Marche — Region of Italy —
Coat of arms
Anthem: Inno delle Marche Country Italy Capital Ancona Government - President Gian Mario Spacca (PD) Area - Total 9,366 km2 (3,616.2 sq mi) Population (01-01-2011) - Total 1,565,000 - Density 167.1/km2 (432.8/sq mi) Time zone CET (UTC+1) - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2) GDP/ Nominal € 41.7 billion (2010) GDP per capita € 26,500 (2008) NUTS Region ITE Website www.regione.marche.it
Marche (pronounced [ˈmarke]) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The name of the region derives from the plural name of marca, originally referring to the medieval March of Ancona and nearby marches of Camerino and Fermo. In English, this region has also been known as The Marches.
The region is located in the Central area of the country, bordering Emilia-Romagna and the republic of San Marino to the north, Tuscany to the north-west, Umbria to the west, Abruzzo and Lazio to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Except for river valleys and the often very narrow coastal strip, the land is hilly. In the nineteenth century, a railway from Bologna to Brindisi ran along the coastline of the entire territory. Inland, the mountainous nature of the region, even today, allows little travel north and south, except by rough roads over the passes.
Marche extends over an area of 9,694 km² of the central Adriatic slope between Emilia-Romagna to the north, Tuscany and Umbria to the west, and Lazio and Abruzzo to the south, the entire eastern boundary being formed by the Adriatic. Most of the region is mountainous or hilly, the main features being the Apennine chain along the internal boundary and an extensive system of hills descending towards the Adriatic. With the sole exception of Monte Vettore, 2,476 m high, the mountains do not exceed 2,400 m. The hilly area covers two-thirds of the region and is interrupted by wide gullies with numerous - albeit short - rivers and by alluvial plains perpendicular to the principal chain. The parallel mountain chains contain deep river gorges, the best known being those of the Furlo, the Rossa and the Frasassi.
Marche was known in ancient times as the Picenum territory. The coastal area was occupied by the Senones, a tribe of Gauls. It was conquered by the Romans after the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC. The Romans founded numerous colonies in the areas, connecting them to Rome by the Via Flaminia and the Via Salaria. Ascoli was a seat of Italic resistance during the Social War (91–88 BC).
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was invaded by the Goths. After the Gothic War, it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (Ancona, Fano, Pesaro, Rimini, and Senigallia forming the so-called Pentapolis). After the fall of the Exarchate it was briefly in the possession of the Lombards, but was conquered by Charlemagne in the late eighth century. In the ninth to eleventh centuries the marches of Camerino, Fermo and Ancona were created, hence the modern name.
Marche was nominally part of the Papal States, but most of the territory was under local lords, while the major cities ruled themselves as free communes. In the twelfth century, the commune of Ancona resisted both the imperial authority of Frederick Barbarossa and the Republic of Venice, and was a maritime republic on its own. An attempt to restore Papal suzerainty by Gil de Albornoz in the fourteenth century was short-lived.
During the Renaissance, the region was fought over by rival aristocratic families, such as the Malatesta of Rimini, Pesaro, Fano and the house of Montefeltro of Urbino. The last independent entity, the Duchy of Urbino, was dissolved in 1631, and from then on, Marche was firmly part of the Papal States except during the Napoleonic period. This saw the short lived Republic of Ancona, in 1797-98, the merging of the region with the Roman Republic, in 1798-99 and with the Kingdom of Italy from 1808 to 1813, and the short occupation by Joachim Murat in 1815. After Napoleon's defeat, Marche returned to Papal rule until November 4, 1860, when it was annexed to the unified Kingdom of Italy by a plebiscite.
After the referendum of 2006, 7 municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join the one of Rimini (Emilia-Romagna) on 15 August 2009. The municipalities are Casteldelci, Maiolo, Novafeltria, Pennabilli, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello.
Up to 30 years ago Marche was considered a rather poor region, although economically stable in some sectors, thanks particularly to its agricultural output and to the contribution of traditional crafts.
