Landdrost


Landdrost

"Landdrost" was the title of various officials with local jurisdiction. It is of Dutch (cognate with Low German) origin, with "land-" corresponding to the English meaning of an area, suggesting a somewhat larger jurisdiction than just a village or estate; and "drost" being a short form of "Drossaard", one of many similar titles in feudal lordships and corresponding to a Reeve or Steward in some localities on the British Isles, or a "Meier" (from Latin language Maiordomus) in German ones.

Feudal era

Originally, a Drost in the Low Countries — where various other titles were in use for similar offices — was an officer of the local Lord, exercising various functions depending on the endlessly varied local customary law, such as tax collection, policing, public prosecutor and execution of sentences.

Dutch Cape colony and Boer secessions

The office was also introduced in the Dutch colony of the Cape of Good Hope.

However it only came to more gubernatorial significance in some of the Boer polities that seceded shortly after the British took over the colony, notably:

*Graaff-Reinet had only one "national" Landdrost, 6 February 1795 – 22 August 1796: Friedrich Carl David Gerotz (1739–1828)
*The Utrecht Republic had three consecutive Landdrosts:
**1852 – 1855: Andreas Theodorus Spies (1800–1889), who was already in office before the settlement declared itself a republic
**1855 – February 1856: J.C. Styen
**February 1856 – 8 May 1858: Andreas Theodorus Spies (2nd time)

A similar gubernatorial role in other Boer polities was played by officials styled "Kaptyn" ('captain', in the original sense of Headman).

In the Cape Colony, an ordinance passed in 1827 abolished the old Dutch "landdrost" and "heemraden" courts, instead substituting British-type resident magistrates, who would act only in English.

Netherlands under Napoleonic rule

*Drenthe province, after Administrators (16 February 1795 - 8 May 1807), had two Landdrosts:
**8 May 1807 - 1 January 1810 Petrus Hofstede (b. 1755 - d. 1839)
**1 January 1810 - 1811 Jan Adriaan, baron van Zuylen van Nijevelt (b. 1776 - d. 1840); next it had Governors
*Friesland (Dutch Frisia), after several Administrators, had one Landdrost: 8 May 1807 - February 1811 Regnerus Livius van Andringa de Kempenaer (b. 1752 - d. 1813), next a Prefect (1811 - 13 December 1813 January: Gijsbert Verstolk van Soelen), then Commissarissen-generaal
*Gelderland, after Administrators (16 February 1795 - 8 May 1807), had Landdrosts:
**8 May 1807 - 14 November 1807: Gerrit Willem Joseph, baron van Lamswerde (b. 1758 - d. 1837)
**14 November 1807 - 1 January 1811 Johan Arend de Vos van Steenwijk (b. 1746 - d. 1813)
**1810 - February 1811 Verstolk van Soelen; next a Prefect (February 1811 - 1 December 1813 Regnerus Livius van Andringa de Kempenaer (b. 1752 - d. 1813), afterwards Governors
*Groningen province, after Administrators (16 February 1795 - 8 May 1807), had one Landdrost: 8 May 1807 - 1 January 1811 Hendrik Ludolf Wichers (b. 1747 - d. 1840), next two Prefects of Ems-Occidental, then Governors
*Noord Brabant ('North Brabant'), after Administrators (16 February 1795 - 8 May 1807) had one Landdrost, 8 May 1807 - 1810: Paul Emanuel Anthony de la Court (b. 1760 - d. 1848), next a Prefect of Bouches-du-Rhin department (9 July 1810 - 1814 Nicolas, baron Frémin de Beaumont), then Governors
*Holland (only 1840 divided in the present two provinces North - and South Holland) as such never had a Landdrost; however, while the Amstel, Delf and Texel départements were only under Commissioners, these temporary fractions did:
**Amstelland, formed in 1807 from Amsterdam and northern part of département Holland, until it was on 9 July 1810 merged with Utrecht into French département Zuyderzee, had one Landdrost, 1807 - 9 July 1810: Jan van Styrum (b. 1757 - d. 1829)
**Maasland, in 1807 a département formed from The Hague and southern parts of département of Holland, had a single Landdrost, May 1807 - November 1807: Jacob Abraham de Mist (b. 1749 - d. 1823), then Prefects (continuing when on 9 July 1810 renamed French département Bouches-de-la-Meuse) until it was in 1814 abolished
*Overijssel, after Administrators (16 February 1795 - 1 January 1810) had one Landdrost, 1 January 1810 - 1811: Petrus Hofstede (b. 1755 - d. 1839), then two Prefects of "Bouches-de-l'Yssel" (1811 - 1814)
*Utrecht province, after Administrators (16 February 1795 - 1806) had one Landdrost, 1806 - 1811: Jan Hendrik van Lynden (b. 1765 - d. 1854), then Governors
*Zeeland, after Administrators (17 February 1795 - 8 May 1807) had two Landdrosts:
**8 May 1807 - 1809 Abraham van Doorn (b. 1760 - d. 1814)
**8 September 1809 - 16 March 1810 François Ermerins (b. 1753 - d. 1840); next two Prefects of Bouches-de-l'Escaut (9 July 1810 - 1814), then Governors
*Meanwhile Dutch Limburg (which had had one "Drossard" as Chief Justice, 1754 - 1794: Philippe Joseph Dieudonné, graaf van Woestenraedt) was simply annexed to France as one of the 'Belgian' provinces, département Meuse-Inférieure 'Lower Maas (=Meuse)'

