- Scott Joplin
Scott Joplin (between June 1867 and January 1868 – April 1, 1917) was an American musician and
composerof ragtimemusic. He remains the best-known ragtime figure and is regarded as one of the three most important composers of classic ragtime, [cite web
publisher=infoplease.com] along with James Scott and
Joseph Lamb, and also a precursor to Stride Piano. Decades after his death, his music enjoyed a considerable surge of popularity and critical respect in the 1970s, especially for his most famous composition, "The Entertainer."
Scott Joplin, the second of six children, was born in eastern
Texas, near Linden,cite web|url=http://ctmh.its.txstate.edu/artist.php?cmd=detail&aid=29|title=Texas Music History Online - Scott Joplin|accessdate=2006-11-22] to Florence Givins and Giles or Jiles Joplin. November 24, 1868has been assumed as the correct birth date of Scott Joplin, but modern research by ragtime historian Ed Berlin has revealed this is almost certainly inaccurate. The 1870 census lists Scott, age 2, as the son of Jiles and Florence Joplin. The exact location of his birth is uncertain. [Scott Joplin the Man Who Made Ragtime by James Haskins with Kathleen Benson 1978 Doubleday and Company pages 32,203 ISBN 0-385-11155-x]
After 1871, the Joplin family moved to
Texarkana, Texas, and Scott's mother cleaned homes so Scott could have a place to practice his music. By 1882 his mother had purchased a piano. Showing musical ability at an early age, the young Joplin received free piano lessons from a German music teacher, Julius Weiss, who gave him a well rounded knowledge of classical music form, which would serve him well in later years and fuel his ambition to create a "classical" form of ragtime.
Joplin had opportunities to perform in the East Texas town where he lived. Texarkana had several lodges, and these halls would be turned over to young people for dancing after about 10:00 PM, and polkas, schottisches, waltzes, and two-steps were played. Joplin himself played in these dance halls, where he heard popular tunes played in a syncopated style. One very popular tune was The Banjo by composer
Louis Moreau Gottschalk. [Scott Joplin the Man Who Made Ragtime by James Haskins with Kathleen Benson 1978 Doubleday and Company page 74 ISBN 0-385-11155-x]
By the late 1880s, Scott Joplin had left home to start a life of his own. He may have joined or formed various quartets and other musical groups and traveled around the Midwest to sing. In the Queen City Concert Band, he played first
cornet. After organizing the Texas Medley Quartette (actually an octet) with his brothers Robert and Will, he toured the East and Midwest, including Syracuse, New Yorkwhere he published his first piece, "Please Say You Will". [Edwards, "Perfessor" Bill. [http://www.perfessorbill.com/pbmidi15.shtml "Rags & Pieces by Scott Joplin, 1895 - 1905"] , accessed March 25, 2008.] He was also part of a minstrel troupe in Texarkanaabout 1891. At the 1893 World's Fair, in Chicago, Illinois, he heard the latest music, including the concert band of John Phillip Sousa, who played there daily. He would later further his musical education by attending George R. Smith Collegein Sedalia, Missouri, studying music theory, harmony, and composition.
Despite all his traveling, Joplin's home was in Sedalia, to which he moved in 1894, working as a pianist in the Maple Leaf and the Black 400, social clubs for "respectable [black] gentlemen". In 1895, Joplin was in Syracuse, selling two songs, "Please Say You Will" and "A Picture of Her Face".
By the summer of 1899, Joplin had sold six pieces for the piano. Of the six, only "
Original Rags", a compilation of existing melodies that he wrote collaboratively, is a ragtime piece. The other five were "Please Say You Will", "A Picture of Her Face", two marches, and a waltz.
August 10, 1899, Joplin sold what would become one of his most famous pieces, " Maple Leaf Rag", to John Stark & Son, a Sedalia music publisher. Joplin received a one-cent royalty for each copy and ten free copies for his own use, as well as an advance. It has been estimated that Joplin made $360 per year on this piece in his lifetime.
Becoming the first instrumental to sell over one million copies, [Edwards, "Perfessor" Bill. [http://www.perfessorbill.com/pbmidi15.shtml "Rags & Pieces by Scott Joplin, 1895 - 1905"] , accessed
March 25, 2008.] "Maple Leaf Rag" boosted Joplin to the top of the list of ragtime performers and moved ragtime into prominence as a musical form.
