El Escorial, Madrid

El Escorial, Madrid

Infobox Settlement
official_name = El Escorial
native_name =
nickname =
motto = |

image_caption =
imagesize = 270px

image_shield = Escudo El Escorial.pngflag_link = Flag of El Escorial
shield_link = Shield of El Escorial
shield_size = 50px

imag|government_type =
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Antonio Vicente Rubio
leader_party = PP
established_title = Founded
established_date =
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area_magnitude =
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area_total_km2 =
area_land_km2 = 607
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population_as_of = 2007
population_footnotes =
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population_total = 14492
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timezone = CET
utc_offset = +1
timezone_DST = CEST
utc_offset_DST = +2
latd=40 |latm=23 |lats= |latNS=N
longd=3 |longm=43 |longs= |longEW=W
elevation_footnotes =
elevation_m = 909
elevation_ft =
postal_code_type = Postal code
postal_code = 28280
area_code = 34 (Spain) +
website = [http://www.aytoescorial.org/ www.aytoescorial.org] es icon
footnotes =

El Escorial is a municipality in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, located 45 km (28 mi) northwest of the Spanish capital Madrid. Its population in 2003 was 12,669.

The famous Royal Seat of San Lorenzo de El Escorial also known as Monasterio de El Escorial or "El Escorial", is located in the adjacent municipality of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. On the outskirts of San Lorenzo de El Escorial is the national memorial "Valle de los Caídos" (Valley of the Fallen).

The name of the town derives from slag ("escoria") deposits from an old local foundry.

Historic buildings and other structures

*La Granjilla de La Fresneda, also known as "La Fresneda" and "La Granjilla de La Fresneda de El Escorial", was a cottage of Philip II in the environment of the Monastery of El Escorial. La Granjilla was designed and constructed between 1561 and 1569, by Gaspar de Vega, Juan Bautista de Toledo, Juan de Herrera, Pedro de Tolosa, Fray Marcos de Cardona and Petre Janson. Situated at the foot of Mt. Abantos in the Sierra de Guadarrama, La Granjilla de La Fresneda, like El Escorial, is a multifunctional architectural complex: a place of woods, pastures and meadows with dams and artificial waterways, ponds and gardens; palace, chapel, tower, monastery for rest of the monks of El Escorial and granite boulders (e.g.: La Peña del Rey). It is located 5 km to the south-east of the Monastery of El Escorial and 3 km from the municipality of El Escorial on the M505.

*Church of St. Barnabas - based on the design of Francisco de Mora, constructed at the wish of King Philip II to replace an older church on the same site. Many expert stonemasons from the Monastery worked on its construction, cutting the granite from which its solid walls are built. The structure is notable for its simplicity and equilibrium, its harmony of line and proportion, and the almost total absence of ornamentation.

*Monastery "Prestado" - residence of Philip II during the early years of the construction of the Monastery in San Lorenzo, the church was adapted for this use by adding new extensions and improving the existing structure. Construction was completed between 1567 and 1568. In later years the building saw use as a hospital for workers on construction of the Monastery, and for making glass, from which the chimney is still visible.

*The House of the Prince ("La Casita del Príncipe") - in neoclassical style, constructed between 1771 and 1775 and remodeled in 1781, under King Charles III by the architect Juan de Villanueva. It became the summer residence of the crown prince, the future Charles IV.

*Cross of Nefando - built on a rock in an interior garden of the Casita, in the first half of the 17th century

*Cross "del Tercio" - constructed in the 17th century, it marked the border between the neighborhoods of La Fresneda and Navalquejigo. Since 1985 it has stood at the center of a town square.

*Cross of Navaarmado - served to mark the boundary between La Fresneda and the urban center of El Escorial. The cross sits atop a large granite rock.

*Ark of St. Sebastian - from the mid-16th century, it served for the administration of water to the town. The walls are made of granite ashlars.

The municipality of El Escorial contains a RENFE commuter train station connecting the area to Madrid.

ee also

* La Granjilla de La Fresneda de El Escorial, Madrid
* Monasterio de El Escorial
* San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Madrid
* Valle de los Caídos

External links

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