Croque-monsieur

Croque-monsieur
A croque-monsieur.

A croque-monsieur is a hot ham and cheese (typically Emmental or Gruyère) grilled sandwich. It originated in France as a fast-food snack served in cafés and bars. More elaborate versions come coated in a Mornay or Béchamel sauce.

The name is based on the verb croquer ("to crunch") and the word monsieur ("mister")—the reason behind the combination of the two words is unclear—and is colloquially shortened to croque. While the origins of the croque-monsieur are unknown, there are many speculations on how it was first created. The croque-monsieur's first recorded appearance on a Parisian café menu was in 1910.[1] Its earliest mention in literature appears to be in volume two of Proust's Remembrance of Things Past (À la recherche du temps perdu) (1918).[2]

Variations

A croque madame sandwich.
A croque provençal sandwich.
A croque gagnet sandwich
Chroque as served in Northern Germany since the 1970's, here without remoulade

A croque-monsieur served with a fried egg or poached egg on top is known as a croque-madame[3] (or in parts of Normandy a croque-à-cheval). The noted French chef Jacques Pepin also makes a version using chicken instead of ham,[4] which he demonstrated in the "Our Favorite Sandwiches"[5] episode on the PBS series (and its coordinating cookbook of the same title) Julia and Jacques Cooking at Home in which he worked with Julia Child. Many dictionaries[who?] attribute the name to the egg resembling an old fashioned woman's hat. According to the Petit Robert dictionary, the name dates to around 1960. The name croque-mademoiselle is associated with many different sandwiches, from diet recipes to desserts.[6] A ham and cheese sandwich snack, very similar to the croque-monsieur, is called a tosti in the Netherlands. A version of this sandwich in Spain replaces the ham with sobrassada, a soft sausage from the Balearic Islands that can be easily spread. In Catalonia it is known as a Bikini.[7]

Versions of the sandwich with substitutions or additional ingredients are given names modelled on the original croque-monsieur, for example:

See also

References

  1. ^ Montagné, Prosper; Charlotte Snyder Turgeon and Nina Froud (1961). Larousse Gastronomique. New York City: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 0-517-50333-6. OCLC 413918. [page needed]
  2. ^ (French) Entry in the on-line Trésor de la langue française.
  3. ^ Dictionnaire général pour la maîtrise de la langue française, la culture classique et contemporaine. Paris: Larousse. 1993. p. 405. ISBN 2-03-320300-X. OCLC 29916226. 
  4. ^ Pepin, Jacques; Julia Child, David Nussbaum (September 1999). "Jacques's Croque Madame Recipe". Epicurious. http://www.epicurious.com/recipes/food/views/Jacquess-Croque-Madame-102364. Retrieved 1 October 2010. 
  5. ^ "104: Our Favorite Sandwiches". Julia and Jacques: Cooking at Home: The Episodes. http://www.alacartetv.com/html/jnj/episode.htm. Retrieved 1 October 2010. 
  6. ^ Recette Croque Mademoiselle
  7. ^ http://www.iberianature.com/spainblog/a-guide-to-food-in-spain-b/bikini/
  8. ^ http://frenchfood.about.com/od/toprecipes/a/croquelist.htm
  9. ^ Downie, David (23 July 2000). "Bread Winner". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jul/23/magazine/tm-57540. 
  10. ^ http://judicialpeach.com/2009/05/31/croque-norvegien/
  11. ^ http://frenchfood.about.com/od/toprecipes/a/croquelist.htm
  12. ^ Time. 1 November 2010. http://newsfeed.time.com/2010/11/02/ready-for-the-mcrib-our-ten-favorite-mcfoods/croque/. 

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См. также в других словарях:

  • Croque-monsieur — cuisiné à la poêle. Un croque monsieur ou croquemonsieur, appelé familièrement croque, est une sorte de sandwich chaud, au pain de mie, au jambon et au fromage (le plus souvent de l emmental), grillé à la poêle, au four ou …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Croque Monsieur — cuisiné à la poêle. Un croque monsieur ou croquemonsieur, appelé familièrement croque, est une sorte de sandwich chaud, au pain de mie, au jambon et au fromage (le plus souvent de l emmental), grillé à la …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Croque-monsieur — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Croque monsieur gratinado. El croque monsieur es un sandwich elaborado con pan de molde, jamón y queso, generalmente de emmental o gruyere, asado al horno, a la plancha o en una sartén. La mayoría d …   Wikipedia Español

  • croque-monsieur — [ krɔkməsjø ] n. m. inv. • 1918; de croquer et monsieur ♦ Sandwich chaud fait de pain de mie grillé, avec du jambon et du fromage. Elle avait commandé « des “croque Monsieur” et des œufs à la crème » (Proust). Abrév. fam. CROQUE . Des croques. ●… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • croque-monsieur — [krōk′mə syʉr′; ] Fr [ krō̂k mə syö′] n. pl. croque monsieur, croque monsieurs 〚Fr〛 a sandwich filled with ham and cheese, either dipped in egg batter or buttered on the outside, and toasted or grilled: also croque monsieur * * * …   Universalium

  • croque-monsieur — [krōk′mə syʉr′; ] Fr [ krō̂k mə syö′] n. pl. croque monsieur, croque monsieurs [Fr] a sandwich filled with ham and cheese, either dipped in egg batter or buttered on the outside, and toasted or grilled: also croque monsieur …   English World dictionary

  • croque-monsieur — /krok mø syøˈ/ (French) noun A type of toasted sandwich filled with ham and cheese …   Useful english dictionary

  • Croque-Monsieur — In diesem Artikel oder Abschnitt fehlen folgende wichtige Informationen: Quellen fehlen. Du kannst Wikipedia helfen, indem du sie recherchierst und einfügst …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Croque Monsieur — In diesem Artikel oder Abschnitt fehlen folgende wichtige Informationen: Quellen fehlen. Du kannst Wikipedia helfen, indem du sie recherchierst und einfügst …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • croque monsieur — /krɒk məˈsjɜ/ (say krok muh syer) noun a toasted ham and cheese sandwich. {French croquer to grill + monsieur title for a man} …   Australian English dictionary


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