With a growing national reputation based on the success of "Maple Leaf Rag", Joplin moved to St. Louis,
Missouri, in early 1900 with his new wife, Belle. Belle was a sister-in-law of Scott Hayden, who collaborated with Joplin in the composition of four rags.cite book|author=Jasen, David A. and Tebor Jay Tichenor|title=Rags and Ragtime: A Musical History|publisher=Dover Books|year=1978] While living in St. Louis from 1900 to 1903, he produced some of his best-known works, "The Entertainer", "Elite Syncopations", "March Majestic", and "Ragtime Dance".
In June 1904, Joplin married Freddie Alexander of
Little Rock, Arkansas, the young woman to whom he had dedicated "The Chrysanthemum" (1904). She died on September 10, 1904 of complications resulting from a cold, ten weeks after their wedding.cite web|url=http://www.scottjoplin.org/biography.htm|title=A Biography of Scott Joplin|accessdate=2008-10-03] Joplin's first work copyrighted after Freddie's death, "Bethena" (1905), is a very sad, musically complex ragtime waltz.
In 1907 Scott Joplin moved to New York City, where he met Lottie Stokes, whom he married in 1909. Despite months of faltering, Joplin continued writing and publishing. During this period, he produced the award-winning opera "
Treemonisha"; the score to his earlier ragtime opera, " A Guest of Honor", is lost. Treemonisha was never fully staged during Joplin's lifetime, and its sole performance was a concert read-through with piano in 1915 at the Lincoln Theater in Harlem, New York City, funded by Joplin himself. One of Joplin's friends, Sam Patterson, described this performance as "thin and unconvincing, little better than a rehearsal... its special quality (would have been) lost on the typical Harlem audience (that was) sophisticated enough to reject their folk past but not sufficiently so to relish a return to it". [Scott Joplin the Man Who Made Ragtime by James Haskins with Kathleen Benson 1978 Doubleday and Company page 177 ISBN 0-385-11155-x]
In 1913, Scott and Lottie formed the Scott Joplin Music Company, which published his "
Joplin as a performer
It is unclear today how advanced Joplin's skills as a pianist were. In 1898, a newspaper in Sedalia referred to him as "one of the best pianists in the world", and in 1911 a
New York-based music magazine spoke in glowing terms of Joplin's 'musicianly way' of playing ragtime. However, in St. Louis, opinions differed. Arthur Marshall, a good friend and student of Joplin, said "he played slowly, but exceedingly good..had an execution that you would stand back and listen and wonder how he got to do that stuff". Joe Jordan, another famous ragtime musician, said that although he never played anything other than his own pieces, he did play them well. However, Jordan is also on record as describing Joplin's playing as reminding him of a "stationary Indian". Sam Patterson said Joplin "never played well" and Artie Matthewsrecalled the delight the Saint Louis players took in outplaying Joplin with his own music. John Stark's own son stated that Joplin was a rather mediocre pianist and that he composed on paper, rather than at the piano. One student of Joplin's recalled in later years he played slowly and methodically, and regularly reminded the student to place a strong accent on the first beat of each measure.
Researcher Edward Berlin theorizes that by the time Joplin reached St Louis, he was already beginning to suffer the physical effects of
syphilis, which would take his life in 1917. One of the symptoms, which can manifest up to 20 years prior to death, is discoordination of the fingers. This may explain the differences in opinion of those observing Joplin's playing in the late 1890s and in the early 1910s.
