- History of electrical engineering
This article details the history of electrical engineering. Topics also included are the general developments and notable individuals within the
Thalesof Miletus, writing at around 600 BC, described a form of static electricity, noting that rubbing furon various substances, such as amber, would cause a particular attractionbetween the two. He noted that the amber buttons could attract light objects such as hairand that if they rubbed the amber for long enough they could even get a sparkto jump.
An object found in
Iraqin 1938, dated to about 250 BC and called the Baghdad Battery, resembles a galvanic celland is believed by some to have been used for electroplatingin Mesopotamia, although this has not yet been proven.
In the 9th century AD,
Abbas Ibn Firnasinvented an artificial weather simulationroom in which spectators saw and were astonished by stars, clouds, artificial thunder, and lightningwhich were produced by mechanisms hidden in his basement laboratory. [ Lynn Townsend White, Jr.(Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", "Technology and Culture" 2 (2): 97-111 [100-1] ] [citation|title=Muslim Spain 711-1492 A.D.|first=S. M.|last=Imamuddin|publisher= Brill Publishers|year=1981|isbn=9004061312|page=166] It is unknown how he produced the artificial thunder and lightning and whether or not any electricitywas involved.
Electricityhas been a subject of scientificinterest since at least the 17th century. A friction machine was constructed at about 1663 by Otto von Guericke, using a rotating sulphur globe rubbed by hand. Isaac Newtonsuggested the use of a glass globe instead of a sulphur one (Optics, 8th Query). In the latter part of the 18th Century, Benjamin Franklin, Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist, and Pieter van Musschenbroek(the last two the inventors of the Leyden jar) made several important discoveries concerning electrostatic machines. The first suggestion of an influence machineappears to have grown out of the invention of Alessandro Volta's electrophorus. "Doublers" were the first rotating influence machines. Abraham Bennet, the inventor of the gold leaf electroscope, described a "doubler" or "machine for multiplying electric charges" (Phil. Trans., 1787).
19th century developments
In the 19th century, the subject of electrical engineering, with the tools of modern research techniques, started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of
Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric currentand potential differencein a conductor, Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic inductionin 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetismin his treatise on "Electricity and Magnetism". [ cite encyclopedia | ency=Encyclopædia Britannica | edition=11 | year=1911 | article="Ohm, Georg Simon", "Faraday, Michael" and "Maxwell, James Clerk" ] In the 1830s, Georg Ohm also constructed an early electrostatic machine. The homopolar generatorwas developed first by Michael Faradayduring his memorable experiments in 1831. It was the beginning of modern dynamos — that is, electrical generators which operate using a magnetic field. The invention of the industrial generator, which didn't need external magnetic power in 1866 by Werner von Siemensmade a large series of other inventions in the wake possible. In 1878, the British inventor James Wimshurstdeveloped an apparatus that had two glass disks mounted on two shafts ("ed". it was not till 1883 that the Wimshurst machinewas more fully reported to the scientific community).
During the latter part of the 1800s, the study of electricity was largely considered to be a subfield of
physics. It was not until the late 19th century that universities started to offer degrees in electrical engineering. In 1882, Darmstadt University of Technologyfounded the first chair and the first faculty of electrical engineering worldwide. In 1883, Darmstadt University of Technologyand Cornell Universityintroduced the world's first courses of study in electrical engineering and in 1885 the University College Londonfounded the first chair of electrical engineering in the United Kingdom. The University of Missourisubsequently established the first department of electrical engineering in the United States in 1886. [ cite book | author=Ryder, John and Fink, Donald; | title=Engineers and Electrons | publisher=IEEE Press | year=1984 | id=ISBN 0-87942-172-X ]
During this period work in the area increased dramatically. In 1882 Edison switched on the world's first large-scale electrical supply network that provided 110 volts
direct currentto fifty-nine customers in lower Manhattan. In 1887 Nikola Teslafiled a number of patents related to a competing form of power distribution known as alternating current. In the following years a bitter rivalry between Tesla and Edison, known as the " War of Currents", took place over the preferred method of distribution. AC eventually replaced DC for generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range and improving the safety and efficiency of power distribution. The efforts of the two did much to further electrical engineering—Tesla's work on induction motors and polyphase systems influenced the field for years to come, while Edison's work on telegraphy and his development of the stock tickerproved lucrative for his company, which ultimately became General Electric.
However, by the end of the 19th century, other key figures in the progress of electrical engineering were beginning to emerge. [cite web | title=History | work=National Fire Protection Association | url=http://www.nfpa.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=500&itemID=18020&URL=About%20Us/History | accessdate=January 19 | accessyear=2006 "(published 1996 in the NFPA Journal)" ]
Charles Proteus Steinmetzhelped foster the development of alternating current that made possible the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States, formulating mathematical theories for engineers.