Post-World War II Dutch-occupied Germany

After World War II, the old landdrost title was re-used for two extraordinary jurisdictions within the Dutch Occupation Zone in Germany. On 22 March 1949, the Allies agreed to let the Netherlands occupy and annex some German border territories. These included the municipalities of Havert, Hillensberg, Millen, Süsterseel, Tüddern (Dutch: Tudderen), Wehr, parts of Höngen, Gangelt, Schumm, Saeffelen as well as Elten and Hoch-Elten.

The Dutch annexation effectively started on 23 April that year, with the following two jurisdictions declared:
*Landdrost of Tudderen (Tüddern in German) (directly subordinated to the Dutch government up to September 1951, then to the Governor of Dutch Limburg province): 1949 – 1963 Hubert M.J. Dassen
*two Landdrosten of Elten (subordinated to the Dutch government up to September 1951, then to the Commissioner of the Queen -i.e. Governor- for Gelderland)
**April 1949 – October 1961: Dr. Adriaan Blaauboer (b. 1906)
**October 1961 – August 1963: Baron Hans Georg Inundat van Tuyll van Serooskerken (b. 1917 - d. 1988)

This situation lasted until 11 August 1963, when all territories were returned except for minor frontier adjustments, following German agreement to pay war compensation.

ources and references

* [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/South_Africa.html#South%20Africa WorldStatesmen- here South Africa]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Landdrost — Land drost , n.; pl. { drosten} . Sometimes incorrectly Landtrost Landtrost [D., fr. land land + drost a kind of official; akin to G. truchsess.] (In South Africa) (a) A chief magistrate in rural districts. He was replaced in 1827 by resident… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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  • landdrost — land·drost …   English syllables

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  • Landdrost, der — Der Landdrost, des en, plur. die en, in einigen Gegenden, besonders Niedersachsens, ein Landvogt, Vorgesetzter eines Landes, d.i. einer Provinz, S. Drost. Daher die Landdrostey, das Amt, die Würde eines Landdrosten, ingleichen, der ihm… …   Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart

  • Friedrich von Fürstenberg (Landdrost) — Friedrich von Fürstenberg Herdringen (* 1. März 1576 auf Burg Bilstein; † 9. August 1646) war kurkölnischer (Land )Droste im Herzogtum Westfalen, erblicher Pfandherr der Ämter Bilstein und Fredeburg sowie Grundbesitzer zu Herdringen und weiterer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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