While Joplin never made an audio recording, he did record seven
piano rolls in 1916; "Maple Leaf Rag" (for Connorized and Aeolian companies), "Something Doing," "Magnetic Rag," "Ole Miss Rag," "Weeping Willow Rag" and "Pleasant Moments - Ragtime Waltz" (all for Connorized). These are the only records of his playing we have, and are interesting for the embellishments added by Joplin to his Connorized performances, although studying other Connorized rolls of that era reveals they may well have been added during the production process by staff artists, rather than Joplin himself. The roll of "Pleasant Moments" was thought lost until August 2006, when a piano roll collector in New Zealanddiscovered a surviving copy. It has been claimed that the uneven nature of some of Joplin's piano rolls, such as one of the recordings of "Maple Leaf Rag" mentioned above, documented the extent of Joplin's physical deterioration due to syphilis. A comparison of the two "Maple Leaf Rag" player-piano rolls made by Joplin in 1916, one in April the other in June, has been described as "... shocking. The second version is disorganized and completely distressing to hear." [ Rudi Blesh, p.xxxix, "Scott Joplin: Black-American Classicist", Introduction to Scott Joplin Complete Piano Works, New York Public Library, 1981] While the irregularities may also be due to the primitive technology used to record the rolls, rolls recorded by other artists for the same company around the same time are noticeably smoother.
Joplin wanted to experiment further with compositions like "Treemonisha", but by 1916 he was suffering from the effects of terminal
syphilis. He suffered later from dementia, paranoia, paralysisand other symptoms.
In mid-January 1917 Joplin was hospitalized at
Manhattan State Hospitalin New York City, and friends recounted that he would have bursts of lucidity in which he would jot down lines of music hurriedly before relapsing. Joplin died there on April 1 1917. Joplin was 49 or 50 years of age (his exact birthdate is unknown).
Joplin's death did not make the headlines for two reasons: Ragtime was quickly losing ground to
jazzand the United States would enter World War Iwithin days. He was buried in St. Michael's Cemetery in the Astoria section of Queens.
Joplin's musical papers, including unpublished manuscripts, were willed to Joplin's friend and the executor of his will, musician and composer
Wilbur Sweatman. Sweatman took care of these papers and generously shared access to them to those who inquired. However, these were unfortunately few, since Joplin's music had come to be considered passé. After Sweatman's death in 1961 the papers were last known to go into storage during a legal battle among Sweatman's heirs; their current location is not known, nor even if they still exist.
There was, however, an important find in 1971: a
piano rollof the lost "Silver Swan Rag," [ [http://www.perfessorbill.com/covers/slvrswan.htm Silver Swan Rag (MIDI)] ] manufactured sometime around 1914. It had not been published in sheet-music form in Joplin's lifetime. Before this, his only posthumously published piece had been "Reflection Rag," published by Stark in 1917 from an older manuscript he'd kept back. Almost all Joplin scholars agree that the piece is a genuine Joplin composition.
Legacy and revival
After his death, Joplin's music and
ragtimein general waned in popularity as new forms of musical styles, such as jazzand novelty piano, emerged. However, a number of revivals of ragtime have occurred since. Scott Joplin created many different styles of ragtime and made it what it is today.
In 1970, Joplin was inducted in the
Songwriters Hall of Fame, by the National Academy of Popular Music. [ [http://www.songwritershalloffame.org/inductees_by_year.asp Songwriters Hall of Fame Inductees] ]
In the early 1940s, many jazz bands began to include ragtime in their repertoire and released ragtime recordings on 78 RPM records. In 1970,
Joshua Rifkinreleased a Grammy nominated recording of Joplin's rags on the classical label Nonesuch. [ [http://theenvelope.latimes.com/extras/lostmind/year/1971/1971grammy.htm The Envelope Please - LA Times] ] In 1972, Joplin's opera" Treemonisha" was finally staged at Morehouse Collegein Atlanta. Marvin Hamlisch's adaptation of the Joplin rag "The Entertainer," featured in the Oscar-winning film " The Sting," reached #3 on the Billboard Hot 100music chart in 1974. Ironically, Hamlisch's slightly-abbreviated arrangements and performances of Joplin's rags for "The Sting", were anachronistic, as the film was set in the 1930s, well past the peak of the ragtime era.
In 1974, Kenneth MacMillan created a ballet for the Royal Ballet, "Elite Syncopations", based on tunes by Joplin, Max Morath and others. It is still performed occasionally. The same year saw the premiere by the Los Angeles Ballet of "Red Back Book", choreographed by John Clifford to orchestrated Joplin rags from the collection of the same name, as well as to solo piano works of the composer. For this production, music director Clyde Allen orchestrated the previously unorchestrated "Antoinette."