; Emergence of radio and electronics
Beginning of the 20th century
During the development of radio, many scientists and
inventors contributed to radio technology and electronics. In his classic UHF experiments of 1888, Heinrich Hertztransmitted (via a spark-gap transmitter) and detected radio wavesusing electrical equipment. In 1895, Nikola Tesla was able to detect signals from the transmissions of his New York lab at West Point (a distance of 80.4 km) [Leland Anderson, "Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power", Sun Publishing Company, LC 92-60482, ISBN 0-9632652-0-2 ("ed". [http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/nt_on_ac.htm excerpts available online] )] . In 1896, Alexander Popov made wirelesstransmissions across 60 m and Guglielmo Marconi, around the same time, made a transmission across 2.4 km. John Fleming invented the first radio tube, the diode, in 1904. Reginald Fessendenrecognized that a continuous wave needed to be generated to make speech transmission possible, and he continued the work of Nikola Tesla, John Stone Stone, and Elihu Thomsonon this subject. By the end of 1906, Fessenden sent the first radio broadcast of voice. Also in 1906, Robert von Liebenand Lee De Forestindependently developed the amplifier tube, called the triode. [cite web | title = History of Amateur Radio | work = What is Amateur Radio? | url = http://www.amateurradio.uni-halle.de/hamradio.en.html | accessdate = January 18 | accessyear = 2006 ] Edwin Howard Armstrongenabling technology for electronic television, in 1931. [cite web | title = History of TV | url = http://history.acusd.edu/gen/recording/television1.html | accessdate = January 18 | accessyear = 2006 ]
Second World War years
The second world war saw tremendous advances in the field of electronics; especially in
RADARand with the invention of the magnetron by Randall and Boot at the University of Birminghamin 1940. Radio location, radio communicationand radio guidance of aircraft were all developed in Britain at this time. An early electronic computing device, Colossus was built by Tommy Flowersof the GPOto decipher the coded messages of the German Lorenz cipher machine. Also developed at this time were advanced clandestine radio transmitters and receivers for use by secret agents.An American invention at the time was a device to scramble the telephone calls between Churchill and Roosevelt. This was called the Green Hornet system and worked by inserting noise into the signal. The noise was then extracted at the receiving end. This system was never broken by the Germans.A great amount of work was undertaken in the United States as part of the War Training Program in the areas of radio direction finding, pulsed linear networks, frequency modulation, vacuum tube circuits, transmission line theory and fundamentals of electromagnetic engineering. These studies were published shortly after the war in what became known as the 'Radio Communication Series' published by McGraw hill 1946.In 1941 Konrad Zusepresented the Z3, the world's first fully functional and programmable computer. [ cite web | title=The Z3 | url=http://irb.cs.tu-berlin.de/~zuse/Konrad_Zuse/en/Rechner_Z3.html | accessdate=January 18 | accessyear=2006]
Post war developments
Prior to the second world war, the subject was commonly known as 'radio engineering' and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and RADAR, commercial radio and early television. At this time, study of radio engineering at universities could only be undertaken as part of a physics degree.
Later, in post war years, as consumer devices began to be developed, the field broadened to include modern TV, audio systems, Hi-Fi and latterly computers and microprocessors. In 1946 the
ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) of John Presper Eckertand John Mauchlyfollowed, beginning the computing era. The arithmetic performance of these machines allowed engineers to develop completely new technologies and achieve new objectives, including the Apollo missions and the NASA moon landing. cite web | title=The ENIAC Museum Online | url=http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~museum/guys.html | accessdate=January 18 | accessyear=2006
The invention of the transistor in 1947 by
William B. Shockley, John Bardeenand Walter Brattainopened the door for more compact devices and led to the development of the integrated circuitin 1958 by Jack Kilbyand independently in 1959 by Robert Noyce. [cite web | title=Electronics Timeline | work=Greatest Engineering Achievements of the Twentieth Century | url=http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=3956 | accessdate=January 18 | accessyear=2006 ] In the mid to late 1950s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name electronics engineering, which then became a stand alone university degree subject, usually taught alongside electrical engineering with which it had become associated due to some similarities. In 1968 Marcian Hoffinvented the first microprocessorat Inteland thus ignited the development of the personal computer. The first realization of the microprocessor was the Intel 4004, a 4-bit processor developed in 1971, but only in 1973 did the Intel 8080, an 8-bit processor, make the building of the first personal computer, the Altair 8800, possible. [cite web | title=Computing History (1971 - 1975) | url=http://mbinfo.mbdesign.net/1971-75.htm | accessdate=January 18 | accessyear=2006]
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