- Central Lowlands
The Central Lowlands or Midland Valley is a geologically defined area of relatively low-lying land in southern
Scotland. It consists of a rift valleybetween the Highland Boundary Faultto the north and the Southern Uplands Faultto the south. [Gillen (2003) p.17] The Central Lowlands are one of the three main geographical sub-divisions of the country, the other two being the Highlands and Islandswhich lie to the north and west and the Southern Uplands, which lie south of the associated second fault line.
The Highland Boundary Fault, runs from
Lochranzaon the Arran in the south and west through the Isle of Buteand Helensburgh, then forms the northern boundary of Strathmore before reaching Stonehavenin the north east. The fault was active during the Caledonian orogeny, [cite web | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Loch Lomond - Highland Boundary Fault | date= 2006-07-20| publisher= Hunterian Museumand others | url =http://www.scottishgeology.com/outandabout/classic_sites/locations/loch_lomond_fault.html | work =Scottish Geology | pages = | accessdate = 2006-12-13 | language = ] a plate tectonic collision which took place from Mid Ordovicianto Mid Devonianperiods (520 to 400 million years ago), during the closure of the Iapetus Ocean. The fault allowed the Midland Valley to descend as a major rift by as much as 4000 metres and there was subsequently vertical movement. This earlier vertical movement was later replaced by a horizontal shear. [cite web | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Highland Boundary Fault | date= | publisher= University of Edinburghand Royal Scottish Geographical Society| url =http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/features/featurefirst7728.html | work =Gazetteer for Scotland | pages = | accessdate = 2006-12-13 | language = ] The Southern Uplands Fault runs from the Rhinns of Gallowayin the west towards Dunbaron the east coast 30 miles from Edinburgh. [ [http://www.geo.edinburgh.ac.uk/scotgaz/features/featurefirst7744.html "Southern Uplands Fault"] Gazetteer for Scotland. Retrieved 11 January 2008.] [ [http://www.scottishgeology.com/geology/regional_geology/geo_maps/southern_uplands_map.html "Regional Geology, Southern Uplands - Map"] Scottishgeology.com. Retrieved 21 March 2008.]
Geology and geomorphology
The valley of the Central Lowlands is largely comprised of
Paleozoicformations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolutionare to be found. This area has also experienced intense vulcanism, Arthur’s Seat in Edinburghbeing the remnant of a once much larger volcanoactive in the Carboniferousperiod some 300 million years ago. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fellsare rarely far from view. [Keay (1994) p.420.] In common with the rest of Scotland the whole region was affected by Pleistoceneglaciations.
A productive combination of fertile low-lying agricultural land and significant deposits of economically valuable coal and iron have lead to the Central Lowlands being much more densely populated than the rest of Scotland. The major cities of
Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundeeall lie in the Central Lowlands, and over half of Scotland's population lives in this region.
Geology of Scotland
* Gillen, Con (2003) "Geology and landscapes of Scotland". Harpenden. Terra Publishing.
* Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) "Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland". London. HarperCollins.
* McKirdy, Alan Gordon, John & Crofts, Roger (2007) "Land of Mountain and Flood: The Geology and Landforms of Scotland". Edinburgh. Birlinn.
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