Scott Joplin was awarded a posthumous
Pulitzer Prizein 1976 for his special contribution to American music. [ [http://www.pulitzer.org/cgi-bin/year.pl?type=w&year=1976&FormsButton2=Retrieve Pulitzer Prizes for 1976.] ] He also has a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame. Motown Productionsproduced a "Scott Joplin" biographical filmstarring Billy Dee Williamsas Joplin, which was released by Universal Picturesin 1977.
In 1983, the
United States Postal Serviceissued a stamp of the composer as part of its Black Heritage commemorative series.
In 1987 Scott Joplin was inducted in the
Big Band and Jazz Hall of Fame.
A Scott Joplin festival takes place each spring in Sedalia. Ragtime players from around the globe perform at numerous locations throughout the town. At the site of the Maple Leaf club, which is now a parking lot, everyone who would like to can sign up to take a turn playing.
In 2002, Scott Joplin ragtime compositions on piano rolls (1900s), was included by the
National Recording Preservation Boardin the Library of Congress, National Recording Registry. [ [http://www.loc.gov/rr/record/nrpb/nrpb-2002reg.html 2002 National Recording Registry choices] ] The board selects songs in an annual basis that are "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."
Even at the time of publication, Joplin's publisher John Stark was claiming that the rags had obtained "classical" status, and "lifted ragtime from its low estate and lined it up with Beethoven and Bach". [Stark ad, page 23, in Ragtime Review (Vol. 1, No. 2: January 1915), quoted in [http://www.ragtimepiano.ca/rags/joplin.htm "Scott Joplin - The King of Ragtime Writers"] by Ted Tjaden.] . Later critics also saw merit in Joplin's compositions:
He combined the traditions of Afro-American folk music with nineteenth-century European romanticism; he collected the black Midwestern Folk rag ideas as raw material for the creation of original strains. Thus, his rags are the most heavily pentatonic, with liberal use of blue notes and other outstanding features that characterize black folk music. In this creative synthesis, . . . the traditional march became the dominant form, and the result was a new art form, the Classic rag – a unique conception which paradoxically both forged the way for early serious ragtime composition, and, at the same time, developed along insular lines, away from most other ragtime playing and composing.cite book
coauthors=Trebor Jay Tichenor
title=Rags and Ragtime: A Musical History
publisher=Dover Publications, Inc.
location=New York, NY
It is sometimes claimed that ragtime is one of the earliest forms of jazz. [ [http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/ent/A0859013.html Infoplease.com] ]
A note on tempo
Joplin left little doubt as to how his compositions should be performed and he explicitly wrote in many of his scores performance notes warning the pianist not to play the work fast. [See for example "The Entertainer", or "Sugar Cane - a Ragtime Two Step", p65 & 169, Scott Joplin Complete Piano Works, New York Public Library, 1981, ] However, according to Joplin biographer Rudi Blesh, Joplin's concept of "slow" was relative to the destructively fast tempo at which a whole school of "speed" players were playing and ruining the rags; the Maple Leaf rag being the primary victim. [Rudi Blesh, pxxix, "Scott Joplin: Black-American Classicist", Introduction to Scott Joplin Complete Piano Works, New York Public Library, 1981]
Works by Scott Joplin
List of compositions by Scott Joplin."
*Edward A. Berlin, "King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era" (ISBN 0-19-510108-1) — the most authoritative book on Joplin's life.
* [http://www.scottjoplin.org The Scott Joplin International Ragtime Foundation]
* [http://www.geocities.com/BourbonStreet/Bayou/9694/jopmyths.html Joplin Myths]
* [http://www.carolinaclassical.com/joplin/index.html Scott Joplin: King of Ragtime (1868-1917)]
* [http://www.edwardaberlin.com/work4.htm Brief biography of Scott Joplin]
* [http://www.famoustexans.com/scottjoplin.htm Joplin on Famous Texans site]
* [http://www.stlouiswalkoffame.org/inductees/scott-joplin.html Joplin at St. Louis Walk of Fame]
* [http://www.perfessorbill.com/pbmidi15.shtml "Perfessor" Bill Edwards plays Joplin] , with anecdotes and research.
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=556 Scott Joplin at Find-A-Grave]
* [http://chevalierdesaintgeorges.homestead.com/Joplin.html African Heritage] A site dedicated to African heritage in Classical music, which includes over 50 other composers.
* [http://music.minnesota.publicradio.org/features/9905_ragtime/index.shtml#timeline Maple Leaf Rag] A site dedicated to 100 years of the Maple Leaf Rag.
* [http://www.classicistranieri.com/dblog/articolo.asp?articolo=7788 Scott Joplin's Original Piano Rolls 1896-1917] MP3 Creative Commons
* [http://www.mostateparks.com/scottjoplin.htm The Scott Joplin House - St. Louis, Missouri]
Recordings and sheet music
* [http://kreusch-sheet-music.net/eng/?page=show&query=Scott%20Joplin&order=op www.kreusch-sheet-music.net] - Free Scores by Joplin
* [http://www.MutopiaProject.org/cgibin/make-table.cgi?searchingfor=Joplin The Mutopia project] has freely downloadable piano scores of several of Joplin's works
* [http://www.ragtimepiano.ca/rags/joplin.htm Sheet Music and Covers] (includes cover art, comprehensive sheet music selection, and biography)
*Kunst der Fuge: [http://www.kunstderfuge.com/ragtime.htm#Joplin Scott Joplin - MIDI files] (live and piano-rolls recordings)
* [http://www.free-sheet-music.de/joplin Scott Joplin] - German site with free sheet music and MIDI files
* [http://www.johnroachemusic.com/index.html John Roache's site] has excellent MIDI performances of ragtime music by Joplin and others
*Scott Joplin, Complete Piano Rags, David A Jasen, 1988, ISBN 0-486-25807-6
* [http://sheetmusicswap.com/music.php?composer=1 Scott Joplin Sheet Music]
* [http://www.pianola.co.nz/sounds/Pleasant_Moments_Piano_Roll.mp3 Pleasant Moments, 2.1MB] . This is a recording of the Connorized piano roll made by Joplin in April 1916, and thought lost until mid-2006.
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Scott Joplin — en 1907 Naissance 1867 Texarkana, Texas Pays d’origine … Wikipédia en Français
Scott Joplin — Datos generales Nombre real Scott Joplin Nacimiento 24 de noviembre de 1868 … Wikipedia Español
Scott Joplin — (* zwischen Juni 1867 und Januar 1868 bei Linden in Texas; † 1. April 1917 in New York) war ein US amerikanischer Komponist und Pianist. Schlüssiger als andere Komponisten des Ragtime hat Joplin, der als „Vollender dieses Stils“ ang … Deutsch Wikipedia
Scott Joplin — Scott Joplin, n. Texarkana?, Texas, Estados Unidos, 24 de noviembre? de 1868? m. Manhattan, Nueva York, Estados Unidos, 1 de abril de 1917. Compositor y pianista estadounidense. Fue una de las figuras más importantes en el desarrollo del ragtime… … Enciclopedia Universal
Scott Joplin — noun United States composer who was the first creator of ragtime to write down his compositions (1868 1917) • Syn: ↑Joplin • Instance Hypernyms: ↑composer * * * Scott Joplin [Scott Joplin] … Useful english dictionary
Scott Joplin — ➡ Joplin (II) * * * … Universalium
Scott Joplin House — Infobox nrhp | name =Scott Joplin House nrhp type = nhl caption = location= St. Louis, Missouri lat degrees = 38 lat minutes = 38 lat seconds = 14 lat direction = N long degrees = 90 long minutes = 12 long seconds = 53 long direction = W locmapin … Wikipedia
Scott Joplin House State Historic Site — Die Scott Joplin House State Historic Site in St. Louis ist der ehemalige Wohnsitz und Gedenkstätte des 1917 verstorbenen Ragtime Musikers Scott Joplin. Der State Park ist 1,5 ha groß. Scott Joplin House Als Scott Joplin mit seiner Frau… … Deutsch Wikipedia
List of compositions by Scott Joplin — This is a complete list of musical compositions by Scott Joplin (1867 or 1868 – April 1, 1917). Scott Joplin in 1907 … Wikipedia
Scott Hayden — Naissance 31 mars 1882 Sedalia, Missouri, Pays d’origine États Unis … Wikipédia en Français