- Frascati bombing raid September 8, 1943
September 8, 1943is the date of a bombing raid of USAAFplanes against Frascati, a historical town near Rome, Italy. The target was the German General Headquarters for the Mediterranean zone (O.B.S.) and the Italian headquarters, scattered in buildings and Villas nearby the town.
131 USAAF aircraft (B-17G Flying Fortress) carried out a selective-bombing from height altitude because the aircraft were equipped with the modern laying control system "Norden". The order of flight was:
* 1) 99th Bomb Group with n. 32 F.F. B17 - 5,500 m (18,000 feet).
* 2) 301st Bomb Group with n. 36 F.F. B17 - 6,000 m (20,000 feet).
* 3) 97th Bomb Group with n. 35 F.F. B17 - 5,500 m (18,000 feet).
* 4) 2nd Bomb Group with n. 28 F.F. B17 - 6,000 m (20,000 feet).
The General Doolittle operation order of 7 September 1943 was: "Intentions for September eight heavies will destroy town of Frascati - This target is important and must be destroyed."
The aircraft headed for Littoria (modern Latina) and
Monte Cavo( Alban Hills), they arrived on Frascati at 10 minutes past 12 p.m. Their target was Field Marshal Albert Kesselringand his staff.
The anti-aircraft defence was equipped with heavy anti-aircraft guns of 88/56 mm and machineguns of 37/20 mm, which they had placed on Tuscolo ridge and terraces in the town reinforced with cement pillars to stand the recoils.
The Italian Royal Air Force ("
Regia Aeronautica") engaged about thirty aircraft fighters, some of anachronistic biplane Fiat CR.42, some of Macchi C.200, some of Fiat G.50, some of Reggiane Re.2001, two Fiat G.55and some of Macchi C.202. This was the last mission of Regia Aeronautica before the Armistice with the allied. Overall, one Allied aircraft was destroyed, a B-17 of 97th Bomber Group and 36 fighter attacking were destroyed in air.
About of 50% of the buildings, many of the monuments and villas were destroyed. St. Pietro square was destroyed, however, the Cathedral facade remained undamaged.
In that day
United States General Dwight D. Eisenhowerpublicly announces the Allied armistice with Italy.
After a few days, Field Marshal Kesselring and his military headquarters moved to
Field Marshal Kesselring later wrote in his memoir's about his experience on September 8. He called it the "day of Italian treason". In fact, the Italians were not present at the German headquarters at the time of the bombing raid. On
September 3, 1943the Italians were alerted by the Allied forces of the bombing raid during their peace talks about their ultimate surrender. These Italian generals and the Savoy royal dignitaries, six days later fled to the port of Ortona, located near Pescara.
The news of the Italian armistice with the Allies reached Frascati at 7:45 pm, September 8, 1943. The townspeople who, less than 24 hours beforehand had been hiding in bomb shelters, were now fleeing south to escape the occupation of the German army ("
Wehrmacht Heer"). The townspeople had no time to clean up debris and bury their dead. As a result, the German armed forces (" Wehrmacht") declared the area as an "infected area" and had plans to eliminate the city using flamethrowers. The remaining citizens, however, had found out about the German plan to raze the city, and worked to bury their dead. In total, 485 civilians were victims of the allied raid.
Armistice with Italy
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
1943 — This article is about the year 1943. For the 1987 arcade game, see 1943: The Battle of Midway. Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 19th century – 20th century – 21st century Decades: 1910s 1920s 1930s – … Wikipedia
Frascati — Infobox CityIT img coa = Frascati Stemma.png img coa small=yes official name = Comune di Frascati name = Frascati region = Lazio province = Rome elevation m = 320 area total km2 = 22 population as of = December 31, 2005 population total = 20149… … Wikipedia
1943 in aviation — yearbox in?=in aviation cp=19th Century c=20th century cf=21st century yp1=1940 yp2=1941 yp3=1942 year=1943 ya1=1944 ya2=1945 ya3=1946 dp3=1910s dp2=1920s dp1=1930s d=1940s dn1=1950s dn2=1960s dn3=1970sThis is a list of aviation related events… … Wikipedia
Bombing of Hamburg in World War II — History of Hamburg This article is part of a series Hamburg culture … Wikipedia
Bombing of Cologne in World War II — Cologne in 1945 The City of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids by the Allies during World War II, including 31 times[ … Wikipedia
Bombing of Dresden in World War II — Dresden after the bombing raid The Bombing of Dresden was a military bombing by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) and as part of the Allied forces between 13 February and 15 Febr … Wikipedia
Bombing of Darwin — For 2 May 1943 air raid on Darwin, see Raid on Darwin (2 May 1943). For other air raids on Darwin, see Air raids on Australia, 1942–43. Bombing of Darwin Part of World War II, Pacific War … Wikipedia
Bombing of Mannheim in World War II — The German city of Mannheim in the state of Baden Württemberg saw bombing during World War II from December 1940 until the end of the war. Mannheim saw over 150 air raids. As part of Operation Abigail Rachel the first deliberate terror raid on… … Wikipedia
Rome-Frascati railway line — The Rome Frascati railway line is one of the oldest railways in Italy It was the first railway in the Papal State, opening in 1856, at 20 km in length. History On November 25, 1848, the agreement to build the railroad was signed between the… … Wikipedia
Strategic bombing during World War II — For a list of notable strategic bombings in the European Theatre of World War II, see List of air operations during the Battle of Europe. Main article: Air warfare of World War II Strategic bombing during World War II Part of World War II … Wikipedia