Today the contribution of agriculture to the economy of the region is less significant and the gross value generated by this sector remains slightly above the national average. Marche has never suffered from the extremes of fragmented land ownership or ' latifondo'. Greatly diffused in the past, the sharecropping never produced an extreme land fragmentation. The main products are cereals, vegetables, animal products and grapes. In spite of the marine impoverishment, the sea has always furnished a plentiful supply of fish, the main fishing centres being Ancona, San Benedetto del Tronto, Fano and Civitanova Marche.
In the last 30 years the economy of the region has been radically transformed, without however repudiating its rural past. Many of the small craft workshops scattered throughout the rural settlements have modernised and become small businesses, some of which have become major brands known all over the world (Indesit, Tod's, Guzzini, Teuco). This evolution led to the emergence of 'specialised' industrial areas, which are still profitable: footwear and leather goods in a large area straddling the provinces of Macerata and Fermo; furniture in the Pesaro area in particular; household appliances and textile industry in the province of Ancona, in which the main engineering companies are also to be found (including ship building, petrochemicals and paper, as well as consumer durables). The region continues to draw tourists, whose increasing numbers have been attracted by the rich and broadly distributed heritage of history and monuments, as well as by the traditional seaside resorts.
Historical populations Year Pop. ±% 1861 909,000 — 1871 958,000 +5.4% 1881 972,000 +1.5% 1901 1,089,000 +12.0% 1911 1,145,000 +5.1% 1921 1,201,000 +4.9% 1931 1,240,000 +3.2% 1936 1,278,000 +3.1% 1951 1,364,000 +6.7% 1961 1,347,000 −1.2% 1971 1,360,000 +1.0% 1981 1,412,000 +3.8% 1991 1,429,000 +1.2% 2001 1,471,000 +2.9% 2011 1,565,000 +6.4% Source: ISTAT 2001
The population density in the region is below the national average. In 2008, it was 161.5 inhabitants per km2, compared to the national figure of 198.8. It is highest in the province of Ancona (244.6 inhabitants per km2), and lowest in the province of Macerata (116.1 inhabitants per km2). Between 1952 and 1967 the population of the region decreased by 1.7% as a result of a negative migration balance, well above the national average, with a rate varying between 4.9 and 10.0 per 1000 inhabitants.The Average fund of this region is worth about a few million or maybe higher In the same period the natural balance of the population was positive, but lower than the national average and insufficient to counterbalance the net emigration. The population continued to decline until 1971, but in 1968 began growing again. In 2008, the Italian national institute of statistics (ISTAT) estimated that 115,299 foreign-born immigrants live in Marche, 7.4% of total regional population.
Government and politics
Marche forms, along with Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany and Umbria, the Italian "Red Quadrilateral", a strongly left-wing area. In the April 2006 elections, the people of Marche gave 55% of their votes to Romano Prodi.
The region is divided into five provinces (the official data for the fifth province (Fermo), instituted in 2009, will be available only with the 2011 census, here its figures are still included in those of the province of Ascoli Piceno):
Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²) Province of Ancona 1,940 474,630 244.6 Province of Ascoli Piceno 2,087 388,621 186.2 Province of Macerata 2,774 321,973 116.1 Province of Pesaro and Urbino 2,564 364,896 141.9
- ^ [http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tgs00003&plugin=1 Regional gross domestic product (million EUR), by NUTS 2 regions (Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table)
- ^ EUROPA - Press Releases - Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London
- ^ (Italian) Article about the legislation
- ^ (Italian) Article on "il Resto del Carlino"
- ^ a b c "Eurostat". Circa.europa.eu. http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/regportraits/info/data/en/ite3_eco.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- ^ "Eurostat". Circa.europa.eu. http://circa.europa.eu/irc/dsis/regportraits/info/data/en/ite3_pop.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
