Sky
- Frank Zhang, Roman demigod son of Mars in The Heroes of Olympus series by Rick Riordan
- Chang, P'eng-ch'un 張彭春 (1892–1957), Chinese professor, philosopher, and playwright who played a pivotal role in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- Teo Chee Hean 張志賢, Singaporean politician
- Zhāng Àipíng 張愛萍, Chinese communist military leader
- Zhāng Chūnqiáo 張春橋 (1917–2005), member of the Gang of Four
- Zhāng Fēi 張飛 (167–221), military general of Shǔ Hàn 蜀漢 during the Three Kingdoms era.
- Zhāng Guóhuá 张国华 (1914–1972), military general during the Battle of Chamdo and the Sino-Indian War
- Zhang Hua 張華 (232-300), was a Jin Dynasty official and poet.
- Zhang Jiuling 張九齡 (673–740), famous prime minister and poet of Tang Dynasty.
- Zhang Jiugao 張九皋,光禄大夫 of Tang Dynasty, younger brother of prime minister Zhang Jiuling. Ancestor of general 張浚 of Song Dynasty and prime minister Zhang Juzheng 張居正 of Ming Dynasty.
- Zhāng Hóngfàn 張弘範 (1238–1280), Yuán Dynasty general.
- Zhāng Jūzhēng 張居正 (1525–1582), Míng Dynasty official, his highest rank was equivalent to prime minister.
- Zhāng Liáng 張良 (d. 189 BCE), aide of Liú Bāng 劉邦.
- Zhāng Liáo 張遼, military general of Cáo Wèi 曹魏 during the Three Kingdoms era.
- Zhāng Shìchéng 張士誠(1321–1367), Red Turban Rebellion leader.
- Zhāng Tíngyù 張廷玉 (1672–1755), Qīng Dynasty politician.
- Zhāng Xuéliáng 張學良 or Chang Hsüeh-liang (1901–2001), Manchurian warlord and hero of the People's Republic of China.
- Zhāng Yí 張儀 (d. 309 BCE), strategist during the Warring States Period of China.
- Zhāng Yi 張裔, military general of Shǔ Hàn 蜀漢 during the Three Kingdoms era.
- Zhāng Zhīdòng 張之洞 (1837–1909), Qīng Dynasty politician.
- Zhāng Zìzhōng 張自忠 (1891–1940), Chinese general of the National Revolutionary Army.
- Zhāng Zōngchāng 張宗昌 (1881–1932), Chinese warlord of Shāndōng 山東.
- Zhāng Zuòlín 張作霖 or Chang Tso-lin (1873–1928), Manchurian warlord and father of Zhāng Xuéliáng 張學良.
- Zhāng Wéntiān 張聞天 (1900–1976), former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.
Literature, writing, journalism
- Chang, Eileen (1920–1995), Chinese writer.
- Chang, Iris (1968–2004), American historian and journalist.
- Chang, Jung, Chinese writer and author of Wild Swans.
- Truong, Doris. President, Asian American Journalists Association
- Zhāng Chéngzhì 张承志, Hui muslim writer and author of History of the Soul.
- Zhāng Dài 張岱 (1597–1689), Ming Dynasty writer and historian.
- Zhang Yue 張說, a poet and prime minister from the Tang Dynasty.
- Zhāng Xīgūo 張系國 or Shi-kuo Chang, Taiwanese computer scientist and science fiction author.
- Zhang Lijia 张礼家, Chinese writer and author of "Socialism is Great!"
- Chang, Michael 張德培, Taiwanese-American former tennis player and International Tennis Hall of Fame inductee.
- Tiu Chris, a Filipino basketball player
- Zhang, Caroline, Chinese figure skater.
- Zhāng Dān 張丹, Chinese pair skater, partner of Zhāng Hào 張昊.
- Zhāng Hào 張昊, Chinese pair skater, partner of Zhāng Dān 張丹.
- Zhāng Juānjuān 張娟娟, Chinese archer.
- Zhang Lianbiao, Chinese retired javelin thrower.
- Zhāng Níng 張寧, Chinese badminton player.
- Zhang Tiequan, Chinese martial artist
- Zhāng Yíníng 張怡寧, Chinese table tennis player.
- Zhāng Yùníng 張玉寧, Chinese footballer, known as the "Chinese David Beckham".
- Zhāng Xī 张希, Chinese beach volleyball player.
- Zhāng Jūn 張軍, Chinese badminton coach and former badminton player.
- Zhang Daqian, 張大千 (1899 – 1983) Chinese artist
- Steven Ng-Sheong Cheung 張五常(1935–), Hong Kong born Chinese economist, whose contribution was acknowledged by Nobel Prize winners Ronald Coase and Joseph E. Stiglitz
- Zhang Zhongjing, 張仲景 150 – 219 A.D. one of the most famous herbal doctors in Chines history. Written works included 傷寒論 and 金匱要略
- Zhang Zihe, 張子和 1156 – 1228 A.D. famous herbal doctor
- Zhang Jingyue, 張景岳 1583 – 1640 A.D. famous herbal doctor
- Chang, Victor (1936–1991), Chinese-Australian cardiac surgeon
- Thio Li-ann (Zhāng Líyǎn 张黎衍), Singaporean law professor
- Zhang Baokang 張寳康 or Sheng-yen 聖嚴, Chinese Buddhist monk and religious scholar
- Zhāng Dàolíng 张道陵 (Zhang Dao Spirit), (Eastern Han dynasty), ca 142 CE, founded the first Daoist religious sect – Zhengyi Dao, Tiān Shī Dào or Celestial Masters Dao
- Zhang, Cecilia, kidnapped and murdered by Min Chen
- Zhāng Guǒ Lǎo 張果老 or Elder Zhāng Guǒ, one of the Eight Immortals in Chinese mythology
- Zhāng Hányùn 張含韻, also known as Baby Zhang or Kristy Zhang, Chinese singer and runner-up of the singing contest Super Girl 超級女聲
- Zhāng Héng 張衡 (78–139), Chinese astronomer and mathematician
- Zhāng Hóngbǎo 張宏寶 (1954–2006), founder and spiritual leader of Zhōng Gōng 中功
- Zhāng Sānfēng 張三丰, semi-mythical Chinese Taoist priest
- Zhāng Qiān 張騫 (born 195 BCE), Han Dynasty explorer
- Qiulin Zhang (born 1964), French contralto opera singer of Chinese descent
- Zhāng Zǐlín 張梓琳, winner of Miss World 2007
- Zhāng Zéduān 張擇端 (1085–1145), Chinese painter
Prominent people with Chinese family name 章
- Chiang, John Hsiao-yen, Taiwanese politician formerly surnamed Chang 章.
- Zhāng Bǐnglín 章炳麟 (1868–1936), Chinese philologist, textual critic, and anti-Manchu revolutionary.
- Zhāng Zhōng 章钟, Chinese chess grandmaster who now plays for Singapore.
- Zhāng Zǐyí 章子怡, Chinese actress and singer.
Prominent people with Korean family name 장 (張/章)
Prominent people with Vietnamese family name Trương (張)
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