History PoliticsElections in Marche • List of Presidents of Marche Culture Regions of Italy Italy topics HistoryPrehistory · Etruscan Civilization · Magna Graecia · Ancient Rome (Kingdom • Republic • Empire) · Regnum Italicum · Middle Ages · Years of the 12th – 14th century · Renaissance · Italian Wars · Foreign domination · Unification · Monarchy and the World Wars · Republic · Historical states · Fashion history · Wine history · Language history · Railway history · Postal history · History of the Jews · Citizenship history · Musical history GeographyAreasTopics Governance Politics Military EconomyEconomic history under Fascism · Post-war economic miracle · Currency history · Bank of Italy · Companies · Stock exchange · Nuclear energy · Renewable energy · Taxation · Transportation · Automotive industry · Communications · Tourism · Banking · Euro coins · Regions by GDP (PPP) · Regions per capita (nominal) · Economic growth and statistics DemographicsRegions by population · Immigration · Education · Healthcare · International rankings Society CultureCultural history (14th century) · Cultural history (15th century) · Cultural history (16th century) · Cultural history (17th century) · Cultural history (18th century) · Architecture · Art · Sculpture · Cinema · Cuisine · Folklore · Folk dance · Languages and dialects · Design · Literature · Theatre · Philosophy · Science and technology · Music · Opera · Sport · Fashion · Wines · Alcoholic beverages and beer · Olympics · World Heritage Sites Religion People Symbols
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
marché — 1. (mar ché) s. m. 1° Vente, achat de ce qui se débite dans un lieu déterminé. Le marché n a rien valu aujourd hui. • Quand j aurai l honneur de vous faire parvenir mes rêveries, qui ne sont pas encore tout à fait prêtes, je ferai avec vous… … Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré
marche — 1. (mar ch ) s. f. Frontière militaire d un État. • L empereur confirme le vasselage de la Bohême et y établit la religion chrétienne ; tout ce qui était au delà était encore païen, excepté quelques marches de la Germanie, VOLT. Ann. Emp. Othon … Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré
marché — MARCHÉ. s. m. Lieu public où se vendent les denrées & marchandises. Il y a un beau marché en cette ville là. on a abbatu les maisons pour faire un marché. le grand marché. le petit marché. le marché au bled. le marché au bestail. le marché aux… … Dictionnaire de l'Académie française
marché — Marché, m. acut. Emporium, Forum nundinarium, Mercatus. Le lieu du marché, Forum. Le marché où se vendent toutes sortes de vivres, Macellum. Le marché où on vend le vin, Forum vinarium. Marché de rotisseurs et de chair cuictiers, Thermopolium… … Thresor de la langue françoyse
marche — Marche, f. penac. C est une contrée de païs, Regio. Selon ce on dit, il est venu habiter en ces marches, c est à dire en ce païs, In hanc regionem demigrauit. Et la marche du pais qu un lievre tient, c est à dire le circuit de païs ou il hante et … Thresor de la langue françoyse
Marche — Marche, 1) [marʃ] die, historisches Gebiet in Mittelfrankreich, entspricht etwa dem heutigen Département Creuse und dem Nordteil von Haute Vienne, umfasst die Nordabdachung des Limousin und des Plateau de Millevaches, wird fast ausschließlich… … Universal-Lexikon
Marche  — Marche (spr. Marsch), 1) sonst Provinz u. Grafschaft in Frankreich, jetzt Theile der Departements Creuse u. Haute Vienne; 2) (La M.), Stadt im Arrondissement Neufchâteau des französischen Departements Wasgau, an der Mouzonquelle; Eisenhammer;… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Marche — Nom que l on rencontre à la fois dans les Deux Sèvres et dans la Corrèze. Désigne celui qui est originaire d une localité ou d un lieu dit ainsi appelé. En ancien français, le mot marche signifiait frontière, limite … Noms de famille
Marché — On rencontre ce nom dans l Indre et Loire. Peut être celui qui habitait près du marché, ou encore le surnom d un marchand. Mais il peut s agir d une variante de Marchais, toponyme désignant un lieu marécageux … Noms de famille
Marche  — Marche (fr., spr. Marsch), s. Marsch … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Marche  — Marche (spr. Mahrsch, Mark). M. hatte seinen Namen, weil es die Grenze zwischen Poitou u. Berri machte, u. hieß auch M. Limosine, weil sie vor der Mitte des 10. Jahrh. einen Theil von Limousin bildete. Der erste bekannte Graf ist Boso I. der Alte … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon